North Korea–South Korea relations
According to a 2013 BBC World Service Poll, 4% of South Koreans view North Korea's influence positively, with 90% expressing a negative view. However a 2014 government funded survey found only 13% of South Koreans viewed North Korea as hostile, and 58% of South Koreans believed North Korea was a country they should cooperate with.
- 1 History
- 1.1 The end of Korea under Japanese rule
- 1.2 Korean War
- 1.3 Cold War
- 1.4 Reconciliation and antagonism
- 1.5 2010s
- 2 See also
- 3 References
- 4 External links
The end of Korea under Japanese rule
The Korean peninsula had been occupied by Japan from 1910 to 1945. After the defeat of Japan in World War II, the Korean peninsula was occupied by the Soviet Union in the North and the United States in the South. The dividing line was the 38th parallel north.
- August 15, 1945 - Japan surrenders in World War II and relinquished power in countries that were taken by force, marking the end of Korea under Japanese rule
- August 22, 1945 - The Soviet Union enters Pyongyang
- September 8, 1945 - The United States enters Seoul
- 1946 - A US–USSR Joint-Commission on the formation of a Korean Government is dissolved
- 1947 - The United Nations establishes the UN Temporary Commission on Korea
- May 10, 1948 - UN sponsored elections are held in South Korea.
- August 15, 1948 - The Republic of Korea (South Korea) is established
- September 9, 1948 - The Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) is established
Establishment of South Korea
Establishment of North Korea
North Korea was proclaimed on September 11 in 1948, under the supervision of the occupying Soviet forces. The Soviets preferred Korean Communists who had spent the war years in the Soviet Union in power, rather than the Communist Party of Korea. Kim Il-sung is named head of the North Korean Provisional People's Committee in February 1946. Kim then became Prime Minister, a post which he held until 1972, before becoming President.
- June 25, 1950 - the Korean War begins.
- July 1950 - UN Forces are formed. UN Forces are driven back to the Pusan Perimeter
- September 1950 - UN Troops make an amphibious Landing at Incheon. UN Forces soon reach the Manchurian border
- November 1950 - Chinese forces enter the war and UN Forces are pushed back to the 38th Parallel
- July 27, 1953 - The Korean Armistice Agreement is signed by UN Forces, North Korea and China, but not by South Korea
- October 1966 – 1969 - the Korean DMZ Conflict occurs - it is a series of low-intensity clashes from both North Korean and South Korean troops infiltrating the DMZ
- January 21, 1968 - North Korean agents attempt to attack the South Korean Blue House
- December 11, 1969 Korean Air Lines YS-11 hijacking and kidnapping
- August 1971 - The first Red Cross talks between North and South Korea are held
- July 4, 1972 - North-South Joint Statement is issued. The statement announced the Three Principles of Reunification: first, reunification must be solved independently without interference from or reliance on foreign powers; second, reunification must be realized in a peaceful way without use of armed forces against each other; finally,reunification transcend the differences of ideologies and institutions to promote the ethnic unification of Korea as one ethnic group.
- August 18, 1976 - There is an Axe murder incident at Panmunjom
Reconciliation and antagonism
- May 1980 - Gwangju Democratization Movement
- October 9, 1983 - Rangoon bombing allegedly orchestrated by North Korea
- 1984 - North Korea's Red Cross provides relief products for South Korean flooding
- 1985 - The first family reunion
- 1987 - Bombing of Korean Air Flight 858
- 1988 - The 1988 Summer Olympics take place in Seoul
- September 4 to 7, 1990 - The first high-level talks are held in Seoul
- March 25, 1991 - A unified Korean team first uses the Korean Unification Flag at the World Table Tennis Competition in Japan
- May 6, 1991 - A unified team competes at the World Youth Football Competition in Portugal
- December 13, 1991 - The Agreement on Reconciliation, Non aggression, Exchange and Cooperation is signed between North and South Korea
- 1994 - Kim Jong-il becomes General Secretary of the WPK of North Korea upon the death of his father, Kim Il-sung.
- June 15, 1999 - The naval conflict at Yeonpyeong
- June 13 to 15, 2000 - The first Inter-Korean Summit, between Kim Dae Jung and Kim Jong-il
- August 15, 2000 - The first family reunion from the Sunshine Policy
- June 29, 2002 - naval conflict off the western coast
- July 5, 2006 - North Korea test fires a Daepodong 2 missile
- October 9, 2006 - North Korea nuclear test
Second Summit in 2007
The June 15, 2000 Joint Declaration that the two leaders signed during the first South-North summit stated that they would hold the second summit at an appropriate time. It was originally thought in 2000 that the second summit would be held in South Korea, but that was not to be the case in 2007.
South Korean President Roh Moo-hyun walked across the Korean Demilitarized Zone on October 2, 2007 and travelled on to Pyongyang for talks with Kim Jong-il. During the visit, there were meetings and discussions. The two sides reaffirmed the spirit of the June 15 Joint Declaration and had discussions on various issues related to realizing the advancement of South-North relations, peace on the Korean Peninsula, common prosperity of the people and the unification of Korea. On October 4, 2007, South Korean President Roh Moo-hyun and North Korean leader Kim Jong-il signed the peace declaration. The document called for international talks to replace the Armistice which ended the Korean War with a permanent peace treaty.
On March 26, 2010, according to South Korea's Yonhap News Agency, the 1,500-ton ROKS Cheonan with a crew of 104, sank off Baengnyeong Island in the Yellow Sea. Seoul said there was an explosion at the stern, and was investigating whether a torpedo attack was the cause. Out of 104 sailors, 46 died and 58 were rescued. South Korean President Lee Myung-bak convened an emergency meeting of security officials and ordered the military to focus on rescuing the sailors.
On May 20, 2010, a team of international researchers published results claiming that the sinking had been caused by a North Korean torpedo; North Korea rejected the findings. South Korea agreed with the findings from the research group and President Lee Myung-bak declared afterwards that Seoul would cut all trade with North Korea as part of measures primarily aimed at striking back at North Korea diplomatically and financially. North Korea denied all such allegations and responded by severing ties between the countries and announced it abrogated the previous non-aggression agreement.
2010: Bombardment of Yeonpyeong island
On November 23, North Korea's artillery fired at South Korea's Yeonpyeong island in the Yellow Sea and South Korea returned fire. Two South Korean marines and two civilians were killed, more than a dozen were wounded, including three civilians. The town was evacuated and South Korea warned of stern retaliation, with President Lee Myung-bak ordering the destruction of a nearby North Korea missile base if further provocation should occur.
The official North Korean news agency, KCNA, stated that North Korea only fired after the South had "recklessly fired into our sea area".
In 2011 it was revealed that North Korea abducted four high-ranking South Korean military officers in 1999.
2012: North Korea launches satellite
On January 1, 2013 Kim Jong-un delivered a New Year's Day message on KCTV calling for better relations with South Korea. North Korea announced its intentions on January 24, 2013 to target the United States in its missile and nuclear programs. The statement called the United States the "sworn enemy of the Korean people". In February, North Korea conducted an underground nuclear weapons test and confirmed with China, its only supporter in the region, that it would conduct others within the year.
During the training exercises Key Resolve/Foal Eagle 2013 conducted between South Korea and the United States, North Korea threatened to abandon the Korean Armistice Agreement, arguing the exercises threatened North Korea with nuclear weapons and that the U.S. was unwilling to negotiate a peace treaty to replace the armistice. JoongAng Ilbo reported that U.S. vessels equipped with nuclear weapons were participating in the exercise, and the Pentagon publicly announced that B-52 bombers flown over South Korea were reaffirming the U.S. "nuclear umbrella" for South Korea.
On March 8, 2013, the North Korean government announced that it was withdrawing from all non-aggression pacts with South Korea in response to UN Resolution 2094. On March 11, 2013, the United States and South Korea began military drills amid high tensions and Pyongyang strongly condemned the exercises.
On April 3, a U.S. step-by-step plan "playbook" concerning high-visibility display of military power aimed at deterring North Korean provocations was released to the public.
On April 4, North Korea moved what is believed to be an intermediate-range missile to its east coast, possibly in preparation for a drill or test-firing. Many nations, specifically Japan, South Korea, and the United States, viewed this move as a continuation of North Korea's attempts to provoke confrontation throughout the beginning of 2013.
On April 9, North Korea issued its latest dispatch of ominous rhetoric, telling foreigners in South Korea they should take steps to secure shelter or evacuation to protect themselves in the event of a conflict on the Korean Peninsula. The unnerving message, announced by state-run media, followed a warning from the North the previous week to diplomats in its capital city, Pyongyang, that if war were to break out, it would not be able to guarantee their safety. In the statement, the North's Korea Asia-Pacific Peace Committee reiterated accusations that Washington and Seoul were seeking to provoke a war with Pyongyang. "Once a war is ignited on the peninsula, it will be an all-out war," the committee said, adding that North Korea doesn't want foreigners in South Korea to "fall victim" to a conflict.
On February 26, South Korean defense officials claimed that despite warnings a North Korean warship repeatedly crossed into South Korean waters overnight. The alleged incursion occurred just as South Korea was joining the United States in joint military exercises involving nearly 200,000 troops from the two countries. The incident was said to have occurred at the Northern Limit Line which North Korea disputes is a legitimate maritime border.
- Censorship in North Korea
- Censorship in South Korea
- June 15th North–South Joint Declaration
- Korean reunification
- List of border incidents involving North Korea
- North Korea–South Korea football rivalry
- Cross-Strait relations
- Israeli–Palestinian conflict
- 2013 World Service Poll BBC
- Zachary Keck (30 May 2014). "South Koreans View North Korea as Cooperative Partner". The Diplomat. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
- Lee Tae-hoon (7 February 2011). "S. Korea raided North with captured agents in 1967". The Korea Times. Retrieved 12 May 2012.
- "Minutes of Washington Special Actions Group Meeting, Washington, August 25, 1976, 10:30 a.m.". Office of the Historian, U.S. Department of State. 25 August 1976. Retrieved 12 May 2012. "Clements: I like it. It doesn't have an overt character. I have been told that there have been 200 other such operations and that none of these have surfaced. Kissinger: It is different for us with the War Powers Act. I don't remember any such operations."
- 김영호. 사실로 본 한국 근현대사. 2nd ed. 서울:황금알, 2011. Print.
- Korean leaders in historic talks, BBC, Tuesday, 2 October 2007, 10:14 GMT
- In pictures: Historic crossing, BBC, 2 October 2007, 10:15 GMT
- Mixed feelings over Koreas summit, BBC, 2 October 2007, 10:17 GMT
- Kim greets Roh in Pyongyang before historic summit, CNN. Retrieved 2 October 2007.
- Korean leaders issue peace call, BBC, 4 October 2007, 9:27 GMT
- Geopolitical Weekly
- "'Blast' sinks S Korea navy ship". BBC News. March 26, 2010.
- "Anger at North Korea over sinking". BBC News. 2010-05-20. Retrieved 2010-05-23.
- Clinton: Koreas security situation 'precarious', by Matthew Lee, Associated Press, 24-05-2010
- Text from North Korea statement, by Jonathan Thatcher, Reuters, 25-05-2010
- "(LEAD) S. Korea vows 'stern retaliation' against N. Korea's attacks" (in Korean). English.yonhapnews.co.kr. 2010-11-23. Retrieved 2013-04-05.
- McDonald, Mark (November 23, 2010). "North and South Korea Exchange Fire, Killing Two". The New York Times. Retrieved November 23, 2010.
- Kim, Rahn (2011-05-20). "North Korea abducted 4 South Korean military officers’". The Korea Times. Retrieved 2011-07-31.
- "KCST Spokesman on Launching Time of Satellite". Kcna.co.jp. 2012-12-08. Retrieved 2013-04-05.
- "DPRK Succeeds in Satellite Launch". Kcna.co.jp. 2012-12-12. Retrieved 2013-04-05.
- "KCNA Releases Report on Satellite Launch". Kcna.co.jp. 2012-12-12. Retrieved 2013-04-05.
- "US moves warships to track North Korea rocket launch". Bbc.co.uk. 2012-12-07. Retrieved 2013-04-05.
- New Year Address Made by Kim Jong Un (Archived at WebCite)
- Lucy Williamson (2013-01-01). "North Korea's Kim Jong-un makes rare new year speech". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-04-05.
- Sanger, David (24 January 2013). "North Korea Issues Blunt New Threat to United States". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 January 2013.
- Lim, Benjamin Yang (15 February 2013). ["http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/02/15/us-korea-north-nuclear-idUSBRE91E0J820130215 "Exclusive: North Korea tells China of preparations for fresh nuclear test - source"]. Reuters News. Retrieved 10 April 2013.
- "Korean Armistice Agreement Will No Longer Exist: Rodong Sinmun". KCNA. 7 March 2013. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
- "U.S. nukes to remain in South". JoongAng Ilbo. 12 March 2013. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
- Choe Sang-Hun (21 March 2013). "North Korea Threatens U.S. Military Bases in the Pacific". New York Times. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
- "North Korea ends peace pacts with South". BBC News. March 8, 2013. Retrieved March 8, 2013.
- Lucy Williamson (2013-03-11). "US-South Korea drills begin amid North Korea tensions". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-04-05.
- "(2nd LD) Gov't confirms Pyongyang link in March cyber attacks" (in Korean). Yonhap News. Retrieved 2013-04-14.
- The Wall Street Journal http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424127887324100904578400833997420280.html
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- "North Korea Moves Missile to Its East Coast". The Wall Street Journal.
- "North Korea tells foreigners in South to take safety measures". CNN. April 10, 2013.
- "Maritime incursion by North Korean warship sparks tension". North Korean News.Net. Retrieved 26 February 2014.
- Inter-Korean Relations: Past, Present and Future (Introduction) - cfr.org
- Inter-Korean Relations: Past, Present and Future (Panel 1) - cfr.org
- ROK and Inter-Korean relations
- Eating the Oxen of the Sun – The Odyssey of Unification
- Inter-Korean tensions: ideology first, at any cost? by Alain Nass (expert on Asia and Korea), Asia & Pacific Network, October 2011