North West England

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the government office region. For the European constituency, see North West England (European Parliament constituency).
North West England
North West
North West region shown within England
Geography
Status Region
Area
— Total
Ranked 6th
14,165 km²
5,469 sq mi
NUTS 1 UKD
Demographics
Population
— Total
— Density
Ranked 3rd
7,052,000 (2011 Census)
498 /km2 (1,290 /sq mi)
GVA per capita £17,433 (6th)
Government
Admin HQ St Helens
Leadership North West Regional Leaders Board
Regional development Northwest
European parliament North West England
Website
Flag of England.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
England

North West England, one of nine official regions of England, consists of the counties of Cheshire, Cumbria, Greater Manchester, Lancashire and Merseyside. The North West had a population of 7,052,000 in 2011.[1] It is the third most populated region after Greater London and the South East.

Geography[edit]

North West England is bounded to the east by the Peak District and the Pennines and to the west by the Irish Sea. The region extends from the Scottish Borders in the north to the West Midlands region in the south. To its southwest is North Wales. Amongst the better known of the North West's physiographical features are the Lake District and the Cheshire Plain. The highest point in North West England (and the highest peak in England) is Scafell Pike, Cumbria, at a height of 3,209 feet (978 m).

A mix of rural and urban landscape, two large conurbations, centred on Liverpool and Manchester, occupy much of the south of the region. The north of the region, comprising Cumbria and northern Lancashire, is largely rural, as is the far south which encompasses parts of the Cheshire Plain and Peak District.

The region includes parts of three National parks (all of the Lake District, and small parts of the Peak District and the Yorkshire Dales) and three areas of Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty (all of Arnside and Silverdale and the Solway Coast, and almost all of the Forest of Bowland).

Local government[edit]

The official region consists of the following subdivisions:

Map Ceremonial county County/Unitary Metropolitan/non-metropolitan districts
North West England counties 2009 map.svg Cheshire 1. Cheshire East U.A.
2. Cheshire West and Chester U.A.
3. Halton U.A.
4. Warrington U.A.
5. Cumbria aBarrow-in-Furness, bSouth Lakeland, cCopeland, dAllerdale, eEden, fCarlisle
6. Greater Manchester * aBolton, bBury, cManchester, dOldham, eRochdale, fSalford, gStockport, hTameside, iTrafford, jWigan
Lancashire 7. Lancashire † aWest Lancashire, bChorley, cSouth Ribble, dFylde, ePreston, fWyre, gLancaster, hRibble Valley, iPendle, jBurnley, kRossendale, lHyndburn
8. Blackpool U.A.
9. Blackburn with Darwen U.A.
10. Merseyside * aKnowsley, bLiverpool, cSt. Helens, dSefton, eWirral

*metropolitan county

After abolition of the Greater Manchester and Merseyside County Councils in 1986, power was transferred to the Metropolitan Boroughs, effectively making them Unitary Authorities. In April 2011, Greater Manchester gained a top-tier administrative body in the form of the Greater Manchester Combined Authority, which means the 10 Greater Manchester Boroughs are once again second-tier authorities.

Demographics[edit]

Population, density and settlements[edit]

Source: Office for National Statistics Mid Year Population Estimates[2]

Region/County Population Population Density Largest town/city Largest urban area
Greater Manchester 2,629,400 2,016/km² Manchester (510,700) (2012 est.)[3] Greater Manchester Urban Area (2,240,230)
Lancashire 1,449,600 468/km² Blackpool (142,100)[4] Preston/Chorley/Leyland Urban Area (335,000)
Merseyside 1,353,600 2,118/km² Liverpool (466,415)[5] Liverpool Urban Area (816,000)
Cheshire 1,003,600 424/km² Chester (77,040) Warrington (202,228)
Cumbria 496,200 73/km² Carlisle (71,773) Carlisle (71,773)

North West England's population accounts for just over 13% of England's overall population. 37.86% of the North West's population resides in Greater Manchester, 21.39% in Lancashire, 20.30% in Merseyside, 14.76% in Cheshire and 7.41% live in the largest county geographically, Cumbria.

Ethnicity[edit]

According to 2009 Office for National Statistics estimates,[6] 91.6% (6,323,300) of people in the region describe themselves as 'White': 88.4% (6,101,100) White British, 1.0% (67,200) White Irish and 2.2% (155,000) White Other.

The Mixed Race population makes up 1.3% (93,800) of the region's population. There are 323,800 South Asians, making up 4.7% of the population, and 1.1% Black Britons (80,600). 0.6% of the population (39,900) are Chinese and 0.5% (36,500) of people belong to another ethnic group.

North West England is a very diverse region, with Manchester and Liverpool amongst the most diverse cities in Europe. 19.4% of Blackburn with Darwen's population are Muslim, the third highest among all local authorities in the United Kingdom and the highest outside London. Areas such as Moss Side in Greater Manchester are home to a 30%+ Black British population. In contrast, the town of St. Helens in Merseyside, unusually for a city area, has a very low percentage of ethnic minorities with 98% identifying as White British.[7] The City of Liverpool, over 800 years old, is one of the few places in Britain where ethnic minority populations can be traced back over dozens of generations: being the closest major English city to Ireland, it is home to a significant Irish population, and links to the British Slave Trade resulted in the city being home to one of the first ever Afro-Caribbean communities in the UK.

Summarised

  • There are around 400,000 people living in the North West of any Asian ethnicity
  • Around 125,000 people from the North West are of full or partial Sub-African and/or Caribbean descent
  • The single largest non-white ethnic group in the North West are Pakistanis, numbering at least 144,400

Place of birth[edit]

The list below is not how many people belong to each ethnic group (e.g. there are over 25,000 ethnic Italians in Manchester alone,[8] whilst only 6,000 Italian-born people live in the North West). The fifteen most common countries of birth in 2001 for North West citizens were as follows (2008 estimates, where available, in brackets)[9][10]

  • England – 6,169,753
  • Scotland – 109,163
  • Wales – 73,850
  • Ireland – 56,887 (51,000 in 2008)
  • Pakistan – 46,529 (58,000 in 2008)
  • Northern Ireland – 34,879
  • India – 34,600 (48,000 in 2008)
  • Germany – 19,931 (25,000 in 2008)
  • China and Hong Kong – 15,491
  • Bangladesh – 13,746
  • South Africa – 7,740
  • United States – 7,037
  • Jamaica – 6,661
  • Italy – 6,325
  • Australia – 5,880
  • Poland – (37,000 in 2008)

Religion[edit]

The table below is based on the 2001 UK Census.

Region Christian Muslim Hindu Sikh Jewish Buddhist Other No Religion/ Not Stated
North West England 78.5% 3.0% 0.4% 0.1% 0.4% 0.2% 0.2% 17.7%
United Kingdom 71.6% 2.7% 1.0% 0.6% 0.5% 0.3% 0.3% 23.2%

One in five of the population in the North West is Catholic,[11] a result of large-scale Irish emigration in the nineteenth century[12][13] as well as the high number of English recusants in Lancashire.

Teenage pregnancy[edit]

For top-tier authorities, Manchester has the highest teenage pregnancy rate in the region.[citation needed] For council districts, Burnley has the highest rate, closely followed by Hyndburn, both in Lancashire.[citation needed] For top-tier authorities, Cheshire has the lowest teenage pregnancy rate.[citation needed] For council districts, Eden has the lowest rate closely followed by South Lakeland, both in Cumbria.[citation needed]

Social deprivation[edit]

Being in Northern England, the region has significant multiple deprivation, but also very affluent areas the like rural Cheshire, rural Lancashire and south Cumbria. As measured by the Indices of deprivation 2007, the region has many more Lower Layer Super Output Areas in the 20% most deprived districts than the 20% least deprived council districts.[14] Only North East England shows more indicators of deprivation than the North West, but the number of affluent areas in the North West is very similar to Yorkshire and the Humber.

The most deprived council districts in the region are, in descending order – Liverpool (1st in England), Manchester (4th), Knowsley (5th), Blackpool (12th), Salford (15th), Blackburn with Darwen (17th), Burnley (21st), Rochdale (25th), Barrow-in-Furness (29th), Halton (30th), Hyndburn (40th), Oldham (42nd), Pendle (44th), St Helens (47th), Preston (48th), Bolton (51st), Tameside (56th), Wirral (60th), Wigan (67th), Copeland (78th), Sefton (83rd) and Rossendale (92nd). These areas mostly have Labour MPs except for Conservative MPs in the west part of Wirral and Rossendale, and Lib Dem MPs in Sefton (Southport), Manchester (Withington) and Burnley. Rossendale and Burnley are the only two of these not to have a Labour council.

In 2007 when Cheshire still had district councils, the least deprived council districts in the region by council district, in descending order, were – Congleton, Ribble Valley, Macclesfield, and South Lakeland.[15] These areas have Conservative MPs, except South Lakeland has a Lib Dem and Labour MPs. At county level, before it was split into two, Cheshire was the least deprived, followed by Trafford, and by Warrington and Stockport.

In March 2011, the overall unemployment claimant count was 4.2% for the region. Inside the region the highest was Liverpool with 6.8%, followed by Knowsley on 6.3%, Halton with 5.5% and Rochdale with 5.1%. The lowest claimant count is in Eden (Cumbria) and Ribble Valley (Lancashire) each with 1.3%, followed by South Lakeland with 1.4%.[16]

Elections[edit]

In the 2010 general election, the area was dominated by the Labour Party. 40% of the region's electorate voted Labour, 32% Conservative and 22% Liberal Democrat; however, by number of parliamentary seats, Labour have 47, the Conservatives have 22, and the Liberal Democrats have 6.[17] The Lib Dems' North West seats are concentrated around southern Manchester; Labour dominates the remainder of Greater Manchester, and the Conservatives' only inroad in 2010 in the city region was Bury North, having always held Altrincham and Sale West. Labour seats also predominate in Merseyside. All of Cheshire (pre-2009), apart from Ellesmere Port and Neston, is Conservative, and Lancashire is now majority Conservative (9 seats); the Labour seats in Lancashire are in the south of the county along the M65. For the region, the Conservatives gained 12 seats, with the Lib Dems gaining 1; there was a 4.3% swing from Labour to Conservative.

In the 2009 European Election, 26% voted Conservative, 20% Labour, 16% UKIP and 14.3% Liberal Democrat.

Language and dialect[edit]

The earliest known language spoken in the North West was a dialect of the Brythonic language spoken across much of Britain from at least the Iron Age up to the arrival of English in the first millennium AD. Fragments of this early language are seen in the inscriptions and place names of the Roman era. In some parts of the region, the Brythonic dialect developed into the medieval language known today as Cumbric, which continued to be spoken perhaps as late as the 12th century in the north of Cumbria. This early Celtic heritage remains today in place names such as Carlisle, Penrith and Eccles, and many river names such as Cocker, Kent and Eden.

English may have been spoken in the North West from around the 7th century AD, when the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria first appears to have made inroads west of the Pennines. The language at this time would have been the Northumbrian dialect of Old English. The high percentage of English place names in the region as a whole suggests English became almost ubiquitous over the coming centuries, particularly in the area south of the Lake District. Manchester, Liverpool, Lancaster, Blackburn and Preston are among the region's many English place names. In the 9th-11th centuries, Danes from the east and Norsemen from Ireland and Scotland began settling in the area. The North West is really the only area of England where Norse settlement was significant and their influence remains in the place names and dialect of the region. Elements like fell, thwaite and tarn, which are particularly common in Cumbria, are all Norse. The numerous Kirkbys and place names with 'holm' and 'dale' show the Scandinvian influence throughout the North West.

Through the Middle Ages the dialects of the North West would have been considerably different from those spoken in the Midlands and south. It was only with the spread of literacy (particularly with the publication of the King James Bible) that Standard English spread to the region. Even so, local dialects continued to be used and were relatively widespread until the 19th and 20th centuries.

In modern times, English is the most spoken language in the North West, with a large percentage of the population fluent in it, and close to 100% conversational in it. To the north-east of the region, within the historic boundaries of Cumberland, the Cumbrian dialect is dominant. The historical county of Lancashire covered a vast amount of land, and the Lancashire dialect and accent is still predominant throughout the county, and stretches as far north as Furness in South Cumbria to parts of north Greater Manchester and Merseyside in the south of the region. The region boasts some of the most distinctive accents in the form of the Scouse accent, which originates from Liverpool and its surrounding areas, and the Manc accent, deriving from the central Manchester district. The region's accents are among those referred to as 'Northern English'.

Large immigrant populations in the North West result in the presence of significant immigrant languages. South Asian languages such as Urdu, Hindi and Punjabi are widespread[citation needed], with the largest amount of speakers residing in Preston, Blackburn and Manchester. The Chinese once made up the largest minority in the region (as Liverpool has one of the oldest Chinese settlements in Europe), and still do to the far north where Chinese is spoken by small but significant communities.[citation needed] Since the enlargement of the EU, over 1 million Poles have immigrated to the UK, a large number of them settling in the North West.[citation needed] Places such as Crewe as well as larger cities make Polish written information available for the public, to much controversy.[citation needed] Other immigrant languages with a presence in the North West are Spanish, mainly amongst the Latin American communities in Liverpool and Manchester[citation needed], as well as various other Eastern European and Asian languages.

The most taught languages in schools across the North West are English, French and German. Spanish and Italian are available at more senior levels and, in cities such as Manchester and Liverpool, even Urdu and Mandarin are being taught to help maintain links between the local minority populations.[citation needed]

Eurostat NUTS[edit]

In the Eurostat Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS), North West England is a level-1 NUTS region, coded "UKD", which (since 2010) is subdivided as follows:[18][19]

NUTS 1 Code NUTS 2 Code NUTS 3 Code
North West England UKD Cumbria UKD1 West Cumbria (Allerdale, Barrow-in-Furness, Copeland) UKD11
NUTS 3 regions of North West England 2010 map.svg East Cumbria (Carlisle, Eden, South Lakeland) UKD12
Cheshire UKD6 Warrington UKD61
Cheshire East UKD62
Cheshire West and Chester UKD63
Greater Manchester UKD3 Greater Manchester South (Manchester, Salford, Stockport, Tameside, Trafford) UKD31
Greater Manchester North (Bolton, Bury, Oldham, Rochdale, Wigan) UKD32
Lancashire UKD4 Blackburn with Darwen UKD41
Blackpool UKD42
Lancashire CC UKD43
Merseyside UKD7 East Merseyside (Knowsley, St Helens and Halton) UKD71
Liverpool UKD72
Sefton UKD73
Wirral UKD74

Cities and towns[edit]

Liverpool City Centre
Blackpool Promenade
Lancaster City Centre
Blackburn Town Centre
Oldham Town Centre Skyline
Barrow-in-Furness Town Centre
Preston City Centre

Population > 400,000

Population > 100,000

Population > 70,000

Population > 50,000

Population > 30,000

Population > 20,000


Metropolitan areas[edit]

The five largest metropolitan areas in the North West are as follows:

Liverpool and Manchester are sometimes considered parts of a single large polynuclear metropolitan area,[21][22][23] or megalopolis[24] but are usually treated as separate metropolitan areas.[20] In some studies, part of Wigan in Greater Manchester is considered part of the Liverpool metropolitan area.[20]

Elected regional assembly[edit]

Proposed flag for the region designed by Peter Saville.

It is one of the two regions (along with Yorkshire and the Humber) that were expected to hold a referendum on the establishment of an elected regional assembly. However, when the North East region of England rejected having an elected regional assembly in a referendum, further referendums were cancelled and the proposals for elected regional assemblies in England put on hold. The regional leaders' forum, 4NW, an unelected quango, is based on Waterside Drive in Wigan.

European Parliament[edit]

The North West England European Parliament constituency has the same boundaries as the Region.

History[edit]

Ten English regions were established by the government in 1994. At that time, Merseyside, which already had its own Government Office, formerly the Merseyside Task Force, was regarded as a separate region. In 1998, Merseyside was merged into the North West region. This action was controversial in some quarters.[citation needed] Regional Government Offices were abolished in April 2011 by the Coalition Government.

Scientific heritage[edit]

Sir Ernest Marsden (of Blackburn) and Hans Geiger conducted the Geiger–Marsden experiment at the University of Manchester in 1909, where the Geiger counter was invented, which demonstrated the existence of the atomic nucleus. Sir J. J. Thomson of Cheetham Hill discovered the electron (given its name in 1891 by George Johnstone Stoney) in April 1897 and received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1906; his son George Paget Thomson would win the Nobel Prize for Physics 1937 for discovering electron diffraction (at the University of Aberdeen). John Dalton, from Cumbria and moved to Manchester, developed atomic theory. William Sturgeon of Lancashire invented the electromagnet in 1825.

Graphene was discovered at the University of Manchester under Prof Sir Andre Geim and Sir Konstantin Novoselov.

At the Calico Printers' Association in Manchester in 1941, John Rex Whinfield and James Tennant Dickson discovered polyethylene terephthalate, known as PET, a common polyester compound found in plastic bottles and food, and also known as Terylene or Dacron. Cheslene and Crepes of Macclesfield discovered crimplene (the fabric that is now referred to as polyester). ICI Dyestuffs at Haxagon House, in Blackley in north Manchester, discovered Procion dyes.

Halothane, the main general anaesthetic gas, was discovered in 1951 at ICI's Widnes Laboratory by Wallasey's Charles Suckling, and first tested on a patient in Manchester in 1956; it works by binding to the GABA receptor. Sir John Charnley of Bury invented the hip replacement in 1962 at Wrightington, Lancashire, north-west of Wigan.

Alderley Park opened in October 57, and ICI Pharmaceuticals was formed in 1957. In 1962 Dora Richardson of ICI at Alderley Park discovered tamoxifen. ICI Alderley Park later discovered Anastrozole, Fulvestrant, Goserelin and Bicalutamide, later made by Zeneca. Sir James Black discovered beta blockers - propranolol (Inderal) at Alderley Park in 1962.

Clifford Cocks and James H. Ellis from Cheshire, with Malcolm J. Williamson, invented the RSA (algorithm) in 1973 at GCHQ, used for public-key cryptography.


Industrial heritage[edit]

The Bridgewater Canal was the first recognised canal of the modern era. The Liverpool and Manchester Railway was the world's first passenger inter-city railway in 1830. Sir Richard Owen from Lancaster coined the word dinosaur in 1842. The University of Manchester built the world's first programmable computer, the Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine, in 1948. Calder Hall was the world's first nuclear power station in 1956.

Transport[edit]

Transport policy[edit]

As part of the national transport planning system, the North West Regional Assembly was (before its abolition in 2008) required to produce a Regional Transport Strategy (RTS) to provide long term planning for transport in the region. This involved region wide transport schemes such as those carried out by the Highways Agency and Network Rail.[25] Within the region the local transport authorities plan for the future by producing Local Transport Plans (LTP) which outline their strategies, policies and implementation programmes.[26] The most recent LTP is that for the period 2006–11. In the North West region the following transport authorities have published their LTP online: Blackburn with Darwen U.A,[27] Blackpool U.A.,[28] Cheshire,[29] Cumbria,[30] Greater Manchester,[31] Halton U.A.,[30] Lancashire,[32] Merseyside[33] and Warrington U.A.[34] Since 1 April 2009, when the county of Cheshire was split into two unitary councils[35] the Cheshire transport authority ceased to exist, however it is the most recent LTP for the area.

Road[edit]

The M6 motorway is one of the North West's principal roads

Regionwide[edit]

Regionwide the principal road link is the M6, this enters the region (from Scotland) near Carlisle in the north and leaves it (for the English Midlands) near Crewe in the south. It connects such towns and cities as Penrith, Kendal, Lancaster, Preston, Warrington, Liverpool and Manchester. The M6 intersects many of the North West's motorways and A-roads, and carries almost 120,000 vehicles per day (41,975,000 per year).[36]

Old meets new at the Stockport Viaduct.

Greater Manchester and Merseyside[edit]

The Greater Manchester and Merseyside areas are home to almost 4 million people, and over half the region's population. The road networks intertwining these metropolitan areas are extremely important to the economy and are largely motorway, including the M62 which crosses the entire country (east to west – Hull to Liverpool), this motorway directly connects the cities of Manchester and Liverpool. The M62 sees 78,000 vehicles using the motorway in the North West per day.[37] The Merseyside-Manchester region has many motorways, that serve many millions on a daily basis, other include the M61 which connects Manchester to Preston, the M56 which runs south of Manchester to Cheshire and Wales, The M57 and M58 motorways run north of Liverpool, and connect towns such as St Helens and Wigan. The M60 is Manchester's ring road, the M67 and M66 motorways run east and north respectively, both of these motorways are under 10 miles (16 km) and link Manchester to smaller outlying settlements. On top of this there are countless numbers of A-roads, B-roads and minor roads which circle, entwine and serve these two major metropolises. For more information, see: Transport in Manchester.

A sign marking entry to Scotland located on the M6 motorway crossing the border.

Cumbria[edit]

In Cumbria the M6 runs all the way down the east of the county connecting the very north of England to the Lancashire border. The A590 links Barrow-in-Furness to Kendal with around 14,000 vehicles per day.[38] The A595 runs all the way along the West Cumbrian coast beginning near Barrow and ending in Carlisle, linking towns such as Whitehaven and Workington. The A591 road runs from Kendal to the centre of the county connecting Lake District settlements like Windermere, Ambleside and Keswick. Other important A-roads include the A5092, A66, A596 and formerly the A74, until this was upgraded to motorway standard as an extension of the M6 between 2006 and 2008 to meet the A74(M) at the Scottish border.

Lancashire[edit]

The Lancashire economy relies strongly on the M6 which also runs from north to south (Lancaster to Chorley). Other motorways in the region include the fairly short M55 which connects the city of Preston and the town of Blackpool at 11.5 miles (18.5 km) in length. The M65 motorway runs from east to west starting in the town of Colne, running past Burnley, Accrington, Blackburn and terminating in Preston. The Lancaster-Morecambe area is served by the A683, A6 and A589 roads, the Blackpool-Fylde-Fleetwood area is home to the A587, A584, A583 and A585 roads. The city of Preston and its surroundings are served by the A6, A59, A585, A584, A583, A582 and to the very south-east, the M61 motorway. To the east of the county are the A59, A6119, A677, A679, A666, A680, A56, A646 and A682. The M66 begins 500 metres (0.3 mi) inside the county border near Edenfield, providing an important link between east Lancashire and Manchester.

Cheshire[edit]

In Cheshire there are four motorways the M6, the M56 (linking Chester to the east), the M53 (linking Chester to Birkenhead) and the M62, which runs just along the county's northern border with Merseyside and Greater Manchester. The Cheshire road system is made up of 3,417 miles (5,499 km) of highway, and the principal one (M6) carries 140,000[39] vehicles in the county daily, linking the North West to the West Midlands.

The county town of Chester is served by the A55, A483 and A494 roads amongst others. To the west of the M6, Crewe, Northwich and Sandbach are served by the A54, A51, A49, A533 and A530 roads, these all eventually link up connecting the towns to the larger cities, including Stoke-on-Trent to the south. To the east of the M6 in Cheshire lies the Peak District, and towns such as Macclesfield and Congleton which are served by the A6, A537, A536, A34, A523 and A566 roads.

Air[edit]

The primary international airport in the region is Manchester Airport, which served 22.1 million passengers in 2007 (18.7 million of which were international),[40] more than some of the world's major aviation hubs. The airport is home to three terminals (plus the World Freight Terminal), which serve destinations worldwide. The largest airlines at the airport in terms of flights in 2007 were Flybe, BMI, British Airways, Jet2.com and Lufthansa, although several long-haul carriers such as American Airlines, Delta Air Lines, Virgin Atlantic, Singapore Airlines and Emirates also operate from the airport.

In 2007 Manchester had a recorded 222,703 aircraft movements,[40] the airport is also a hub for major holiday airlines such as Thomas Cook Airlines, Monarch Airlines, First Choice Airways and Thomson Airways.

The region's second largest, but fastest growing airport is Liverpool John Lennon Airport, where passenger numbers have increased from around 690,000 in 1997 to nearly 5.5 million in 2007.[40] The airport serves destinations primarily in the UK and Europe and is a major hub for EasyJet and Ryanair.

The only other significant passenger airport in the region is Blackpool Airport, which was refurbished in 2006 and handles around half a million passengers annually. Destinations range from the Canary Islands in Spain to the Republic of Ireland.

Manchester Airport aerial view

Cheshire

Cumbria

Greater Manchester

Tutor aircraft at RAF Woodvale

Lancashire

Merseyside

  • Liverpool John Lennon Airport – International airport operated by Liverpool Airport plc, destinations worldwide
  • RAF Woodvale – Operated by the Royal Air Force, military use
  • Southport Birkdale Sands airstrip – Sand runway located on Southport beach (infrequent use, subject to prior permission)

Rail[edit]

Manchester's Piccadilly station is the largest and busiest railway station in the region.

The main connection by train is the West Coast Main Line (Virgin Trains), connecting most of the North West. Other important lines are the Liverpool to Manchester Lines and the North TransPennine which connects Liverpool to Manchester through Warrington. East-west connections in Lancashire are carried via the Caldervale Line to Blackpool. Liverpool and Manchester both have extensive local passenger rail networks operating high-frequency commuter trains.

Sea[edit]

Sea ferries depart from Liverpool (Gladstone Dock) to Dublin (P&O Irish Sea) and to Douglas on the Isle of Man (Isle of Man Steam Packet); Birkenhead (Twelve Quays Terminal) to Belfast and Dublin (Norfolkline Irish Sea Ferries – former Norse Merchant Ferries); Fleetwood to Larne (Stena Line) in Northern Ireland; and Heysham to Douglas (Isle of Man Steam Packet).

Regional profile of the North West

Economy[edit]

The North West is historically linked with the textiles industry, mainly before the mid 20th century. The Greater Manchester region produces the most economic output according to GVA in 2007 with £46,189m. Followed by Lancashire with £22,470m, Cheshire £21,317m and Merseyside £19,112m and Cumbria with £7,379m.

According to research by Cushman and Wakefield in 2008, Manchester is the second best city to locate a business in the UK whilst Liverpool is the eleventh best city.[41] The Financial Times stated that the North West economy, led by the redevelopment of Manchester and Liverpool, is a genuine rival to 'overheated London'.[42]

The area's electricity, formerly looked after by MANWEB and NORWEB, is now looked after by ScottishPower Energy Networks and United Utilities respectively. The Morecambe Bay gas field provides 6% of the UK's natural gas.

Cheshire[edit]

Main article: Economy of Cheshire
Vauxhall's plant in Ellesmere Port exports 88% of its cars, and has made over 4.5 million since 1962

Cheshire is linked with the salt industry. AstraZeneca is in Macclesfield. Vauxhall, home of the Astra, on a former airfield next to the M53, and Essar Energy (former Shell) are in Ellesmere Port. QUINN group make glass bottles to the east of the refinery at Elton. Lex Vehicle Leasing, the UK's largest vehicle leasing company is in Chester. Ball Packaging Europe is based on the A483 at Chester Business Park, near the A55 junction in Eccleston, which has a main office of M&S. To the north at Dunkirk at the end of the M56 on the A5117, is Max Spielmann. Sandbach used to be home of ERF and Fodens trucks. Brunner Mond has a large works in Winnington, just west of Northwich. British Salt and OK Diner are in Middlewich; Bisto used to be made there, but production moved to Worksop (Nottinghamshire) in 2008. Henkel UK (maker of Pritt and Sellotape) is in Winsford, home of the UK's largest salt mine at Meadowbank run by Salt Union, who are owned by Compass Minerals. Mornflake is in Crewe on the B5071, Focus closed in July 2011, and Orion Optics make telescopes. Bentley Motors (owned by Volkswagen since 1998) have their main plant in the west of the town between the A530 and A532, next to the railway to Chester. Crewe Works built the HST (Class 43) power cars, and now carries out maintenance for Bombardier. Unipart Rail is on the B5071 next to Crewe railway station. Bargain Booze is at the A532/A5020 roundabout in the east of the town, and further along the A532 Whitby Morrison are the world's leading manufacturer of ice cream vans. BAE Systems Global Combat Systems at Radway Green, Barthomley north of M6 junction 16, south of Alsager makes small arms ammunition, and Freshpack make pies next to the A5011. Oliver Valves based off the B5085 in Shaw Heath, Knutsford, makes needle, check, gate, relief and ball valves for the oil and gas industry. Pets at Home is next to the railway at Handforth near Wilmslow and the Stockport boundary near Handforth Dean (A34). Boalloy Industries in Congleton make trailers, and pioneered the Tautliner curtain-sided trailer design in the 1970s.

Ineos (the site was previously owned by ICI Chemicals) has a large plant in Runcorn which produces chlorine and caustic soda from Cheshire salt piped from Lostock Gralam, south of Northwich; most of the chlorine in the UK comes from this plant. BNFL and its subsidiary Sellafield Ltd (former British Nuclear Group), and ABB UK are based in Daresbury near Runcorn, although most of BNG's operations take place at Sellafield in Cumbria. Daresbury is also home of the EMMA and ALICE FFAG accelerators. Diageo bottles Guinness at Preston Brook, next to the M56. Kawneer UK (part of Alcoa) make architectural aluminium systems (curtain walls) off the A533 at Astmoor in north Runcorn.

Betfred and United Utilities are based in Warrington, and Unilever makes Persil and Surf next to the Bank Quay railway station. New Balance UK are at Centre Park, off the A5060 in south-west Warrington, with factory at Flimby, on the Cumbria coast. Bensons for Beds is based nearby to the north in Burtonwood and Westbrook next to the M62 and Burtonwood services. Konftel UK is at Thelwall. Eagle Ottawa makes leather upholstery for cars off A50 at Westy Park in east Warrington next to the Manchester Ship Canal.

Lancashire[edit]

Main article: Lancashire § Economy

The ONS 2010 Annual Business Survey states that 30.3% of jobs in the British aerospace industry are based in Lancashire.[43] The main private employer in the county is BAE Systems Military Air & Information who have two sites east and west of Preston for the manufacture of military aircraft. Samlesbury (4000 employees) makes air-frames. Warton, BAE Systems' main site (former English Electric, then BAC), in Bryning-with-Warton (6500 employees).[44] Rolls-Royce make turbofan blades in Barnoldswick (950 employees).[45] Nearby Weston EU manufacture components in Foulridge (250)[46] and engine maintenance contractor Euravia are in Kelbrook (100).[47] Safran Aircelle make engine nacelles and thrust reversers in Burnley (800).[48] GE subsidiary Unison Engine Components (320),[47] are the largest of several others in the area.

(Westinghouse) (BNFL) make nuclear fuel at the Springfields site at Salwick, off the A583 in Newton with Clifton. The boiler firm BAXI also originates from Preston, and InBev have a brewery nearby in Samlesbury (former Whitbread). To the north-east Bodycare Group make toiletries at the Red Scar Business Park on the B6243. Bosal is the UK's leading manufacturer of car exhausts on Walton Summit, between the M6 and M61. The Pilkington European Technical Centre is at Lathom. Silentnight (600)[47] is in Barnoldswick, where Hope Technology make mountain bike components. At Horrocksford near Clitheroe, Hanson Cement have their large Ribblesdale cement works, which supplied the construction of the Liverpool Metropolitan Cathedral; nearby Johnson Matthey make automotive catalysts. Oaktec are small motorsport company on the A588 at Cockerham, south of Lancaster.

Brands originating in Lancashire include: TVR, Reebok, Jaguar Cars and Warburtons. Leyland Trucks manufactures several truck ranges from Leyland, home of Enterprise Plc, and where Albion Automotive (part of American Axle) make crankshafts at Farington. CCA Occasions makes greeting cards on the B5253 on the Moss Side Ind Estate and nearby Dr Oetker makes Chicago Town and Pizza Ristorante pizzas (330);[49] 40% of the UK's frozen pizzas are made here, and the Pizza Ristorante brand, solely made in Lancashire, is Italy's best-selling frozen pizza with 20% of the Italian market.[50] Nearby, Nitecrest is the UK's leading manufacturer of gift, payment, loyalty and phone cards, and exports most of its products. Nationwide fashion retailer Matalan has its head office and main distribution centre in Skelmersdale, which is where Walker's make Monster Munch at West Pimbo. Victrex make PEEK (a thermoplastic) just north of Blackpool at Cleveleys. HTI Group in Fleetwood makes toys and owns Barbie. Ennis Prismo make traffic white line products at Chorley and Walmsleys is a paper manufacturer off the A675 in Withnell. Along the M65, Fort Vale based in Simonstone (near Burnley) (300) are a world leader in valves and fittings for road tankers.[51] Close by, office furniture manufacturer Senator International (800)[47][52] and household plastic container manufacturer What More UK (170)[53] are the largest in the UK in their respective fields. Telecoms provider Daisy Group (400),[47] based in Nelson is one of the UK's fastest growing companies;[54]

B & M Retail is in Blackpool, as is the Federation of Small Businesses (FSB), Amber Taverns, Premium Bonds and National Savings and Investments. Dennis Eagle makes bin wagons in Marton.

Crown Paints is in Darwen (500).[47] DS Smith have the Hollins paper mill just south of junction 4 of the M65, off the A666 in Darwen, which is set to close. Across the M65 to the north Apeks make diving equipment at Blackamoor.

Greater Manchester[edit]

PG Tips are made on Trafford Park

Kelloggs is in Trafford Park (Manchester), and nearby the Brooke Bond division of Unilever make PG Tips, and TDG is on the industrial estate. Tyco UK is based on the A62 in Newton Heath. Joseph Holt's Brewery is off the A665 next to Strangeways prison; Boddingtons' Strangeways Brewery closed in 2006. Avecia (biotechnology) is off the A664 in the Hexagon Tower in Blackley near the North Manchester General Hospital. North of the hospital at Crumpsall is B3 Cable Solutions, the UK's only manufacturer of telecommunications cables, based next to the River Irk. Scottish & Newcastle have their large Royal Brewery in Manchester. HomeForm Group, owner of Möben Kitchens, Sharps Bedrooms and Dolphin Bathrooms is on the A56 in Old Trafford. Regatta and Craghoppers are on Barton Dock Road (B5211), near the Trafford Centre (the base of The Peel Group), on the other side of the A5081. Holt Lloyd, known as Holts, the largest car care company in the world in the 1980s, now owned by Honeywell Consumer Products Group, is based on Barton Dock Road (B5211), at Merlin Park on the south of Trafford Park, off junction 9 of the M60. Admiral Sportswear are in Northenden. Timpson is in Wythenshawe; Sharwood's used to make their sauces there until Premier Foods moved production to Bury St Edmunds in 2008. Duerr's make honey and jam at the Roundthorn Ind Estate in Wythenshawe, off the A560. Nearby in Moss Nook is Franke UK, the world's largest manufacturer of domestic sinks, and Renold plc is an international chain company based on the B5166 off the M56 junction 5 (Manchester Airport spur). PZ Cussons (formerly in Cheadle Heath) is towards the airport.

Heinz, although based in Hayes in Middlesex, has the largest food processing complex in Europe at a 55-acre (220,000 m2) site at Kitt Green in Wigan, which produces 1.4 billion cans of food each year. Nearby, JJB Sports is at Marsh Green near the River Douglas. Also in Wigan are The Tote, Shearings Holidays and Girobank, and R&R Ice Cream (former Richmond Foods) make De Roma ice cream. Contitech UK (part of Continental AG) makes industrial belts off the A587 in Bickershaw, between Wigan and Leigh.

Makro is in Eccles.

Kelloggs in Manchester

Sock Shop is in Bolton, and MBDA (former BAe Dynamics) makes missiles in Lostock near junction 6 of the M61. Cash Generator is off the A575 in Farnworth. dabs.com, an e-commerce site owned by BT, is in Wingates, west of Bolton off the A6.

BAE Systems build aircraft in Chadderton and Woodford in Stockport (former Avro) off the A5102 (the eastern half of the airfield is in Cheshire East). The BAe 146 (Avro RJ) was manufactured at Woodford until 2001. The Institute of Advanced Motorists, National Tyre Service (at the A5145/A6 junction) and the internet bank Smile is nearby in Stockport. Wienerberger UK, the Austrian brick company who own Baggeridge, are based at the Cheadle Royal Business Park at the B5358/A34 junction, as is Umbro, and Agilent Technologies UK (biomedical equipment). Adidas UK is in Bramhall Moor, Hazel Grove off the A5143, on the opposite side of the railway from MAN Diesel & Turbo, which is next to Stepping Hill Hospital. BASF UK is in Handforth next to the A34/A555 junction on the Cheshire boundary. Thales Underwater Systems is in Cheadle Heath. McVitie's make their Jaffa Cakes, Penguins and chocolate digestives at a factory in South Manchester on the A6.[55]

Russell Hobbs is in Failsworth. Next to junction 22 of the M60 and Hollinwood railway station in Oldham, Trinity Mirror (former Mirror Colour Print before 2006) prints the Mirror and Independent for the north of England, as well as the Manchester Evening News and Liverpool Echo. Diodes Semiconductors (former Zetex) based off the A669 in Alder Root, Chadderton, is a leader in LED lighting.

Inventive Leisure, who own the Revolution pub chain, are in Ashton-under-Lyne. Kerry Foods at Godley Hill (Hyde) on the A57 make Richmond and Wall's sausages. Robertson's (now owned by Premier Foods since it was bought from Rank Hovis McDougall) moved their marmalade (Golden Shred) and jam processing from Droylsden to Histon and Impington (Cambridgeshire) in October 2008.

Cotton Traders are in Altrincham, and Dulux Decorator Centres is in West Timperley. Britannia Hotels is on the A538 in Hale near the A5144 junction.

JD Sports is off junction 3 of the M66 in Hollins, Bury and Birthdays is west of junction 2. Tetrosyl Group Ltd, UK maker of car care products are at Walmersley, off the A56 and also at junction 2 (A58) of the M66. Ryalux makes carpets off the B6222 near the M66 in east Bury.

PTG (Holroyd Machine Tools) are based at Milnrow, off M62 junction 21. Premier Foods make Sarson's on the A669 near Mills Hill railway station in Middleton. The Co-op is based in Manchester and Rochdale as is Zen Internet.

Merseyside[edit]

Main article: Merseyside § Economy
Littlewood's Building

Pilkington is in St Helens. Kalzip, a division of Tata Steel Europe, make aluminium roofs in Haydock. Vimto is owned by Nichols plc of Newton-le-Willows, although actually made by Cott Beverages in north Leicestershire.

Littlewoods are in Garston, who are owned by the Shop Direct Group in Speke. Princes, Johnsons Cleaners UK, Maersk Line UK, the Beetham Organization, Bibby Line, Home Bargains, the Royal Liver Assurance and T J Hughes have their headquarters in Liverpool. Towards Aintree, Jacob's and their crackers are historically based, and also make Twiglets at their site at Hartley's Village in Fazakerley, and nearby is Sportech PLC, owner of the football pools.

Dairy Crest makes Vitalite and Utterly Butterly on the A5207 in Kirkby, off junction 4 of the M57. Ethel Austin is in Knowsley, near junction 4 of the M57. Jaguar Land Rover has a main production site (formerly owned by Ford) in Halewood, making the Freelander and Range Rover Evoque. Halewood International, who make Lambrini, Red Square, Lamb's Navy Rum and some alcopops, are in Whitefield Lane End, in the south of Huyton at the M62/M57 junction. Belling Ltd (owned by Glen Dimplex) is in Whiston, next to the large Whiston Hospital. Manesty manufactures medicine tablets off the B5194 on the Knowsley Business Park.

At Speke on the A561, west of the JLR plant, Novartis make vaccines such as Fluvirin, and MedImmune (owned by AstraZeneca) makes components of influenza vaccine (FluMist). At Hunts Cross, the Eli Lilly manufacturing plant produces antibiotics such as Capreomycin, and in 1981 produced the world's first biosynthetic product, by manufacturing biologic insulin, and has also produced biosynthetic human growth hormone since 1985. Near the A561/A562 junction, the NWDA-funded National Biomanufacturing Centre was built in 2006.

Unilever Research Laboratory at Port Sunlight (Bebington)

Typhoo tea is made in Moreton off the A551 next to Moreton railway station, and on the same site there is Manor Bakeries (Premier Foods) who make mini rolls, and a factory (to close in December 2011) of Burton's Biscuit Company who make Cadbury's biscuits (Cadbury Fingers). Cereal Partners (Nestlé) make Cheerios and Golden Nuggets on the A41 opposite Port Sunlight at Bromborough, also the base of CSM UK, the baking ingredients company based at a former Unilever Stork margarine site. CML Group (part of Teledyne) makes composites and aircraft components off the A41 at Bromborough near Eastham Country Park. At Port Sunlight, Unilever make and research detergents and shampoo, such as Timotei and Sunsilk. Cammell Laird at Birkenhead build ships, and RFD Beaufort make G-suits for fighter aircraft and liferafts.

Pontins is in Ainsdale, Sefton.

Cumbria[edit]

Main article: Cumbria § Economy

Royal Navy submarines and ships are made by BAE Systems Submarine Solutions in Barrow-in-Furness. The coat of Cumbria is known as Britain's Energy Coast due to the large amounts of energy being produced along the coast of the county; Sellafield is a power station which is located in West Cumbria and is a major contributor to the "Energy Coast" also, Barrow-in-Furness is major town in contributing to the "Energy Coast" with a power station (Roosecote Power Station), Gas Terminals (Rampside Gas Terminal) and an offshore wind farm (Walney Wind Farm) which is approximately 14 km (8.6 miles) west of the town's coastline with some of the largest wind turbines on Earth. The Lake District is popular with holiday makers. The Nuclear Decommissioning Authority is near Whitehaven. Lakeland, who make kitchenware, are in Windermere. Stobart Group is in Carlisle. M-Sport, the rally team at Dovenby Hall, and Jennings Brewery are in Cockermouth. James Cropper, Europe's leading manufacturer of coloured paper, is in Burneside, north of Kendal, on the River Kent near the A591. Pirelli have their main UK tyre plant (for prestige cars) on the B5299 in south Carlisle. Sealy UK make beds and mattresses on the B5031 next to Aspatria railway station in north Cumbria, west of Carlisle.

Education[edit]

Secondary education[edit]

Secondary schools are mostly comprehensive, but Trafford retains a wholly selective school system, and there are some other grammar schools in Lancashire, Wirral, Liverpool and Cumbria.

There are around 345,000 at secondary school in the region, the third highest in England, after South East England and Greater London. This is around three times as much as there are in North East England. For school truancy the most number of persistent truants are in Manchester with a rate of 7.3%, followed by Knowsley with 6.9%, and Blackpool with 6.6%. The lowest truancy rate is in South Ribble with 2.4% followed by Ribble Valley with 2.9% (both in Lancashire).

At GCSE, the lowest performing area is Knowsley, consistently the worst performing LEA in England. No schools in this LEA usually get above average GCSE results. Blackpool and Manchester get the region's next lowest results. Sefton has performed much better than its neighbour, Liverpool. Wirral is the best performing area in Greater Merseyside, closely followed by Sefton. In Greater Manchester, Manchester performs the worst, closely followed by Salford. The best performing area in Greater Manchester is Trafford (one of the best in England), followed by Bury, then Stockport. Trafford has the best results in the North-West followed by Cheshire East, Bury, Stockport then Warrington; in order of results, Wirral, Lancashire, Sefton, Cheshire West and Chester also perform higher than the England average.[citation needed]

Liverpool produces the most school children who pass no GCSEs, followed closely by Knowsley. Trafford has the lowest proportion.[citation needed]

At A level in 2010, Trafford performed the best and, again like its results at GCSE, is one of the best areas in England. The lowest performing area is, again, Knowsley but followed by Rochdale. Knowsley has some dreadful results at A-level. For traditional counties, Lancashire gets excellent results at A-level, being one of the best in England. Areas also performing above the England average, in order of results, are Blackpool, Warrington, Wigan, Cheshire West and Chester, Bury, Cumbria, Wirral, and Stockport. Blackpool performs not particularly well at GCSE, yet produces much better results at A level – even better than Cheshire West and Chester, and the third best in the region.[citation needed]

Winstanley College
Clitheroe Royal Grammar School
Sir John Deane's College

Top forty state schools in the North West (2011 A level results)

The areas that have school children most likely to attend university are Trafford and Cheshire, followed by Wirral, Sefton, Stockport and Bury. Four of these areas are or were part of Cheshire – the most traditionally middle-class part of the North West.[citation needed]

Colleges[edit]

Carmel College
Blackburn College
Trafford College
Manchester City College, Didsbury

The two main higher education colleges in the region are Blackburn College and Blackpool and The Fylde College. There are forty three FE colleges. The regional LSC was in central Manchester; this is now the SFA and the YPLA.

Universities[edit]

Manchester Metropolitan University's Hollings Campus – the Toast Rack

The universities in the North West are listed below:

Over 60% of university students in the region are native to the region. The region with the next-highest number of students in the North-West is Yorkshire and the Humber, so approximately 80% of university students in the area are from the north of England. The region's students have the highest proportion of students from so-called low-participation neighbourhoods.[citation needed]

Once graduated, over 65% of graduates find work in the region, with plenty of graduate vacancies, especially in Manchester.[citation needed]

Local media[edit]

ITV Granada former studios in Castlefield, Manchester
TV
Radio
MediaCityUK being built at Salford Quays
Newspapers

Town and city twinnings[edit]

Ashton-under-Lyne France Chaumont, France
Blackburn Germany Altena, Germany
France Péronne, France
Blackpool Germany Bottrop, Germany
Bolton France Le Mans, France
Germany Paderborn, Germany
Burnley France Vitry Sur Seine, France
Bury France Angoulême, France
China Datong, China
France Tulle, France
Germany Schorndorf, Germany
United States Woodbury, New Jersey, US
Carlisle Germany Flensburg, Germany
Poland Słupsk, Poland
Carnforth France Sailly-sur-la-Lys, France
Chadderton Germany Geesthacht, Germany
Chester France Sens, France
Chorley Hungary Székesfehérvár, Hungary
Dalton-in-Furness United States Dalton, Pennsylvania, US
Denton France Montigny-le-Bretonneux, France
Droylsden France Villemomble, France
Dukinfield France Champagnole, France
Ellesmere Port Germany Reutlingen, Germany
Failsworth Germany Landsberg am Lech, Germany
Fleetwood United States Fleetwood, Pennsylvania, US
Halton Portugal Leiria, Portugal
Germany Marzahn-Hellersdorf, Germany
China Tongling, China
Czech Republic Ústí nad Labem, Czech Republic
Heywood Germany Peine, Germany
Kendal Republic of Ireland Killarney, Ireland
Germany Rinteln, Germany
Knowsley Germany Moers, Germany
Lancaster Denmark Aalborg, Denmark
Germany Rendsburg, Germany
Liverpool Germany Cologne, Germany
Brazil Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Republic of Ireland Dublin, Ireland
Ukraine Odessa, Ukraine
China Shanghai, China
Longdendale Germany Ruppichteroth, Germany
Manchester Netherlands Amsterdam, Netherlands
Germany Chemnitz, Germany
Spain Córdoba, Spain
Pakistan Faisalabad, Pakistan
United States Los Angeles, California, US
Nicaragua Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua
Israel Rehovot, Israel
Russia Saint Petersburg Russia
China Wuhan, China
Mossley France Hem, France
Oldham Slovenia Kranj, Slovenia
Oswaldtwistle Sweden Falkenberg, Sweden
Preston Netherlands Almelo, Netherlands
Poland Kalisz, Poland
France Nîmes, France
Germany Recklinghausen, Germany
Rochdale Germany Bielefeld, Germany
Ukraine Lviv, Ukraine
Pakistan Sahiwal, Pakistan
France Tourcoing, France
Salford France Clermont-Ferrand, France
Germany Lunen, Germany
France Narbonne, France
France Saint-Ouen, France
Sedbergh Slovenia Zreĉe, Slovenia
Sefton Poland Gdańsk, Poland
Belgium Mons, Belgium
United States Fort Lauderdale, US
Stalybridge France Armentières, France
Stockport France Béziers, France
Germany Heilbronn, Germany
St Helens Germany Stuttgart, Germany
France Chalon-sur-Saône, France
Tameside China Bengbu, China
Zimbabwe Mutare, Zimbabwe
Ulverston France Albert, France
Warrington Germany Hilden, Germany
United States Lake County, Illinois, US
Czech Republic Náchod, Czech Republic
Whitehaven Bulgaria Kozloduy, Bulgaria
Wigan France Angers, France
Workington Germany Selm, Germany
France Val-de-Reuil, France
Wrea Green France St Bris le Vineux, France

Football[edit]

Here is a list of the Premier League and Football League teams in the North West ranked on their 2011–12 final league position:

Premier League teams[edit]

Championship teams[edit]

League One teams[edit]

League Two teams[edit]

There are 19 Premier League and Football League teams in the North West as of the 2010–11 season with:
7 from Greater Manchester (36%)
7 from Lancashire (36%)
3 from Merseyside (18%)
1 from Cheshire (5%)
1 from Cumbria (5%)

Of all the teams in the Premier League and Football League 20% come from the North West. The next nearest region is Greater London with 13 teams (14%). The North West also has 5 teams in the Premier League, more than any other region. Greater London is the next nearest with 5 despite having a slightly larger population.

Teams in the North West have won 53 out of 109 English football League titles (49%), more than any other region.

Rugby League[edit]

Here is a list of the Super League and National League teams in the North West ranked on their 2012 league position:

Weather[edit]

The North West is generally regarded as having the most average weather in the UK. Temperatures are generally close to the national average. Cumbria usually experiences the most severe weather, with high precipitation in the mountainous regions of the Lake District and Pennines. In winter, the most severe weather occurs in the more exposed and elevated areas of the North West, once again this is mainly the Lake District and Pennine areas. Parts of the North West experienced a White Christmas in 2009, and again in 2010, where sleet and snow fell on 25 December.

The A635 was closed for almost a month in January 2010 due to high amounts of snowfall.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "2011 Census - Population and Household Estimates for England and Wales, March 2011" (PDF). Office for National Statistics. 2012. Retrieved 2012-07-16. 
  2. ^ "Office for National Statistics". Statistics.gov.uk. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  3. ^ Manchester
  4. ^ Blackpool
  5. ^ http://www.liverpoolecho.co.uk/news/liverpool-news/census-data-shows-55-increase-3339963
  6. ^ "Current Estimates – Population Estimates by Ethnic Group Mid-2009 (experimental)". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 21 May 2011. [dead link]
  7. ^ http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/census/census-2001-key-statistics/urban-areas-in-england-and-wales/urban-areas-in-england-and-wales-ks06--ethnic-group.xls
  8. ^ Green, David (29 November 2003). "Italians revolt over church closure". BBC News. 
  9. ^ Neighbourhood Statistics: Manchester, Office for national Statistics, 18 November 2004.
  10. ^ "Table 1.3: Estimated population resident in the United Kingdom, by foreign country of birth, 60 most common countries of birth, January 2008 to December 2008". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 2009-10-20. [dead link]
  11. ^ "The Catholic Vote In Britain Helped Carry Blair To Victory". Ipsos MORI. 23 May 2005. Retrieved 16 October 2011. "There are considerable regional variations, of course, Catholics being most widespread in London, Scotland and particularly the North-West (where one in five is Catholic)" 
  12. ^ Great Britain, Statistics by Diocese, by Catholic Population
  13. ^ Kevin Phillips, The Cousins' Wars (New York: Basic Books, 1999), 480–84. Phillips notes: "The subjugation [of the Irish] of the seventeenth century was almost complete.... During the first quarter of the eighteenth century [after the Treaty of Union], Catholic bishops were banned and priests required to register. Catholics lost their right to vote, hold office, own a gun or a horse worth more than 5 pounds, or live in towns without paying special fees... Once again the Irish were pushed west to poorer lands, an exodus that prefigured the disposition of the American Indians over the next two centuries."
  14. ^ "LSOA data 2007" (PDF). Retrieved 17 May 2012. [dead link]
  15. ^ "2007 deprivation data" (PDF). Retrieved 17 May 2012. [dead link]
  16. ^ Claimant count[dead link]
  17. ^ Political Party Seats Change Labour. "2010 General Election BBC". BBC News. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  18. ^ Metadata Download NUTS (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics), by regional level (NUTS) accessed 6 September 2012
  19. ^ NUTS: North West (England) Directory, Office for National Statistics, accessed 6 September 2012
  20. ^ a b c d e f g "British urban pattern: population data" (PDF). ESPON project 1.4.3 Study on Urban Functions. European Spatial Planning Observation Network. March 2007. p. 119. Retrieved 2010-02-22. 
  21. ^ "Shrinking cities and growing regions â€" emerging trends of new rural-urban relationships in the UK and Germany (Manchester eScholar – The University of Manchester)". Escholar.manchester.ac.uk. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  22. ^ World Gazetteer: United Kingdom - largest cities (per geographical entity)
  23. ^ Martin Wainwright (23 October 2006). "Seeking peace and quiet? Here's where to find it | UK news". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  24. ^ [1][dead link]
  25. ^ "Regional Transport Strategy: the National Picture". Government Office for Yorkshire and The Humber. Retrieved 2009-05-08. 
  26. ^ "The LTP Process". Department for Transport. Archived from the original on 2007-10-09. Retrieved 2009-05-08. 
  27. ^ "Blackburn with Darwen 2006–11 Local Transport Plan". Blackburn with Darwen Borough Council. Retrieved 2009-05-08. [dead link]
  28. ^ "Blackpool 2006–11 Local Transport Plan". Blackpool Council. Retrieved 2009-05-08. [dead link]
  29. ^ "Cheshire 2006–11 Local Transport Plan". Cheshire County Council. Archived from the original on 2007-10-19. Retrieved 2009-05-08. 
  30. ^ a b "Cumbria 2006–11 Local Transport Plan". Cumbria County Council. Archived from the original on 2008-04-11. Retrieved 2009-05-08. 
  31. ^ "Greater Manchester2006-11 Local Transport Plan". Greater Manchester LTP. Retrieved 2009-05-08. 
  32. ^ "Lancashire 2006–11 Local Transport Plan". Lancashire County Council. Retrieved 2009-05-08. 
  33. ^ "Merseyside 2006–11 Local Transport Plan". Merseyside LTP. Retrieved 2009-05-08. 
  34. ^ "Warrington 2006–11 Local Transport Plan". Warrington Borough Council. Retrieved 2009-05-08. [dead link]
  35. ^ "Cheshire County Council Home Page". Cheshire County Council. Retrieved 2009-05-08. 
  36. ^ "Final strategy report – Area 9, M6 (Jct 11a to Jct 20)". Route Management Strategy. Highways Agency. Archived from the original on 2007-09-30. Retrieved 2007-10-16. 
  37. ^ "Road Traffic Statistics 2006" (XLS). Department for Transport. Retrieved 2007-10-16. [dead link]
  38. ^ "A590 High and Low Newton Bypass". Highways Agency. Retrieved 2007-10-16. [dead link]
  39. ^ "Road Policing". Cheshire Police Web Site. Retrieved 2007-10-16. [dead link]
  40. ^ a b c "CAA 2007 Annual Airport Statistics". Caa.co.uk. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  41. ^ "London and Manchester lead UK business survey". Cushman & Wakefield web pages. Cushman & Wakefield. 24 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-24. [dead link]
  42. ^ "Living in the North West". AstraZeneca. Retrieved 2011-09-20. 
  43. ^ "The aerospace industry". Lancashire County Council - Office of the chief executive. Retrieved 10 June 2012. [dead link]
  44. ^ "BAE Systems' annual sales fall by 14%". BBC News. 2012-02-16. Retrieved 10 June 2012. 
  45. ^ "Where in the world? Barnoldswick". Rolls-Royce. Retrieved 10 June 2012. [dead link]
  46. ^ "Pendle aero firm Weston EU sold for £54m". Lancashire Telegraph. 2011-11-30. Retrieved 10 June 2012. 
  47. ^ a b c d e f "East Lancashire's biggest firms plan to recruit staff in 2011". Lancashire Telegraph. 2011-01-09. Retrieved 10 June 2012. 
  48. ^ "Aircelle Ltd. wins the "Business of the Year" recognition in Lancashire, England". Aircelle. 2008-11-18. Retrieved 10 June 2012. 
  49. ^ "40 new jobs are just what the Dr ordered". Leyland Guardian. 2009-02-25. Retrieved 14 June 2012. 
  50. ^ Henley, Jon (2011-06-21). "How good is Dr Oetker's pizza?". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 June 2012. 
  51. ^ "Lancashire Telegraph Business Awards: Export winner Fort Vale Engineering". Lancashire Telegraph. 2011-11-14. Retrieved 16 June 2012. 
  52. ^ "Senator scoops business of year award". Lancashire Telegraph. 2006-12-06. Retrieved 16 June 2012. 
  53. ^ "Phoenix firm is boxing clever with exports across the globe". This is Money. 2012-01-30. Retrieved 16 June 2012. 
  54. ^ "Group Celebrates a Daisy Decade". Comms Business. 2011-10-05. Retrieved 7 June 2012. 
  55. ^ "About". United Biscuits. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  56. ^ "St Helens Today: News, Sport, Jobs, Property, Cars, Entertainments & More". Sthelensreporter.co.uk. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  57. ^ "St Helens Star – News, Sport, Saints Rugby League, Property for sale, rent in St Helens, Merseyside". Sthelensstar.co.uk. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 

External links[edit]