North Moluccan Malay

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North Moluccan Malay
Bahasa Pasar
Native to Indonesia
Region North Maluku
Native speakers
700,000  (2001)[1]
Malay Creole
  • East Indonesian
    • North Moluccan Malay
Language codes
ISO 639-3 max
Glottolog nort2828[2]

North Moluccan Malay is a language spoken in Ternate, Tidore and Halmahera islands, North Maluku for intergroup communications, and in the Sula Islands. The local name of the language is Bahasa Pasar, and the name Ternate Malay is also used, after the main ethnic group speaking the language. Since North Moluccan Malay is used only for spoken communication, there is no standard orthography.

This creole resembles Manado Malay, but with different accents and vocabulary. A large percentage of its vocabulary is borrowed from Ternatean, such as, ngana "you (sg)", ngoni "you (pl)", bifi "ant", ciri "to fall".

Phonology[edit]

Vowels[edit]

The vowel system of Ternate Malay consists of five vowel phonemes and five diphthongs.[3]

Front Back
High i u
Mid e o
Low a

[4]

The five diphthongs are /ai/, /ae/, /ao/, /oi/ and /ei/.[5]

Consonants[edit]

Ternate Malay has eighteen consonants and two semivowels.

Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Plosive p b t d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ
Fricative f s h
Lateral l
Trill r
Semivowel w j

[6]

Morphology[edit]

Pronoun and Person Markers[edit]

Personal pronouns and person markers are used in Ternate Malay to refer to participants in a speech event and to others, and also to refer to something expressed previously. These pronous/person markers may occur in constructions with other words, however they do not occur in head-initial XY constructions.[7]

Person Singular Plural
Full Shortened Full Shortened
1 kita saya (respectful) -- (kitaorang) torang tong
2 ngana -- ngoni --
3 dia de dorang dong

[8]

Examples[edit]

(1) “di ruma yang Ko paling sayang cuma ngana.”

in house REL EPIT very care only 2SG 

“you are the one whom I love most at home.”

(2) “Hamja, jang ngana lempar, kita akang turung.”

Hamja don’t 2SG throw 1SG FUT go.down 

“Hamja, stop throwing things at me, I’ll come down.”

(3) dia ba-rasa milu skali.

3SG POSS-taste corn very 

it has a strong taste of corn.

(4) iblis tara mungkin bunu torang.

devil NEG possible kill 1PL 

it’s impossible for a devil to kill us.

(5) kita foya suda pa ngoni.

1SG lie COMP to 2 

I lied to you.

(6) kita inga pa dorang sampe, ana-ana sana.

1SG remember to 3PL arrive PL-child there 

I always think of them, the children there.

(7) Jang bafoya!

don’t POSS-lie

Don’t lie!

[9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ North Moluccan Malay at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "North Moluccan Malay". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ Litamahuputty, B. H. J. (2012). Ternate Malay: grammar and texts. LOT, Utrecht.
  4. ^ Litamahuputty, B. H. J. (2012). Ternate Malay: grammar and texts. LOT, Utrecht.
  5. ^ Litamahuputty, B. H. J. (2012). Ternate Malay: grammar and texts. LOT, Utrecht.
  6. ^ Litamahuputty, B. H. J. (2012). Ternate Malay: grammar and texts. LOT, Utrecht.
  7. ^ Cite error: The named reference :0 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  8. ^ Litamahuputty, B. H. J. (2012). Ternate Malay: grammar and texts. LOT, Utrecht.
  9. ^ Litamahuputty, B. H. J. (2012). Ternate Malay: grammar and texts. LOT, Utrecht.