||This article's lead section may not adequately summarize key points of its contents. (October 2012)|
|Republic of North Ossetia–Alania
Республика Северная Осетия — Алания (Russian)
Республикӕ Цӕгат Ирыстон — Алани (Ossetic)
|— Republic —|
|Federal district||North Caucasian|
|Economic region||North Caucasus|
|Established||July 7, 1924|
|Government (as of August 2010)|
|- Head||Taymuraz Mamsurov|
|Area (as of the 2002 Census)|
|- Total||8,000 km2 (3,100 sq mi)|
|Population (2010 Census)|
|- Density||89.12/km2 (230.8/sq mi)|
|Time zone(s)||MSK (UTC+03:00)|
|Official languages||Russian; Ossetian|
The Republic of North Ossetia–Alania (Russian: Республика Северная Осетия — Алания, tr. Respublika Severnaya Osetiya — Alaniya; IPA: [rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə ˈsʲevʲɪrnəjə ɐˈsʲetʲɪjə ɐˈlanʲɪjə]; Ossetian: Республикæ Цæгат Ирыстон — Алани, Respublikæ Tsægat Iryston-Alani listen (help·info)) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). Its capital is the city of Vladikavkaz. Its population according to the 2010 Census was 712,980.
- 1 Name
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Politics
- 5 Administrative divisions
- 6 Economy
- 7 Demographics
- 8 Culture
- 9 Education
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 Bibliography
- 13 External links
In the last years of the Soviet Union, as nationalist movements swept throughout the Caucasus, many intellectuals in the North Ossetian ASSR called for the revival of the name of Alania, a medieval kingdom of the Alans, ancestors of the modern-day Ossetians. The term of "Alania" quickly became popular in Ossetian daily life through the names of various enterprises, a TV channel, political and civic organizations, publishing house, football team, etc. In November 1994, the name of "Alania" was officially added to the republican title (Republic of North Ossetia–Alania).
The territory of North Ossetia was first inhabited by Caucasian tribes. Some Nomadic Alans settled in the region in the 7th century, forming the kingdom of Alania. It was eventually converted to Christianity by missionaries from Byzantium. Alania greatly profited from the Silk Road which passed through its territory.
After the Middle Ages, the Mongols' and Tartars' repeated invasions decimated the population, now known as the Ossetians. Islam was introduced to the region in the 17th century by Kabardians. Conflicts between the Khanate of Crimea and the Ottoman Empire eventually pushed Ossetia into an alliance with Imperial Russia in the 18th century. Soon, Russia established a military base in the capital, Vladikavkaz, making it the first Russian-controlled area in the northern Caucasus. By 1806, Ossetia was under complete Russian control.
The Russians' rule led to rapid development of industry and railways which overcame its isolation. The first books from the area came during the late 18th century, and became part of the Terskaya Region of Russia in the mid-19th century.
The Russian Revolution of 1917 resulted in North Ossetia being merged into the Soviet Mountain Republic in 1921. It then became the North Ossetian Autonomous Oblast on 7 July 1924, then merged into the North Ossetian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic on 5 December 1936. In World War II, it was subject to a number of attacks by Nazi German invaders unsuccessfully trying to seize Vladikavkaz in 1942.
The North Ossetian SSR declared itself the autonomous republic of the Soviet Union on June 20, 1990. Its name was changed to Republic of North Ossetia–Alania in 1991.
The Soviet Union's collapse posed particular problems for the Ossetian people, who were divided between North Ossetia, which was part of the Russian SFSR, and South Ossetia, part of the Georgian SSR. In December 1990 the Supreme Soviet of Georgia abolished the autonomous Ossetian enclave amid the rising ethnic tensions in the region, and much of the population fled across the border to North Ossetia or Georgia proper. Some 70,000 South Ossetian refugees were resettled in North Ossetia, sparking clashes with the predominantly Ingush population in the Prigorodny District. That led to the Ossetian–Ingush conflict.
As well as dealing with the effects of the conflict in South Ossetia, North Ossetia has had to deal with refugees and the occasional spillover of fighting from the war in neighboring Chechnya. The bloodiest incident by far was the September 2004 Beslan hostage crisis, in which Chechen insurgents attributed to Shamil Basayev (who alternatingly denied and claimed responsibility) seized control of a school. In the firefight between the terrorists and Russian forces that ended the crisis, 335 civilians, the majority of them children, died.
- Area: 8,000 square kilometers (3,100 sq mi)
- Highest point: Mount Kazbek (5,033 m (16,512 ft))
- Maximum N->S distance: 130 kilometers (81 mi)
- Maximum E->W distance: 120 kilometers (75 mi)
All of the republic's rivers belong to the basin of the Terek River. Major rivers include:
- Terek River (~600 km)
- Urukh River (104 km)
- Ardon River (101 km)
- Kambileyevka River (99 km)
- Gizeldon River (81 km)
- Fiagdon River
- Sunzha River (278 km)
Climate is moderately continental.
- Average January temperature: −5 °C (23 °F)
- Average July temperature: +24 °C (75 °F)
- Average annual precipitation: 400–700 mm in the plains, over 1,000 mm in the mountains.
During the Soviet period, the high authority in the republic was shared between three people; the first secretary of the North Ossetia Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) Committee (who in reality had the biggest authority), the chairman of the oblast Soviet (legislative power), and the Chairman of the Republic Executive Committee (executive power). Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, and the head of the Republic administration, and eventually the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament.
The Charter of Republic of North Ossetia–Alania is the fundamental law of the region. The Parliament of North Ossetia–Alania is the republic's regional standing legislative (representative) body. The Legislative Assembly exercises its authority by passing laws, resolutions, and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it. The highest executive body is the Republic's Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations, committees, and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters of the province. The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor who is the highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the krai Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia.
The head of government in the Republic of North Ossetia–Alania is the Head of the Republic. As of 2008, the head of the republic is Taymuraz Mamsurov. Mamsurov succeeded Alexander Dzasokhov, who voluntarily quit his post on May 31, 2005.
In recent years, North Ossetia–Alania's economic development has been successful; the indicators of the republic's social and economic development in 2005–2007 revealed a stable growth of all sectors of the economy and major social parameters. The nature and climatic conditions of the republic contribute to the successful development of various economic sectors, which is compounded by the abundance of natural resources. Gross regional product pro capita of the region in 2006 was 61,000 rubles ($2,596), and increased 30% in the 2005–2007 time period. GRP pro capita in 2007 was 76 455 rubles. In 2005–2007, the average monthly wage in North Ossetia–Alania doubled, with the actual cash earnings increased by 42.5 percent. In terms of the average monthly wage growth, the republic ranks first in the North Caucasus.
The regional government's economic priorities include industrial growth, development of small enterprise, spas, and resorts, and strengthening the budgetary and tax discipline.
Natural resources, agriculture, and industry
The most widespread resources are zinc- and lead-containing complex ores. There are deposits of limestone, dolomites, marble and touchstone. There is also a large availability of construction materials, such as clay, sand and gravel. The local oil deposit reserves are estimated at 10 million metric tons.
North Ossetia's industry is mainly concentrated in Vladikavkaz. Major companies located here include Elektrotsink, Gazoapparat, an instrument-making plant, Elektrokontraktor, a factory producing automotive electrical equipment, a large-panel construction complex, and companies in the food industry. The Sadonsky industrial center has grown around the mining and forest industries.
Despite the proximity to Chechnya, North Ossetia is making efforts to develop its tourist industry. Projects under a program for spa, resort, and tourism development have been successfully implemented in the mountainous part of the republic, according to the head of the regional government. There are nearly 3000 historical monuments in the republic and more than half of the its area is occupied bv Alania National Park, the North Ossetia National Preserve, and game preserves. There are more than 250 therapeutic, mineral, and freshwater springs in the republic with estimated daily reserves of 15,000 cubic meters. Besides providing the basis for health spas, these mineral waters also have the potential to be bottled and sold. North Ossetian mineral waters are known for their unique qualities, as well as special mineral composition.
In terms of its infrastructure, North Ossetia–Alania ranks second in the Southern Federal District and 10th in the nation. The republic has some of the most extensive telecommunication networks in the North Caucasus region and in Russia. It ranks first in terms of its telecom network installations in the Southern Federal District.
The republic ranks fourth in Russia in terms of its paved roads, and its expanding transport and logistics complex provides communication networks between Russia and the South Caucasus, as well as Central Asia. The complex includes two federal highways (Georgian Military Road connects Vladikavkaz with Transcaucasia) running across the Greater Caucasus Range, two customs checkpoints for cars, a developed railway network, Vladikavkaz international airport, and well-equipped transport terminals.
Number of Refugees: 12,570 
|Average population (x 1000)||Live births||Deaths||Natural change||Crude birth rate (per 1000)||Crude death rate (per 1000)||Natural change (per 1000)||Fertility rates|
|1970||554||9 731||3 964||5 767||17.6||7.2||10.4|
|1975||575||10 368||4 664||5 704||18.0||8.1||9.9|
|1980||598||10 135||5 821||4 314||16.9||9.7||7.2|
|1985||617||11 598||6 047||5 551||18.8||9.8||9.0|
|1990||649||10 967||6 166||4 801||16.9||9.5||7.4||2,23|
|1991||679||10 985||6 694||4 291||16.2||9.9||6.3||2,09|
|1992||683||10 048||7 125||2 923||14.7||10.4||4.3||1,89|
|1993||661||8 251||7 872||379||12.5||11.9||0.6||1,67|
|1994||666||8 806||8 329||477||13.2||12.5||0.7||1,79|
|1995||674||8 781||8 574||207||13.0||12.7||0.3||1,78|
|1996||680||8 043||8 514||- 471||11.8||12.5||- 0.7||1,62|
|1997||681||7 758||8 378||- 620||11.4||12.3||- 0.9||1,56|
|1998||683||7 767||8 188||- 421||11.4||12.0||- 0.6||1,56|
|1999||689||7 195||8 412||- 1 217||10.4||12.2||- 1.8||1,43|
|2000||699||7 179||8 626||- 1 447||10.3||12.3||- 2.0||1,39|
|2001||707||7 317||8 205||- 888||10.3||11.6||- 1.3||1,39|
|2002||709||7 874||8 753||- 879||11.1||12.3||- 1.2||1,47|
|2003||709||7 978||8 952||- 974||11.3||12.6||- 1.4||1,48|
|2004||707||7 893||8 663||- 770||11.2||12.2||- 1.1||1,46|
|2005||706||7 894||8 654||- 760||11.2||12.3||- 1.1||1,46|
|2006||706||8 308||8 138||170||11.8||11.5||0.2||1,53|
|2007||706||9 556||7 806||1 750||13.5||11.1||2.5||1,76|
|2008||708||9 981||7 975||2 006||14.1||11.3||2.8||1,83|
|2009||710||10 017||7 987||2 030||14.1||11.3||2.9||1,84|
|2010||712||10 303||7 748||2 555||14.5||10.8||3.7||1,88|
|2011||715||10 375||7 720||2 655||14.5||10.8||3.7||1,88|
|2012||708||10 801||7 525||3 276||15.3||10.6||4.7||1,96|
|2013||705||10 760||7 394||3 366||15.3||10.5||4.8||1,98|
|2014||705||10 831||7 583||3 248||15.4||10.7||4.7||2,01(e)|
According to the 2010 Census, Ossetians make up 65.1% of the republic's population. Other groups include Russians (20.8%), Ingush (4.0%), Armenians (2.3%), Kumyks (2.3%), Georgians (1.3%), Ukrainians (0.4%), Chechens (0.3%).
|1926 Census1||1939 Census||1959 Census||1970 Census||1979 Census||1989 Census||2002 Census||2010 Census2|
|1 The results of the 1926 census refer to the present territory, which is a combination of the North Ossetian AO, the city of Vladikavkaz and adjacent areas. .
2 6,557 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.
There are two official languages in North Ossetia – Russian, which is official for all federal subjects of Russia (North Ossetia being a republic), and Ossetian. Ossetian is an Indo-European language, belonging to the East Iranian group. Russian, acting as a lingua franca in the region, but also native to many, is an East Slavic language and as such also belongs to the Indo-European family, which means the two languages are related, albeit extremely distantly.
According to a 2012 official survey, 49.2% of the population of North Ossetia–Alania adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 10% declares to be generically Christian (excluding Catholic and Protestant), 2% follows other Orthodox Churches. The second largest religion is Ossetian indigenous religion or neopaganism (Ætsæg Din), comprising 29% of the population (maybe also including Slavic Rodnover communities). Muslims constitute 4% of the population, and Protestants the 1%. In addition, 1% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious" and 3% to be atheist.
There are six professional theaters in North Ossetia–Alania, as well as Ossetian State Philarmonia.
The most important facilities of higher education include North Caucasus State Technological University, North Ossetian State University, North Ossetian State Medical Academy, and Mountain State Agrarian University; all in Vladikavkaz.
- Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
- Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
- Official website of the Republic of North Ossetia–Alania. Taymuraz Dzambekovich Mamsurov (Russian)
- Constitution, Article 7
- Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the population.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 21 июля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of July 21, 2014 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
- Official on the whole territory of Russia according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
- Constitution, Article 15.1
- Shnirelman, Victor (2006). The Politics of a Name: Between Consolidation and Separation in the Northern Caucasus. Acta Slavica Iaponica 23, pp. 37–49.
- Regional government to quit over Beslan tragedy: president from ABC
- "North Ossetia–Alania: social and economic indicators looking up". Moscow News. 2008-09-18.
- Валовой региональный продукт на душу населения Федеральная служба государственной статистики
- "Republic of North Ossetia–Alania: Introduction". Russia: All Regions Trade & Investment Guide. CTEC Publishing LLC. 2008.[dead link]
- "North Ossetia–Alania". Microsoft Encarta. Archived from the original on 2009-11-01. Retrieved 2009-06-04.
- "Republic of North Ossetia". Kommersant. 2004-03-11. Retrieved 2009-06-04.
- "Republic of North Ossetia". Russia Profile. 2008-08-25. Retrieved 2009-06-04.[dead link]
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014.
- Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
- В 2008 году естественный прирост населения Северной Осетии составил более 2 тыс. человек – Новости России – ИА REGNUM. Regnum.ru (2009-02-26). Retrieved on 2012-08-18.
- население северной осетии. Ethno-kavkaz.narod.ru. Retrieved on 2012-08-18.
- Перепись-2010: русских становится больше. Perepis-2010.ru (2011-12-19). Retrieved on 2012-08-18.
- Arena - Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia. Sreda.org
- 2012 Survey Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 24-09-2012.
- Верховный Совет Республики Северная Осетия. 12 ноября 1994 г. «Конституция Республики Северная Осетия–Алания», в ред. Закона №7-ркз от 22 декабря 2006 г. (Supreme Council of the Republic of North Ossetia. November 12, 1994 Constitution of the Republic of North Ossetia–Alania, as amended by the Law #7-rkz of December 22, 2006. ).
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- (Russian) Official website of the Republic of North Ossetia–Alania
- (Russian) Official website of the Parliament of the Republic of North Ossetia–Alania
- Russian News Agency Ria Novosty
- (Russian) Official website of Alexander Dzasokhov
- (Russian) Ossetia—History, culture, politics, news
- (Esperanto) Pictures of North Ossetia–Alania
- (English) (Ossetic) (Russian) Welcome to North Ossetia (by Toma Kulayeva)
- (English) (Ossetic) (Russian) Ossetian history and culture
- (Russian) North Ossetian State University
- (Russian) North Ossetian State Medical Academy
- (Russian) Higher Institute of Management
- Institute of Civilization
- (Russian) Electronic version of the North Ossetia (Severnaya Osetiya) republican newspaper
- (Russian) North Ossetian information portal 15th Region (15y Region)