Northallerton High Street
Northallerton shown within North Yorkshire
|Area||33.41 km2 (12.90 sq mi)|
|Population||15,741 (2001 census)|
|– density||471.15/sq mi (181.91/km2)|
|OS grid reference|
|Shire county||North Yorkshire|
|Region||Yorkshire and the Humber|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Postcode district||DL6, DL7|
|EU Parliament||Yorkshire and the Humber|
Northallerton // is an affluent market town and civil parish in the Hambleton district of North Yorkshire, England. It lies in the Vale of Mowbray and at the northern end of the Vale of York. It has a population of 15,741 according to the 2001 census. It has served as the county town of the North Riding of Yorkshire and since 1974, of North Yorkshire.
There has been a settlement at Northallerton since Roman times, however its growth in importance began in the 11th century when King William II gifted land to the Bishop of Durham. Under the Bishop's authority Northallerton became an important centre for religious affairs. It was also a focus for much conflict in subsequent years between the English and the Scots, most notably the Battle of the Standard, nearby in 1138, which saw losses of as many as 12,000 men.
In later years trade and transport became more important. The surrounding area was discovered to have large phosphorus reserves which brought industry to Northallerton due to the easy trade routes. Lying on the main route between Edinburgh and London it became an important stopping point for coaches travelling the route, eventually superseded by the growth of the railways in the 19th century. Lying in the centre of a large rural area Northallerton was established as a market town in 1200 by Royal Charter, and there is still a market in the town today.
It continues to be a major retail centre for the local area today. As the administrative centre for Hambleton district and the county of North Yorkshire, the councils, and several other associated public sector organisations have their headquarters in the town.
- 1 History
- 2 Governance
- 3 Geography
- 4 Demography
- 5 Education
- 6 Economy
- 7 Transport
- 8 Sport and culture
- 9 Public services
- 10 Location grid
- 11 Notable people
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 External links
Origins and early history
Due to the proximity of the Roman road, entrenchments and relics it seems that the earliest settlement at Northallerton was some form of Roman military station. There is evidence that the Romans had a signal station on Castle Hills just to the west of the town as part of the imperial Roman postal system and a path connecting Hadrian's Wall with Eboracum (York) ran through what is now the neighbouring village of Brompton.
The first church was set up by St Paulinus of York on the site of the present All Saints Parish Church sometime in the early 7th century. It was made from wood and nothing survives of it. In 855 a stone church was built on the same site, fragments of stone have been found during restoration work which provide strong evidence of this Saxon church.
It was then believed that a Saxon town known as Alvertune developed. In Pierre de Langtoft's history of King Alfred he writes that in 865 it was the site of a number of battles between King Elfrid and his brother Alfred and five Danish kings and a similar number of earls. Later, in the 10th century, Danes settled at Romanby and Brompton. A fine example of English stonecarving from the period, the Brompton Hogbacks, can be found in Brompton Parish Church.
In the Domesday Survey, Norman scribes named the settlement Alvertune, Aluertune and Alretone and there is a reference to the Alvertune wapentac, an area almost identical to the Allertonshire wapentake of the North Riding, which was named after the town.
The origin of the town's name is uncertain, though it is believed that the name derives from a derivation of the name Aelfere, Aelfereton translates as the farm belonging to Aelfere or even of King Alfred. Alternatively it may be referring to the Alder trees which grew nearby. The prefix of North was added in the 12th century to differentiate from the parish of Allerton Mauleverer, 25 miles (40 km) to the south.
Its position on a major route way brought death and destruction to the town on many occasions. In 1069, in an attempt to quell rebellion in the north, the area between the Ouse and the Tyne was laid to waste by the armies of William the Conqueror. The town of Northallerton was almost totally destroyed or depopulated. Just a few years later it is described in the Domesday Book as 'modo est in manu regis et wastum est (put down as waste).
Battle of the Standard
On 22 August 1138, English forces repelled a Scottish army on Cowton Moor in Brompton parish, around 2 miles (3.2 km) north of the town. This was the first major battle between the Scots and the English since the Norman Conquest and one of the two major battles in the civil war between King Stephen and Empress Matilda. The English forces were summoned by Archbishop Thurstan of York, who had gathered local militia and baronial armies from Yorkshire and the North Midlands. They arrayed themselves round a chariot with a ship's mast carrying the consecrated banners of St Peter of York, St John of Beverley, St Wilfrid of Ripon and St Cuthbert of Durham, it was this standard-bearing chariot that gave the battle its name. The Scottish army was led by King David I of Scotland.
King David had entered England in support of his niece, Empress Matilda, who was viewed as the rightful heiress to the English throne usurped by King Stephen. With Stephen fighting rebel barons in the south, the Scottish armies had already taken Cumberland and Northumberland, the city of Carlisle and the royal castle at Bamburgh. Finding the English in a defensive position on a hill, David elected to force a battle counting on his superior numbers, 16,000 Scots against 10,000 Englishmen. Repeated attacks by native Scots failed against the onslaught from the English archers, with losses of up to 12,000 Scots. A subsequent attack by mounted knights met initial success but fell back due to lack of infantry support. The battle ended when David's reserve deserted, forcing him to retreat. The English elected not to pursue, and despite their great losses the Scots were able to regroup in sufficient number to besiege and capture Wark Castle.
Shortly after his accession William Rufus gave the town, with the lands adjacent, to the see of Durham, and, under the patronage of the bishops of that diocese, it grew in importance, and became an episcopal residence. In 1130 a castle was built on the west side of the town adjacent to North Beck by Bishop Rufus and was expanded in 1142 after William Cumin seized the Bishopric of Durham in 1141. The castle was further expanded in 1173 by Hugh Pudsey and garrisoned by a group of Flemish soldiers, an act which enraged King Henry II who ordered that it be razed to the ground in 1177. A more substantial fortified palace surrounded by a moat was built on the same site in 1199 replacing the traditional motte-and-bailey castle. The palace became an important administrative centre for the bishops' lands in Yorkshire and served as a major residence for the bishops and their staff. The palace lay on the main road from York to Durham and was a regular stopping place for royalty and other dignitaries. The palace fell into ruin by 1658 and the site is now a cemetery.
A Carmelite priory was founded in 1354, but was demolished soon after the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1538. The site passed to various people and was used for arable farming before a workhouse was built on the site in 1857, subsequently The Friarage Hospital which takes its name from the friary was built. Following development of the site in 2006, archaeologists uncovered the remains of eight monks along with other artefacts.
A centre for trade and transport
It became the market centre for the area and also drew traders from further afield to its four annual fairs (now reduced to two). Cattle drovers bringing cattle, horses and sheep from Northumbria and Scotland regularly came to the town. The original cattle market was by the church, but sheep were sold on High Street until the early part of the 20th century. With the arrival of the railway the mart was built close to the station, but this later closed and today the cattle market is held in Applegarth Court.
In the golden age of coaching, Northallerton had four coaching inns along High Street serving passengers and horses using several routes to the north. With the arrival of the railway in 1841 the town maintained its importance as a communications centre. The line from London to Edinburgh via York and Newcastle passed through the town (as indeed it still does), as did the line linking the industrial West Riding with the port and steel town of Middlesbrough. It is now served by Northallerton railway station.
The Quarter Sessions for the area were held in the town from the 17th century in various buildings including the Tollbooth, the Guild Hall and Vine House, but eventually a courthouse was built in East Road in 1875, close to a House of Correction that opened in 1783. The House of Correction is now used as a Young Offender's Institute.
When the Poor Law union system was introduced, a workhouse was established in the town to serve the three parishes in the area. This building is now part of the Friarage Hospital. When in 1856 the North Riding Constabulary was founded, one of the last county forces to be formed, Northallerton was selected as its headquarters, operating initially from premises in East Road.
The earliest records pertaining to Northallerton College (formerly Northallerton Grammar School) date from 1323. Parts of the old school building can be seen adjacent to All Saints' Church near the north end of High Street. A famous old boy of the school was John Radcliffe (1652–1714), founder of Oxford's John Radcliffe Hospital and physician to William of Orange.
Today, Northallerton's main commercial function is a mixture of light industry, commerce and agricultural services, such as the regular livestock auction market and the production of high grade manure.
The headquarters of North Yorkshire County Council (County Hall) and Hambleton District Council (the Civic Centre) are both based in Northallerton; these serve many parishes in the area. The RPA (Rural Payments Agency) also has a major building here. The nearby base at RAF Leeming is a major source of employment and income in the area. Northallerton Prison is located in the town, housing young offenders and adults from the North Yorkshire area. It once had the world's largest treadmill.
The ancient parish of Northallerton covered a wide area. It included the townships and chapelries of Romanby, Brompton and Deighton, and the detached part of High Worsall on the River Tees. All of these places became separate civil parishes in the 19th century.
The parish council of Northallerton has exercised its right to be known as the town council. There are 12 town councillors, elected in four wards.
In 1889 the County of York, North Riding administrative county was formed. In 1894 it was divided into municipal boroughs, urban districts and rural districts. Following a review of local government in 1974, the North Riding was abolished as an administrative county. The district council of Hambleton was then formed from the merger of the Northallerton Urban District with Bedale Rural District, Easingwold Rural District, Northallerton Rural District, Thirsk Rural District and Croft Rural District. This became part of the non-metropolitan county of North Yorkshire.
Policing in the town remains the responsibility of North Yorkshire Police and firefighting the responsibility of North Yorkshire Fire and Rescue Service. The fire station at Northallerton is a "Day Crewed" station which operates from 08:00 to 18:00 each day and on call outside these hours.
Northallerton was formerly a parliamentary borough. Its first representatives were John le Clerk and Stephen Maunsell, who were elected to the parliament of King Edward I in 1298, but for some reason or other no subsequent return was made until 1640, when the privilege was again resumed by order of the House of Commons. From 1640 to 1885 The town formed the parliamentary borough of Northallerton, returning two Members of Parliament until 1832, and one thereafter. Following the Great Reform Act of 1832, boundaries were extended to include neighbouring Brompton and Romanby and its representation was reduced to a single member. In 1885 the constituency was abolished and was absorbed into the Richmond division of the North Riding. The serving member for Richmond constituency is the Conservative, William Hague MP, who has held the seat since 1989. In modern times it has been an ultra-safe seat for the Conservative Party with them having held it continually since 1929. Richmond is included in the Yorkshire and the Humber constituency for elections to the European Parliament. It currently elects six members using the d'Hondt method of party-list proportional representation.
Northallerton lies north of the Vale of York, just south of County Durham and in the Vale of Mowbray. To the west lie the Pennines, a range of hills which rises to around 2,000 ft (610 m) and to the east lie the North York Moors which rise to around 1,500 ft (460 m). The proximity of these hills is significant in the climatology of the area. To the west of the town runs the River Wiske which services the River Swale, in turn it is serviced by Brompton Beck, Turker Beck, Willow Beck and North Beck which run through the town. Although small in nature these have been the focus of flash flooding in the town and in Brompton village in recent years.
According to the Köppen classification the British Isles experience a maritime climate characterised by relatively cool summers and mild winters. Compared with other parts of the country, The Vale of York is slightly warmer and sunnier in the summer and colder and frostier in the winter. Owing to its inland position, and sheltered by the Pennines to the west, North Yorkshire is one of the driest counties in the UK, receiving, on average, around 600 mm (24 in) of rain per year. The mean annual daily duration of bright sunshine is three hours and 42 minutes.
There are two distinct local weather phenomena, marked downslope lee winds caused by the proximity of the Pennines, leading to super geostrophic winds which can reach in excess of 60 KT (70 mph), most commonly in winter and spring. In the winter the presence of a subsidence inversion between the Pennines and the North York Moors can allow dense, persistent fog to form which can last for several days.
The nearest official Met Office weather station to Northallerton is Leeming, about 6 miles to the west. Temperature extremes have ranged from 33.5 °C (92.3 °F) during August 1990, down to −17.9 °C (−0.2 °F) during December 2010.
|Climate data for Leeming 32m asl, 1971-2000 Extremes 1965-|
|Record high °C (°F)||14.1
|Average high °C (°F)||5.9
|Average low °C (°F)||−0.2
|Record low °C (°F)||−17.3
|Precipitation mm (inches)||57
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||54||67||103||128||186||168||186||168||126||92||65||46||1,388|
|Source #1: MeteoFrance|
|Source #2: Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute/KNMI|
According to the United Kingdom Census 2001, the town of Northallerton had a total resident population of 15,741 or 18.5% of the total of Hambleton District. This figure, combined with an area of 23.1 square kilometres (8.9 sq mi), provides Northallerton with a population density figure of 674 inhabitants per square kilometre (1,750/sq mi). This is higher than the average population density of England (at 380/km2 or 984/sq mi).
There are 8,203 females and 7,538 males, which works out for every 100 females there are 91.9 males.
Compared with the average demography of England, Northallerton has low proportions of people born outside the United Kingdom and ethnic minorities and above average numbers of people over 65 years of age.
|2001 UK census||Northallerton||Hambleton District||Yorkshire and The Humber||England|
|No religion/no religion stated||17.7%||16.5%||21.9%||22.3%|
|Over 65 years old||18.3%||17.5%||16.1%||16%|
The following is a table outlining the population change of the town since 1801, which demonstrates a trend of slow population growth in the 19th century and more rapid growth in the 20th century. In particular over the past 40 years, in which the population of Northallerton has more than doubled. The fall in population between 1851 and 1871 has been attributed to the collapse in coaching as the railways became popular.
There is a three-tier school system in Northallerton, consisting of six primary schools, a secondary school and a Technology College. After completing primary education children move on to the Allertonshire School, a comprehensive school for pupils aged 11–14, (Key Stage 3, years 7,8,9). It is a DfES designated specialist Technology College status, with a second specialism in Applied Learning. On completing the Allertonshire students then move onto Northallerton College for education between ages 14 and 18 (Years 10–13). In addition further adult learning courses are run at the college through the learndirect and Nextstep schemes. The College also runs courses through a Learn Direct centre at the Young Offender's Institute which is close to the College.
In addition there a number of privately run infant and day care nursery schools in Northallerton.
Northallerton College's roots can be traced as far back as 1322. Originally sited near the Parish Church, its initial role was to train boys in grammar and song. The school flourished in the 17th century under the mastership of Thomas Smelt, and notable alumni of that period include theologian George Hickes, historiographer royal Thomas Rymer, John Radcliffe, doctor to King William of Orange, and theologian Thomas Burnet. The school struggled in the 19th century and almost closed at the start of the 20th century with the number of pupils in single figures. However, following the 1902 Education Act the North Riding Education Committee resolved to build and restructure the grammar school. To that end a new school was built near the Thirsk Road, which opened in 1909 with 104 pupils, half of which were girls, the first time that they had been admitted. The school expanded throughout the 20th century. Following the 1944 Education Act, the school entry was based on the Eleven plus exam with all fees and charges being abolished. In 1973 the Grammar School merged with the Secondary Modern Allertonshire School, which opened in 1941, with the Allertonshire taking pupils aged 11–14 and the Grammar School ages 14–18. By 1976 the comprehensive system was adopted and in 1994 the grammar school was renamed Northallerton College to better reflect the school's role in the community.
As the county town of North Yorkshire, Northallerton has County Hall, the administrative headquarters for North Yorkshire County Council. The headquarters of Hambleton District Council at Stonecross and North Yorkshire Fire and Rescue Service on East Road, are also based in Northallerton. Other major employers include the Friarage Hospital which employs around 1,400 staff and the Rural Payments Agency has an office here too.
Being the centre of a large rural area it is the focus of agriculture with several businesses servicing the needs of farming. The auction mart regularly holds livestock auctions.
The economic activity of residents aged 16–74 was 44.3% in full-time employment, 15% in part-time employment, 6.8% self-employed, 2.5% unemployed, 2.6% students with jobs, 4.7% students without jobs, 15.8% retired, 6.5% looking after home or family, 5.3% permanently sick or disabled, and 3.1% economically inactive for other reasons.
Northallerton was a major stopping point on the coach routes between Scotland and London as it lay on the old Roman road which ran between Scotland and London.
Coaching operations declined in the mid 19th century after the railway was introduced to the town in 1841. Northallerton railway station which is run by First Transpennine Express lies on the East Coast Main Line between Scotland, Newcastle and London.
In addition the railway also serves Cleveland and Durham with routes going on to Middlesbrough and Sunderland.
The Wensleydale Railway is reached by a bus service, operated by Dales & District, which runs from Northallerton to the current terminus of the railway at Leeming Bar, from where trains run to Redmire. It is hoped that eventually passenger trains will connect with the Settle-Carlisle Railway at Garsdale, and that the section of line near Northallerton known as the South Curve can be upgraded to allow trains from Wensleydale to run into Northallerton station without reversing onto the main line. At the moment there are some limited freight, engineering and excursion trains using the North Curve.
Two main A roads pass through the town: the A684 runs approximately east-west through the town and acts as a link between the A1 trunk road at Leeming Bar and the A19 at Osmotherley; the A167 runs approximately north-south between the A1(M) at Darlington and the A1 at Topcliffe. In addition the A168 runs from Wetherby via Thirsk to Northallerton.
Sport and culture
Northallerton Town FC play in the Northern League, the second oldest football league in the world. Formed sometime before 1895 they have been known as Northallerton, Northallerton Alliance before settling on their current name. They are the most southerly based team in the league. The team played in many minor leagues before joining the Northern League Division Two on its formation in 1982. In 1994 the club was declared financially insolvent and closed down, but were rescued by local businessmen in time for the 1994–95 season.
The club has never actually played in Northallerton, playing at the Bluestone Ground near County Hall in Romanby until 1974, then moving to its current location at the Regency Stadium on the outskirts of Romanby. The brothers Michael Dawson (Tottenham Hotspur defender), Andy Dawson (Hull City defender) and Kevin Dawson (Worksop Town defender) all started their football career at Northallerton Town.
Cricket in Northallerton dates back to 1812, although the first recorded match played by Northallerton Cricket Club was in the early 1860s. The club was one of the six founder member teams of the North Yorkshire Cricket League which was formed in 1893. They later went on to join the Thirsk & District Senior League in 1911, winning their first title in 1914. Subsequently known as the York Senior League, Northallerton won the championship a further 8 times.
In 1949, the club moved from its ground adjacent to County Hall to its current location at the end of Farndale Avenue in Romanby. In 1965 a two tier pavilion was built at a cost of £6,500 and was opened with match against a Yorkshire XI which included Geoffrey Boycott.
The team currently plays in the North Yorkshire & South Durham Cricket League and fields three teams. The first 11 is currently captained by Liam Botham. A fourth team (the Wolves) plays in the Nidderdale League Division 7.
Northallerton has a leisure centre which is home to NASC (Northallerton Amateur Swimming Club) and Hambleton Seals Water Polo, who both play in competitive galas and matches. NASC recently came third in their moors league division which is an achievement for the club as they have not finished that high for a very long time. Hambleton Seals Water Polo are a newly formed team which aims to attract local children to a quite small sport yet fun sport.
There is a major television and radio transmitter at Bilsdale Moor, 8 miles (13 km) east of the town, which broadcasts BBC National Radio (Radio 1–4), BBC Tees, commercial radio stations Classic FM, Heart North East, TFM and Capital North East and other local radio stations. It also transmits the five national analogue television channels as well as various digital television channels.
The town is served by three local newspapers, North Yorkshire editions of the daily Northern Echo and the weekly Darlington & Stockton Times both published by Newsquest and the Northallerton, Thirsk & Bedale Times published by Johnston Press. Both publishers have local offices in the town.
Cinema and theatre
There was cinema in Northallerton from 1939 until 1995. The Lyric, in the High Street, opened in October 1939 and also served as a theatre, with a capacity of 1,000 seats. It fell into disrepair and eventually closed in June 1995. The building was then bought by the New Life Baptist Church and converted to a place of worship.
More recently the Forum, a multi-use arts and community centre, has staged a number of theatre productions and concerts. Having been built and run by Hambleton District Council, the Forum was taken over by a new registered charity in August 2012. Since mid 2011, with support from Cine Yorkshire, a project run by the National Media Museum, the Forum has been host to the latest digital cinema projection equipment and is showing films on a weekly basis.
Retail and future developments
Within the town, the four major UK supermarkets can be found - Tesco, Sainsbury's, Morrisons and a small Asda near the town centre. There is also an M&S Simply Food on the high street. The Northern Part of Northallerton is a developing area in retail with a Homebase, Halfords and B&Q, Carpet Right and the town's industrial estate and business parks. The long High Street provides a wide variety of shops, restaurants, pubs and cafes. There are national retailers such as Costa Coffee (who also have another outlet in Tesco), Pizza Express, New Look, Fat Face, Wilkinson (who occupy the former Woolworths premises), Waterstones, Vodafone and Claire's alongside local independent or regional retailers; Bettys tearooms, Lewis & Cooper, Barkers Department Store and Boyes. Caffè Nero opened a new store in Northallerton on 30 January 2011. There are at least 7 pubs along the road. Also off the High Street is the quaintly cobbled Garthway Arcade with an array of independent stores such as [Cover to Cover] the only independent book shop in town and [Country Originals] where you will find Quality Furniture, Home interiors & Bespoke Gifts.
The longest serving Indian restaurant in the town is the Lion of Asia, which is located on the High Street. The Lion of Asia Indian restaurant has been in business in Northallerton for over 30 years and is still in business today. In the early 1990s Javaid, the current owner, was the pioneer into fusing traditional Pakistani and Indian cuisine together and to bring it to the area.
Hambleton District Council have plans to build lots of new housing as part of a north Northallerton development scheme. This also involves creating a link road between the A167 and the A684 meaning a bridge over the Middlesbrough railway will need to be built. Yuill Homes And Taylor Wimpey UK Ltd have already submitted a planning application for the construction of 283 dwellings on the former York Trailers site (on Yafforth Road). Another planning application has been submitted for two retail units (likely to be Pets at Home and Majestic Wine) adjacent to Sainsbury's and opposite Homebase and Halfords. Near Northallerton railway station, McCarthy and Stone are currently building 50 assisted living extra care retirement apartments which are planned for first occupations in April 2011.
North Yorkshire and York Primary Care Trust guides primary care services (general practitioners, dentists, opticians and pharmacists) in the town, directly provides adult social care and services in the community such as health visiting and physiotherapy and also funds hospital care and other specialist treatments. The town is served by two GP surgeries: Mayford House Surgery and Mowbray House Surgery. The Friarage Hospital serves the local community, employing 1,400 staff and providing 281 beds. In 2007 it underwent a £21 million programme of refurbishment and new development. It has close ties with the Ministry of Defence and acts in partnership with the MoD to provide medical care to military personnel. A number of military doctors, nurses and support staff are employed at the Friarage.
The Rutson Rehabilitation Centre, run by the North Yorkshire and York Primary Care Trust provides specialist support for stroke victims. It was due to close in spring 2008, as the building which opened in 1877 is not up to modern standards. However, the move has been delayed due to lack of space at the Friarage. Following merger of Tees East and North Yorkshire Ambulance Service NHS Trust with the South Yorkshire Ambulance Service NHS Trust and the West Yorkshire metropolitan Ambulance Service NHS Trust in July 2006 the Yorkshire Ambulance Service NHS Trust is responsible for the provision of statutory emergency medical services in the town.
The main source of non-school funding is the formula grant, which is paid by government to local authorities based on the services they provide. The remainder, to which the police and fire authorities set a precept, is raised from council tax and business rates. Mains water and sewerage services are provided by Yorkshire Water.
Following deregulation, the consumer has a choice of energy supplier. Electricity is provided by CE Electric UK, trading as NEDL. Natural gas was (and still is) supplied by British Gas. Distribution and, as with electricity, transmission, is the responsibility of the National Grid, having been demerged as Transco in 1997. These industries are regulated by OFGEM.
BT provides fixed ADSL enabled (8 Mbit/s) telephone lines. The subscriber trunk dialling code for Northallerton is 01609. TalkTalk and EE are other LLU Operators in the town as of July 2009. These businesses are regulated by Ofcom.
||Darlington & Teesside|
|Bedale & Kendal||Scarborough|
|York & Harrogate|
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- Edmund Gheast (1513–1577), Bishop of Rochester from 1560 to 1572.
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