North Carolina's 12th congressional district

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
"NC-12" redirects here. NC-12 may also refer to North Carolina Highway 12.
North Carolina's 12th congressional district
North Carolina's 12th congressional district - since January 3, 2013.
North Carolina's 12th congressional district - since January 3, 2013.
Current Representative vacant
Area 827 mi²
Distribution 88.5% urban, 11.5% rural
Population (2000) 619,178
Median income $35,775
Ethnicity 47.2% White, 44.6% Black, 2.1% Asian, 7.1% Hispanic, 0.4% Native American, 0.1% other
Occupation 32.1% blue collar, 51.9% white collar, 16.0% gray collar
Cook PVI D+23[1]

North Carolina's 12th congressional district is located in central North Carolina and comprises portions of Charlotte, Winston-Salem, Greensboro, Lexington, Salisbury, Concord, and High Point. It is an example of gerrymandering.[2] It was one of two minority-majority Congressional districts created in the state in the 1990s. Since the 2010 census, it has a small plurality of whites.

North Carolina earlier had a twelfth seat in the House in the nineteenth century and in the mid-twentieth century (1943-1963).

Current district[edit]

The district was re-established after the 1990 United States Census, when North Carolina gained a district. It was drawn in 1992 as one of two black majority (minority-majority) districts, as blacks comprised 22% of the state's population.[3] With 64 percent African-American residents, it stretched from Gastonia to Durham. It was very long and so thin at some points that it was no wider than a highway lane, as it followed Interstate 85 almost exactly,[4][5] It was criticized as a gerrymandered district. When created in the 1990s, it was one of two minority-majority Congressional districts in the state, defined to provide African Americans an opportunity to elect a representative of their choice.

The Wall Street Journal called the district "political pornography." The United States Supreme Court ruled in Shaw v. Reno, 509 U.S. 630 (1993) that a racial gerrymander may, in some circumstances, violate the Equal Protection Clause. The state legislature had defended the two districts as based on demographics, with the 12th representing the interior Piedmont area and the 1st the Coastal Plain.[3] Subsequently, the district was redrawn several times and was adjudicated in the Supreme Court on two additional occasions.[3] The version created after the 2000 census was approved by the US Supreme Court in Hunt v. Cromartie. The current version dates from the 2010 census; like the 2003-2013 version, it has a small plurality of whites, though blacks make up a large majority of registered voters.

The district is currently vacant; Democrat Mel Watt, who had represented the district since its re-establishment in 1993, resigned in 2014 to head the Federal Housing Finance Agency. A special election will be held November 4, 2014 to replace Watt.

List of representatives[edit]

Representative Party Years Electoral history
District created March 4, 1803
Col. Joseph Winston.jpeg Joseph Winston Democratic-Republican March 4, 1803 –
March 3, 1807
No image.svg Meshack Franklin Democratic-Republican March 4, 1807 –
March 3, 1813
Redistricted to the 13th district
Pickensisrael.jpg Israel Pickens Democratic-Republican March 4, 1813 –
March 3, 1817
Redistricted from the 11th district
No image.svg Felix Walker Democratic-Republican March 4, 1817 –
March 3, 1823
No image.svg Robert B. Vance Jacksonian D-R March 4, 1823 –
March 3, 1825
No image.svg Samuel P. Carson Jacksonian March 4, 1825 –
March 3, 1833
JamesGrahamNC.jpg James Graham Anti-Jacksonian March 4, 1833 –
March 3, 1837
Seat declared vacant March 29, 1836 - December 5, 1836
Whig March 4, 1837 –
March 4, 1843
District inactive March 3, 1843
District re-established January 3, 1943
No image.svg Zebulon Weaver Democratic January 3, 1943 –
January 3, 1947
Redistricted from the 11th district
No image.svg Monroe M. Redden Democratic January 3, 1947 –
January 3, 1953
No image.svg George A. Shuford Democratic January 3, 1953 –
January 3, 1959
No image.svg David M. Hall Democratic January 3, 1959 –
January 29, 1960
Died
Vacant January 29, 1960 –
June 25, 1960
No image.svg Roy A. Taylor Democratic June 25, 1960 –
January 3, 1963
Redistricted to the 11th district
District inactive January 3, 1963
District re-established January 3, 1993
Melvinwatt.jpg Mel Watt Democratic January 3, 1993 –
January 6, 2014
Resigned to become head of the Federal Housing Finance Agency
Vacant January 6, 2014 –
Present
North Carolina's 12th congressional district special election, 2014

Election results[edit]

Year Democratic Republican Libertarian
2002 Melvin L. Watt: 98,821 Jeff Kish: 49,588 Carey Head: 2,830  
2004 Melvin L. Watt: 154,908 Ada M. Fisher: 76,898  
2006 Melvin L. Watt: 71,345 Ada M. Fisher: 35,127  
2008 Melvin L. Watt: 215,908 Ty Cobb, Jr.: 85,814  
2010 Melvin L. Watt: 103,495 Greg Dority: 55,315 Lon Cecil: 3,197  
2012 Melvin L. Watt: 247,591 Jack Brosch: 63,317  

Historical district boundaries[edit]

2003 - 2013

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Partisan Voting Index Districts of the 113th Congress: 2004 & 2008". The Cook Political Report. 2012. Retrieved 2013-01-10. 
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ a b c senate.leg.state.mn.us "North Carolina Redistricting Cases: the 1990s", National Conference of State Legislatures
  4. ^ politicsnj.com
  5. ^ "State Profile -- North Carolina". CNN. Retrieved May 20, 2010. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 35°38′47″N 80°26′33″W / 35.64639°N 80.44250°W / 35.64639; -80.44250