North Brabant

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North Brabant
Noord-Brabant
Province of the Netherlands
Flag of North Brabant
Flag
Coat of arms of North Brabant
Coat of arms
Anthem: None
Location of North Brabant in the Netherlands
Location of North Brabant in the Netherlands
Country Netherlands
Inclusion 1815
Capital 's-Hertogenbosch
Largest city Eindhoven
Government
 • King's Commissioner Wim van de Donk
Area
 • Land 4,919 km2 (1,899 sq mi)
 • Water 162 km2 (63 sq mi)
Area rank 2nd
Population (2006)
 • Land 2,415,946
 • Rank 3rd
 • Density 490/km2 (1,300/sq mi)
 • Density rank 5th
ISO 3166 code NL-NB
Religion (2005) Protestant 6%
Catholic 57%
Muslim 4.5%
Website www.brabant.nl

North Brabant (Dutch: Noord-Brabant [ˈnʊːrd ˈbraːbɑnt] ( )), since 2001 Brabant is also unofficially used,[1] is a province of the Netherlands, located in the south of the country, bordered by Belgium's Antwerp and Limburg provinces in the south, the Meuse River (Maas) in the north, Limburg in the east and Zeeland in the west.

De Groote Peel, National Park

History[edit]

The Duchy of Brabant was a State of the Holy Roman Empire established in 1183. It developed from the Landgraviate of Brabant and formed the heart of the historic Low Countries, part of the Burgundian Netherlands from 1430 and of the Habsburg Netherlands from 1482, until it was dismembered after the Dutch revolt. Present-day North Brabant (Staats-Brabant) was adjudicated to the Generality Lands of the Dutch Republic according to the 1648 Peace of Westphalia, while the reduced duchy remained in existence with the Southern Netherlands until it was conquered by French Revolutionary forces in 1794.

Until the 17th century, the area that now makes up the province of North Brabant was mostly part of the Duchy of Brabant, of which the southern part is now in present-day Belgium. In the 14th and 15th century, the area experienced a golden age, especially the cities of Brussel (Brussels), Mechelen, Leuven (Louvain), Antwerp (now in Belgium), Breda, Bergen op Zoom and 's-Hertogenbosch.

After the Union of Utrecht was signed in 1579, Brabant became a battlefield between the Protestant Dutch Republic and Catholic Spain, which occupied the southern Netherlands. As a result of the Peace of Westphalia, the northern part of Brabant became part of the Netherlands as the territory of Staats-Brabant (State Brabant) under federal rule, in contrast to the founding provinces of the Dutch Republic which were self-governing.

Attempts to introduce Protestantism into the region were largely unsuccessful; North Brabant remained strongly Roman Catholic. For over a century, North Brabant served mainly as a military buffer zone. In 1796, when confederate Dutch Republic became the unitary Batavian Republic, Staats-Brabant became a province as Bataafs Brabant. This status ended with the reorganisation by the French, and the area was divided over several departments.

In 1815, Belgium and the Netherlands were united in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, and the province of North Brabant was established and so named to distinguish it from South Brabant in present-day Belgium, which seceded from the Kingdom in 1830. This boundary between the Netherlands and Belgium is special in that it does not form a contiguous line, but leaves a handful of tiny enclaves (and enclaves inside enclaves) on both sides of the border. A few of these irregularities were corrected (Luyksgestel was exchanged for Lommel), Huijbergen became totally Dutch, but some remain, notably Baarle-Hertog (Belgian) and Baarle-Nassau (Dutch).

When the present province was instituted, its territory was expanded with a part of the province of Holland and the former territory of Ravenstein which had previously belonged to the Duchy of Cleves, as well as several small, formerly autonomous entities.

The period from 1900 till the late 1960s is called Het Rijke Roomse Leven (translated as 'the rich Roman life', with 'Roman' meaning 'Roman Catholic'), a era of strong religious believes. Het Rijke Roomse Leven came about as result of the emancipatory drive of the province's disadvantaged Catholic population and was supported by a Roman Catholic pillar, which was directed by the clergy, and not only encompassed churches, but also Roman Catholic schools and hospitals, which were run by nuns and friars. In those days every village in North Brabant had a convent from which the nuns operated. Politically, the province was dominated by Catholic parties: the Roomsch-Katholieke Staatspartij and its post-war successor, the Katholieke Volkspartij, which often held around 75% of the vote.

A sign saying, "Welcome to Brabant". North Brabant is often just referred to as "Brabant".

In the 1960s secularisation and the actual emancipation of the Catholic population brought about the gradual dissolution of the Catholic pillar, as church attendance decreased in North Brabant as elsewhere in Western Europe. The influence of Het Rijke Roomse Leven remains in the form of education where still some schools are being Roman Catholic (today it is run by professional teachers and not by nuns) and in North Brabant's culture, politics, mentality and customs, such as carnaval. Though the interpretation of the Roman Catholic identity in North Brabant has shifted the last 65 years from religious to cultural, the province still has a distinct Catholic atmosphere when compared to the provinces north of the major rivers.

Municipalities[edit]

North Brabant is currently divided into 67 municipalities. Traditionally, almost every town was a separate municipality, but their number was reduced greatly in the 1990s by incorporating smaller towns into neighbouring cities or by other mergers. The municipalities in North Brabant are:

Provincie Noord-Brabant, gemeenten (2013)

Geography[edit]

Map of North Brabant (2012)
Amsterdam Almelo Almere Amersfoort Arnhem Assen Breda Den Haag Delft Delfzijl Den Bosch Den Helder Dordrecht Enschede Haarlem Hilversum Maastricht Middelburg Zwolle Lelystad Leiden Katwijk Nijmegen Eindhoven Vlissingen Rotterdam Leeuwarden Heerenveen Groningen Emmen Almelo Apeldoorn Alkmaar Zaanstad Tilburg Venlo Heerlen Drenthe Flevoland Friesland Gelderland Groningen Limburg North Brabant North Holland Overijssel South Holland Utrecht Zeeland
Map of the Netherlands, linking to the province articles; red dots mark provincial capitals and black dots other notable cities or towns.

With a population density of 501/km², North-Brabant is above average urbanized.[2] The urbanization is at the center of the province at largest, where the 'kite' (the Brabantse Stedenrij Breda, Tilburg, Eindhoven and 's-Hertogenbosch) is located, the rest of the province has a more rural character. The province has preserved some of its scenic nature well. Natural beauty is found mainly in national parks Loonse and Drunen Dunes, De Biesbosch and De De Groote Peel, on the marshes of the Campine at Oisterwijk and Boxtel (within in an area called Het Groene Woud), the border park Zoom-Kalmthoutse Heide, and in the forested area around Breda. Also, south of Eindhoven named De Kempen is a beautiful area with farmlands and forests. In Heeze, also south of Eindhoven, are the heath areas the Groote Heide (333 ha) and Strabrechtse Heath (1500 ha) located. The Strabrechtse Heide holds also the largest fen of the Netherlands. The Beuven (Beu fen) is measuring 85 hectares.

Like most of the Netherlands, North Brabant is mostly flat but nearly every part of North Brabant is above sea level, therefore there are not as many canals as in the lower parts of The Netherlands. While most of the population lives in urban areas, the province is scattered with villages around which most of the land is cultivated.

National Parks in North Brabant are:

De Biesbosch[edit]

The Biesbosch (from bies, "rushes", and bosch, "woodland") is an area southwest of Dordrecht formed when the dike on the Meuse burst and the St. Elizabeth's floods on November 19, 1421 engulfed great tracts of land in the southwestern Netherlands and altered the geography of the whole area, inundating over 40,000 hectares/100,000 acres of land. Since the 18th century more than four-fifths of the flooded land has been reclaimed. An area of 6,000 hectares/15,000 acres was left as it was, and now forms the Biesbosch nature reserve and bird sanctuary. Until the end of the 1960s the Biesbosch was directly connected with the sea and subject to changing tide levels. As a result it developed a flora which tolerated brackish water and was the home of numerous waterfowl. Since the damming of the Haringvliet there is no variation in water level, and both flora and fauna have adapted to the new environment. The Biesbosch is criss-crossed by a network of footpaths and bikepaths and by countless rivers and streams which offer excellent facilities for water sports (sailing, surfing). In spite of the large numbers of visitors the natural environment has remained largely unspoiled. The Biesbosch nature reserve can be reached by car only from the east (preferably via Werkendam). The southwest part of the area, with its three large reservoirs of drinking water, is closed to road traffic. The Biesbosch can also be reached by boat from Drimmelen, Geertruidenberg or Lage Zwaluwe.

De Kempen[edit]

The historical region of Kempen occupies the southern part of the province of Noord-Brabant and extends south of Eindhoven far into northern Belgium. To the east it reaches as far as the Meuse valley. The surface topography of De Kempen is very uniform. Most of it lies between 5m/15 ft and 35m/115 ft above sea level. The basement rocks are Cretaceous and Tertiary sediments, which are overlaid by Ice Age gravels and sands carried here by rivers of melt-water from the retreating glaciers. It is a typical area of sandy heathland. The infertile soil is suitable only for undemanding crops such as rye, oats, potatoes and fodder plants and thus limits the profitability of agriculture. Until a few decades ago Kempen was a region of heathland and sand drifts with a sparse growth of pines, a few scattered villages subsisting on the poor soil and some small towns; and this is still the pattern in much of the region. In recent years, however, the rapid advance of industry has brought about profound changes in this agricultural region. The origins of this industrial development go back 70 or 100 years. The main concentrations of industry are along the southern frontier of the Netherlands, e.g. at Eindhoven, Helmond, Tilburg, Breda, 's-Hertogenbosch.

De Peel[edit]

In the east of Noord-Brabant, near the Limburgish border, is the Peel area, an expanse of moorland extending from Eindhoven to Venlo, on the border with Limburg. Southeast of Asten is a nature reserve (1,300 hectares/3,250 acres; visitor center at Ospeldijk) which has escaped destruction by peat cutting. Mostly boggy, it will appeal to nature lovers with its interesting flora and fauna. Apart from this small area almost the whole of the Peel has been brought into cultivation.[3]

Sunset at the Peel, North Brabant, Netherlands

Rivers and deltas[edit]

The province is bordered by the Meuse River in the north. Its delta flows through the Biesbosch area, a national park.

Economy[edit]

Employment is found in the agricultural, industrial and service sectors. The main agricultural products are corn, wheat and sugar beet, while cows and pigs are held as livestock.

Of economic importance is BrabantStad, a partnership between the municipalities of Breda, Eindhoven, Helmond, 's-Hertogenbosch and Tilburg and the province of North Brabant. The region has overlap with the Brabantse Stedenrij and the Samenwerkingsverband Regio Eindhoven and lies within the Eindhoven-Leuven-Aachen Triangle (ELAT).[4] The partnership aims to form an urban network and to make North Brabant explicitly known as a leading knowledge region within Europe. There is cooperation on economic, spatial, social and cultural areas. With a total of 1.5 million people and 20% of the industrial production in the Netherlands is BrabantStad one of the major economical important, metropolitan regions of the Netherlands.

The province of Noord-Brabant is one of the most innovative regions of the European Union. This is shown by the extensive amount of new research patents by Eurostat.[5] In BrabantStad there are every year 2100 patent applications made at the European Patent Office (EPO), which is 900 per million active employees.[6] Mainly due to the Dutch electronics giant Philips' scientific centers, BrabantStad has grown more important than similar centres like Paris, Stockholm and Stuttgart.[7]

Of all the money that goes to research and development in the Netherlands, one third is spent in Eindhoven. The slogan of the city of Eindhoven, "Leading in technology", is based on this. A quarter of the jobs in the region are in technology and ICT. The largest expenses and most patent applications come from Eindhoven, mainly Philips.[8] Of all European patent applications in the field of physics and electronics about eight per cent is from North Brabant.[9]

Also DAF, VDL, Ciber, Atos Origin, NXP, ASML, FEI Company, Thales Cryognetics and TNO Industrial Technology are located in BrabantStad. The Eindhoven University of Technology hosts an incubator for technology startups (called the Twinning Center) and the NatLab has developed into the High Tech Campus Eindhoven.[10]

This cooperative tradition has also developed into a different direction than the traditional technology research done at the university. Starting in 2002, Eindhoven University of Technology, the Catharina Hospital in Eindhoven, Philips Medical and the University of Maastricht joined forces and started joint research into biomedical science, technology and engineering. Within Eindhoven, this research has been concentrated in a new university faculty (BioMedical Technology or BMT). This development has also made Eindhoven a biomedical technology hub within the country and its (European) region.[9]

In the extended region, BrabantStad is part of the Eindhoven-Leuven-Aachen Triangle (ELAT). This economic cooperation agreement between three cities in three countries has created one of the most innovative regions in the European Union (measured in terms of money invested in technology and knowledge economy); the agreement is based on the cooperative triangle that connects the three technical universities in those cities.[11]

In and around Eindhoven in the Dutch part of the Eindhoven-Leuven-Aachen Triangle (ELAT) is Brainport located, which is a partnership between businesses, universities and the government, and is formed by the municipalities of South-Eastern North Brabant. The economic success of Brainport is important for the international competitiveness of the Netherlands; Together with Amsterdam (airport) and Rotterdam (seaport), Brainport forms the foundation of the Dutch economy. BrabantStad is the fastest growing economic region in the Netherlands, with Brainport as one of the three national top regions and as a top region in the world. Brainport includes South-east Nort-Brabant and is the hub of a network that stretches across the South-east of the Netherlands and its borders. The core of Brainport is the Eindhoven region, with about 740,000 inhabitants and 400,000 jobs.[12]

Other important industries are automobile production, electronics (both mainly in Eindhoven), textile and shoes.

In the twentieth century, tourism has become an important sector for North Brabant, the woods and its quiet atmosphere combined with the beauty of some of the cities having proved successful. Another big tourist attraction is theme park Efteling in Kaatsheuvel, the largest of the Benelux.

Language[edit]

Brabantian is not a minority language in the Netherlands. Brabantian has compared to other main Dutch dialects had a big influence on the development of Standard Dutch. This was because of Brabant was being the dominant region in the Netherlands when standardization of the Dutch started in the 16th century. The first major formation of standard Dutch also took place in Antwerp, where a Brabantian dialect is spoken. The default language being developed around this time had therefore mainly Brabantian influences. The early modern Dutch written language was initially influenced primarily by Brabantian, with strong influence from Hollandic emerging after the 16th century. Since the Brabantian dialect has developed faster than the sixteenth and seventeenth century Dutch, it has become more diversed from modern day, Standard Dutch, but is still quite similar and very understandable.[13] About one third of the Dutch-speaking population lives in the Brabantian dialect zone. Both in large Brabantian towns such as Breda and Eindhoven and in rural areas many people still speak the original dialect or colloquial Dutch with a typical "southern" tongue. Tilburg and 's-Hertogenbosch have a large number of people speaking the Brabantian dialect.

Culture[edit]

There are many museums, especially in the larger towns which include the Van Abbemuseum in Eindhoven, the North Brabant Museum in 's-Hertogenbosch, the Museum of the Image in Breda, Noordbrabants Natuurmuseum in Tilburg. Also a few towns have a large theater like the Chassé Theater in Breda and the Eindhoven Park Theatre. Large, reputable music venues like the 013 in Tilburg, which boasts the largest space of music venues in the Netherlands, and the Effenaar in Eindhoven offer concerts by major artists. Smaller venues like Mezz Breda, W2 Concert in 's-Hertogenbosch and the smaller halls of the 013 and the Effenaar offer concerts by emerging artists and bigger names in an intimate setting.

Events[edit]

Some yearly cultural events in North Brabant are:

Museums[edit]

List of museums in North Brabant

Museums of the main cities:

Eindhoven:

  • There are two museums dedicated to the major topics of the city's industrial heritage: the DAF Museum has a collection of DAF cars and the Philips Gloeilampenfabriekje anno 1891 (across the street from the Kempenland) documents the early lightbulb industry.
  • The Designhuis, a public podium and interaction area for modern design and innovation in the former district court house.
  • The Eindhoven Museum, an archaeological open air museum which focuses on the region's Iron Age and Middle Ages. It merged in 2011 with Museum Kempenland which was a regional museum, which documents the history of the Kempenland region in objects, documents, paint and educational activities. Museum Kempenland's old location, the Steentjeskerk, is closed.
  • Inkijkmuseum (the Look-In museum; housed in an old linen factory in the Dommelstraat) is a small but special museum: it offers ever-changing exhibits, which are to be viewed through the building's windows.
  • The Van Abbemuseum has a collection of modern and contemporary art, including works by Picasso, Kandinsky, Mondriaan and Chagall.

Breda:

  • Breda's Museum
  • Begijnhof Breda Museum
  • General Maczek Museum
  • Beer Commercial Museum
  • MOTI (Museum of the Image) before the Graphic Design Museum[16]
  • NAC Museum (football)
  • Local History Museum / Heemkunde Museum Paulus van Daesdonck
  • Museum Oorlog & Vrede (War and Peace Museum)
  • Stichting Princenhaags Museum

Tilburg:

's-Hertogenbosch

Cuisine[edit]

The Southern Dutch cuisine constitutes the cuisine of the Dutch provinces of North-Brabant and Limburg and the Flemish Region in Belgium. It is renowned for its many rich pastries, soups, stews and vegetable dishes and is often called Burgundian which is a Dutch idiom invoking the rich Burgundian court which ruled the Low Countries in the Middle Ages renowned for its splendor and great feasts.

It is the only Dutch culinary region which developed an haute cuisine, as it is influenced by both German cuisine and French cuisine, and it forms the base of most traditional Dutch restaurants including typical main courses served such as Biefstuk, Varkenshaas, Ossenhaas, these are premium cuts of meat, generally pork or beef, accompanied by a wide variety of sauces and potatoes which have been double fried in the traditional Dutch (or Belgian) manner.

Stews, such as hachee, a stew of onions, beef and a thick gravy, contain a lot of flavour and require hours to prepare. Vegetable soups are made from richly flavored stock or bouillon and typically contain small meatballs alongside a wide variety of different vegetables. Asparagus and witlo(o)f are highly prized and traditionally eaten with cheese and/or ham.

Pastries are abundant, often with rich fillings of cream, custard or fruits. Cakes, such as the Moorkop and Bossche Bol from Brabant, are typical pastries. Savoury pastries also occur, with the worstenbroodje (a roll with a sausage of ground beef) being the most popular.

The traditional alcoholic beverage of the region is beer. There are many local brands, ranging from Trappist to Kriek. Beer, like wine in French cuisine, is also used in cooking; often in stews.

Politics[edit]

The provincial council (Provinciale Staten) has 55 seats, and is headed by the King's Commissioner, currently Wim van de Donk. While the provincial council is elected by the inhabitants, the Commissioner is appointed by the King and the cabinet of the Netherlands. With 12 seats, People's Party for Freedom and Democracy is the largest party in the council, closely followed by Christian Democratic Appeal with 10 seats.

The daily affairs of the province are taken care of by the Gedeputeerde Staten, which are also headed by the Commissioner; its members (gedeputeerden) can be compared with ministers.

States-Provincial[edit]

Seat Distribution of the Provinciale Staten 2011

Results in North Brabant in the elections for the States-Provincial in March 2007 (left) and March 2011 (right):

Results for the States-Provincial
2007 2011
Party Votes
(percent)
Seats Votes
(percent)
Seats
VVD 18,9 11 20,7 12
CDA 31,2 18 17,4 10
PVV - - 14,0 8
SP 21,0 12 13,8 8
PvdA 14,1 8 13,4 7
D66 2,1 1 8,0 5
GroenLinks 4,1 2 5,9 3
50Plus - - 3,3 1
PvdD 2,2 1 1,8 1
ChristenUnie/SGP 2,7 1 1,5 -
Brabantse Partij 1,9 1 - -
other party's 1,8 - 0,2 -
Turn-out/seats 44,7 55 55,9 55

Gedeputeerd Staten[edit]

Wim van de Donk (CDA) is since October 1, 2009 the King's Commissioner.

The Gedeputeerde Staten for 2011-2015 is based on a coalition of VVD, CDA and SP, and consists of the following five commissioners:

  • Yves de Boer -VVD
  • Brigite of Haaften - CDA
  • Ruud van Heugten - CDA
  • Johan van den Hout - SP
  • Bert Pauli - VVD

Province Secretary: Wil Rutten.

Voting Results for the House of Representatives[edit]

Results for the House of Representatives
Partij 2006 2010
Votes in % Votes in %
VVD 14,5 21,0
PVV 6,2 17,4
CDA 31,8 16,2
PvdA 17,8 16,1
SP 20,4 13,4
D66 1,6 6,6
GroenLinks 3,4 5,5
PvdD 1,4 1,1
ChristenUnie 1,5 1,0
SGP 0,4 0,4
Overige 1,0 1,3
Totaal 100,0 100,0
Opkomst 78,5 73,7

Religion[edit]

Traditionally the province of North Brabant was strongly Roman Catholic.

During the 1960s the relatively strong demarcation between the Catholic south on one side and the Calvinist west and north on the other side of the Netherlands started to diminish. In the second half of the twentieth century a rapid secularization took place in North Brabant.

In 2006 slightly more than half of the Brabantian people identified with Catholism. For example, in the Diocese of 's-Hertogenbosch, the eastern part of North Brabant and part of the province of Gelderland, 1,167,000 people feld associated with the Roman Catholic believe system (56.8 percent of the population). Only 45,645 residents of this area attend the mass, which is only 2 percent of the total population of the area and consists mostly of people over 65 years old. In western North Brabant (Diocese of Breda) is the number of people associating themselves with Catholism also strongly decreased, only 52 percent of the West Brabantians identify as Roman Catholic. Church attendance is even lower in the west with only 1 percent of the West Brabantian population visiting churches.[17] North Brabant is mostly Roman Catholic by tradition. Its people still use the term and certain traditions as a base for their cultural identity rather than as a religious identity, and the vast majority of the Catholic population is now largely irreligious in practice. Research among Catholics in the Netherlands in 2007 shows that only 27% of the Dutch Catholics can be regarded as a theist, 55% as an ietsist / non-theist and 17% as agnostic.[18]

The percentage of Muslims in North Brabant is estimated at 4,5%, who mainly live in the large and medium municipalities.[19]

Trivia[edit]

  • In 2011, the region was awarded with the prestigious title of "Intelligent Community of the Year" by the Intelligent Community Forum (ICF). Brainport Eindhoven region was therefore to call itself the "smartest region in the world".[12]
  • In 2011, BrabantStad was selected by DG Regio (European Commission) and the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to take part in the RURBAN-study. The research is geared towards investigating the rural-urban relationship.[12]
  • Het Groene Woud (The Green Forest) is a nature area within BrabantStad which is characterized by its rural character and functions as a green long for the area. Agriculture, nature and recreation are the primary activities in "Het Groene Woud".

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ de Volkskrant article
  2. ^ De gemiddelde bevolkingsdichtheid van Nederland bedraagt 403/km² (2012).
  3. ^ http://www.planetware.com/tourist-attractions-/north-brabant-nl-nb-nb.htm
  4. ^ "- De factor SRE". sre.nl. Retrieved 2014-02-19. 
  5. ^ "Eurostat Home". epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 2014-02-19. 
  6. ^ "EPO - Home". epo.org. Retrieved 2014-02-19. 
  7. ^ European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT)
  8. ^ "Eindhoven - Eindhoven". eindhoven.nl. Retrieved 2014-02-19. 
  9. ^ a b "Welkom | BrabantStad, een sterk internationaal concurrerend en duurzaam groeiend stedelijk netwerk.". brabantstad.nl. Retrieved 2014-02-19. 
  10. ^ "Zandstad | Reconstructie van de Brabantse zandgronden". zandstad.nl. Retrieved 2014-02-19. 
  11. ^ "http://www.elat.org/". elat.org. Retrieved 2014-02-19. 
  12. ^ a b c "Over Brainport". brainport.nl. Retrieved 2014-02-19. 
  13. ^ http://taal.phileon.nl/brabants.php
  14. ^ "Glow Eindhoven". Glow Eindhoven. Retrieved 2009-12-02. 
  15. ^ "STRP Festival". Strp.nl. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  16. ^ "Graphic Design Museum Breda is niet meer". BredaVandaag.nl. 2011-11-28. Retrieved 2012-02-14. 
  17. ^ Kerncijfers 2006 uit de kerkelijke statistiek van het Rooms-Katholiek Kerkgenootschap in Nederland, Rapport nr. 561 oktober 2007, Jolanda Massaar- Remmerswaal dr. Ton Bernts, KASKI, onderzoek en advies over religie en samenleving
  18. ^ God in Nederland' (1996-2006), by Ronald Meester, G. Dekker, ISBN 9789025957407
  19. ^ http://www.forum.nl/Portals/Res/res-pdf/Moslims-in-Nederland-2010.pdf

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 51°40′N 5°00′E / 51.667°N 5.000°E / 51.667; 5.000