Northampton, Massachusetts

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Northampton, Massachusetts
City
Main Street, Northampton
Main Street, Northampton
Official seal of Northampton, Massachusetts
Seal
Nickname(s): The Meadow City,[1] Hamp, Lesbianville USA,[2][3] NoHo, NTown, Paradise City
Motto: Caritas, educatio, justitia (Latin "Caring, education and justice")
Location in Hampshire County in Massachusetts
Location in Hampshire County in Massachusetts
Coordinates: 42°20′N 72°39′W / 42.333°N 72.650°W / 42.333; -72.650
Country United States
State Massachusetts
County Hampshire
Settled and Charter granted 1654
Incorporated as a city 1884
Government
 • Type Mayor-council city
 • Mayor David Narkewicz
Area
 • Total 35.8 sq mi (92.6 km2)
 • Land 34.2 sq mi (88.7 km2)
 • Water 1.5 sq mi (3.9 km2)
Elevation 190 ft (60 m)
Population (2012)
 • Total 28,592
 • Density 800/sq mi (310/km2)
Time zone Eastern (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) Eastern (UTC-4)
ZIP code 01060
Area code(s) 413
FIPS code 25-46330
GNIS feature ID 0606674
Website www.northamptonma.gov

The city of Northampton is the county seat of Hampshire County, Massachusetts, United States.[4] As of 2012, the estimated total population of Northampton (including its outer villages, Florence and Leeds) was 28,592.[5] Northampton is part of the Pioneer Valley and also one of the northernmost cities in the Knowledge Corridor—a cross-state cultural and economic partnership with other Connecticut River Valley cities and towns.

Today Northampton is known as an artistic, musical, and countercultural hub. It features a large politically liberal community along with numerous alternative health and intellectual organizations.[6] Based on U.S. Census demographics, election returns, and other criteria, the website Epodunk rates Northampton as the most politically liberal medium-size city (population 25,000–99,000) in the United States.[7]

Northampton is considered part of the Springfield Metropolitan Area, one of Western Massachusetts's two separate metropolitan areas. It sits approximately 15 miles north of the City of Springfield, Massachusetts.

History[edit]

Early settlement[edit]

The area now called Northampton was once known as Norwottuck, or Nonotuck, meaning "the midst of the river"[8] by its original Pocumtuc inhabitants. According to various accounts, Northampton was named by John King (1629–1703), one of its original settlers, or possibly in King's honor, since it is supposed that he came to Massachusetts from Northampton, England.[9]

The Pocumtuc confederacy occupied the Connecticut River Valley from what is now southern Vermont and New Hampshire into northern Connecticut. The Pocumtuc tribes were Algonquian and traditionally allied with the Mahican confederacy to the west. By 1606 an ongoing struggle between the Mahican and Iroquois confederacies led to direct attacks on the Pocumtuc by the Iroquoian Mohawk nation.[10] The Mahican confederacy had been defeated by 1628, limiting Pocumtuc access to trade routes to the west. The area suffered a major smallpox epidemic in the 1630s following the arrival of Dutch traders in the Hudson Valley and English settlers in the Massachusetts Bay Colony during the previous two decades. It was in this context that the land making up the bulk of modern Northampton was sold to settlers from Springfield, Massachusetts, in 1653 and settled the following year.[11][12] The situation in the region further deteriorated when the Mohawk escalated hostilities against the Pocumtuc confederacy and other Algonquian tribes after 1655, forcing many of the plague-devastated Algonquian groups into defensive mergers.[10] This coincided with a souring of relations between the Wampanoag and the Massachusetts Bay colonists, eventually leading to the expanded Algonquian alliance, which took part in King Philip's War.

Partition[edit]

Northampton was part of the Equivalent Lands compromise.[13] Its territory would be enlarged beyond the original settlement, but later portions would be carved up into separate cities, towns, and municipalities. Southampton, for example, was incorporated in 1775 and included parts of the territories of modern Montgomery (incorporated in 1780) and Easthampton.[14] Westhampton was incorporated in 1778 and Easthampton in 1809.[15] A section of Northampton called Smith's Ferry was once separated from the rest of the town by the boundaries of Easthampton. The shortest path to downtown was a road near the Connecticut River oxbow, which was subject to frequent flooding. Smith's Ferry was ceded to Holyoke, Massachusetts, in 1909.[16]

The Great Awakening[edit]

Congregational preacher, theologian and philosopher Jonathan Edwards was a leading figure in a 1734 Christian revival in Northampton. In the winter of 1734 and the following spring it reached such intensity that it threatened the town's businesses. In the spring of 1735 the movement began to subside and a reaction set in. But the relapse was brief, and the Northampton revival, which had spread through the Connecticut River Valley and whose fame had reached England and Scotland, was followed in 1739–1740 by the Great Awakening, under the leadership of Edwards.[citation needed]

For this achievement, Edwards is considered one of the founders of evangelical Christianity.[17] He is also credited with being one of the primary inspirations for Transcendentalism, because of passages like this: "That the works of nature are intended and contrived of God to signify and indigitate spiritual things is particularly evident concerning the rainbow, by God's express revelation." [18]

Northampton hosted its own witch trials in the 1700s, although no alleged witches were executed.[citation needed]

After the Revolution[edit]

Members of the Northampton community were present at the Constitutional Convention.[19]

On August 29, 1786, Daniel Shays and a group of Revolutionary War veterans (who called themselves Shaysites) stopped the civil court from sitting in Northampton, in an uprising known as Shays' Rebellion.[20]

In 1805 a crowd of 15,000 gathered in Northampton to watch the executions of two Irishmen convicted of murder: Dominic Daley, 34, and James Halligan, 27. The crowd, composed largely of New England Protestants of English ancestry, lit bonfires and expressed virulently anti-Irish and anti-Catholic sentiments. The trial evidence against Daley and Halligan was sparse, circumstantial, contrived, and perjurious.[21] The men were hanged on June 5, 1806, on Pancake Plain. Their bodies were denied a burial; they were destroyed in the local slaughterhouse. This trial "later came to be seen as epitomizing the anti-Irish sentiment that was widespread in New England in the early 19th century."[22] Daley and Halligan were exonerated of all crimes by governor Michael Dukakis in 1984. Today a simple stone landmark stands marking the site of Daley and Halligan's executions.

In 1835 Northampton was linked to the ocean by the New Haven and Northampton Canal,[23] but the canal enterprise foundered and after about a decade was replaced by a railroad running along the same route.[24] A flood on the Mill River on May 16, 1874, destroyed almost the entire Northampton neighborhood of Leeds.[25]

The "Paradise of America"[edit]

From 1842[26] until 1846 Northampton was home to a transcendentalist utopian community of abolitionists. Called the Northampton Association of Education and Industry, the community believed that the rights of all people should be "equal without distinction of sex, color or condition, sect or religion". It supported itself by producing mulberry trees and silk. Sojourner Truth, a former slave who became a national advocate for equality and justice, lived in this community until its dissolution (and later in a house on Park Street until 1857).[27]

Hampshire County Courthouse in Northampton, designed by architect H.H. Richardson

In 1851 opera singer Jenny Lind, the "Swedish Nightingale", declared Northampton to be the "Paradise of America", from which Northampton took its nickname The Paradise City.

Clarke School for the Deaf was founded in Northampton in 1867. It was the United States's first permanent oral school for the deaf. Alexander Graham Bell and Grace Coolidge have served as heads of school.[citation needed]

Smith College for women was founded in Northampton in 1871. Today Smith is the largest of the Seven Sisters colleges. Well-known Smith alumnae include Sylvia Plath, Gloria Steinem, Madeleine L'Engle, and Julia Child. The first game of women's basketball was played at Smith College in 1892.

Northampton was incorporated as a city in 1883.[citation needed]

Immigrant groups that settled Northampton in large numbers included Irish, Polish, and French-Canadians.

U.S. President Calvin Coolidge worked as a lawyer in Northampton and served as the city's mayor from 1910 to 1911.[28] He went on to be a Massachusetts State Senator, Lieutenant Governor, and Governor before becoming Vice President and President. After retiring from the U.S. presidency in 1929, Coolidge moved back to Northampton. He died in the city on January 5, 1933.

Decline[edit]

During the mid-20th century, Northampton experienced several decades of economic decline, bottoming in the 1970s[citation needed], related to the emergence of the Rust Belt phenomenon. Though Western Massachusetts lies outside of the Rust Belt geographically, the centrality of commerce and the arts to Northampton's economy left it economically vulnerable, in particular when compounded with the decline of Springfield's manufacturing sector, Holyoke's paper industry, and massive plant closures in the nearby New York Capital District.

The Norwottuck Rail Trail Bridge across the Connecticut River

Cultural renaissance[edit]

Today Northampton is a thriving cultural center and an increasingly popular tourist destination. Northampton attracts patrons to its many eclectic restaurants and its lively arts and music scenes. Northampton has a particularly high number of restaurants per capita featuring a wide range of ethnic foods. Two Northampton farmers markets, held weekly, sell fresh produce from local farms.

Since 1995 Northampton has been home to the twice-yearly Paradise City Arts Festival,[29] held at the Three County Fairgrounds on Memorial Day weekend and Columbus Day weekend. The Festival is ranked as the #1 arts fair in America[citation needed] and is a national juried showcase for contemporary craft and fine art.

An extant opera house, the Academy of Music,[30] is an 800-seat theater that operates as a venue for local productions. The Iron Horse Music Hall, Northampton Community Music Center, and Arcadia Players also serve as musical venues.

As Smith College is one of the Five Colleges in Western Massachusetts's Pioneer Valley region (the others are Hampshire College, Amherst College, University of Massachusetts Amherst, and Mount Holyoke College), Northampton has a particularly vibrant youth culture. Its downtown street scene is populated by counterculture artists, street musicians, and political activists.

Northampton has a well-established music scene. The city features several live music venues, such as the Calvin Theater, Pines Theater, Pearl Street, Iron Horse Music Hall, Bishops Lounge, The Elevens, and The Academy of Music. Musicians and bands that refer to the area as "home" include Ray Mason, Sonic Youth, Erin McKeown, The Nields, The Young@Heart Chorus, and Cordelia's Dad, and the Funkoholics.

Also every summer Django in June[31] offers a weeklong Gypsy jazz music camp ("Django Camp"), as well as weekend clinics and concerts. Inaugurated in 2004, the event is held on the campus of Smith College.

Geography and climate[edit]

Northampton sits on the banks of the Connecticut River in the Pioneer Valley of Western Massachusetts. It is located at 42°20′N 72°39′W / 42.333°N 72.650°W / 42.333; -72.650Coordinates: 42°20′N 72°39′W / 42.333°N 72.650°W / 42.333; -72.650.[32]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 35.8 square miles (92.6 km2), of which 34.2 square miles (88.7 km2) is land and 1.5 square miles (3.9 km2), or 4.22%, is water.[33] A total of 21% of the city is permanently protected open space.[34]

Within Northampton's city limits are the villages of Florence and Leeds.

Northampton is bordered to the north by the towns of Hatfield and Williamsburg, to the west by Westhampton, to the east by Hadley (across the Connecticut River), and to the south by Easthampton.

The art deco Calvin Coolidge Bridge connects Northampton with Hadley across the Connecticut River. The college town of Amherst is located 7.86 miles (12.65 km) east of Northampton, next to Hadley. Springfield, the Connecticut River Valley's most populous Massachusetts city, is located 15.74 miles (25.33 km) southeast of Northampton. Boston is located 81.57 miles (131.27 km) east of Northampton. New York City is 131.28 miles (211.27 km) southwest of Northampton.

The Connecticut River's famous Oxbow is within Northampton's city limits, at the northern base of Mount Nonotuck.

Climate data for Northampton, Massachusetts (01060)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 70
(21)
70
(21)
85
(29)
93
(34)
94
(34)
98
(37)
100
(38)
100
(38)
99
(37)
89
(32)
82
(28)
72
(22)
100
(38)
Average high °F (°C) 33
(1)
37
(3)
45
(7)
58
(14)
69
(21)
78
(26)
82
(28)
81
(27)
73
(23)
62
(17)
49
(9)
38
(3)
58.8
(14.9)
Average low °F (°C) 13
(−11)
16
(−9)
24
(−4)
35
(2)
45
(7)
55
(13)
59
(15)
58
(14)
49
(9)
38
(3)
30
(−1)
20
(−7)
36.8
(2.6)
Record low °F (°C) −30
(−34)
−27
(−33)
−17
(−27)
11
(−12)
24
(−4)
32
(0)
40
(4)
32
(0)
25
(−4)
12
(−11)
−4
(−20)
−20
(−29)
−30
(−34)
Precipitation inches (mm) 3.34
(84.8)
3.23
(82)
3.57
(90.7)
3.87
(98.3)
4.14
(105.2)
4.10
(104.1)
4.03
(102.4)
3.76
(95.5)
4.19
(106.4)
4.64
(117.9)
3.83
(97.3)
3.44
(87.4)
46.14
(1,172)
Source: Weather.com [35]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Year Pop.   ±%  
1790 1,628 —    
1800 2,190 +34.5%
1810 2,631 +20.1%
1820 2,854 +8.5%
1830 3,613 +26.6%
1840 3,750 +3.8%
1850 5,278 +40.7%
1860 6,788 +28.6%
1870 10,160 +49.7%
1880 12,172 +19.8%
1890 14,990 +23.2%
1900 18,643 +24.4%
1910 19,431 +4.2%
1920 21,951 +13.0%
1930 24,381 +11.1%
1940 24,794 +1.7%
1950 29,063 +17.2%
1960 30,058 +3.4%
1970 29,664 −1.3%
1980 29,286 −1.3%
1990 29,289 +0.0%
2000 28,978 −1.1%
2010 28,549 −1.5%
* = population estimate.
Source: United States Census records and Population Estimates Program data.[36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][5][46]

As of the census[47] of 2000, there were 28,978 people, 11,880 households, and 5,880 families residing in the city. Northampton has the most lesbian couples per capita of any city in the US.[48] The population density was 841.0 people per square mile (324.7/km²). There were 12,405 housing units at an average density of 360.0 per square mile (139.0/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 90.0% White, 2.1% African American, 0.3% Native American, 3.1% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 2.4% from other races, and 2.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.2% of the population.

There were 11,880 households, out of which 22.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.7% were married couples living together, 10.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 50.5% were non-families. 37.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.14 and the average family size was 2.87. [47]

In the city the population was spread out, with 17.0% under the age of 18, 15.4% from 18 to 24, 29.9% from 25 to 44, 23.9% from 45 to 64, and 13.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 75.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 71.1 males. [47]

The median income for a household in the city was $41,808, and the median income for a family was $56,844. Males had a median income of $37,264 versus $30,728 for females. The per capita income for the city was $24,022. About 5.7% of families and 9.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.4% of those under age 18 and 9.1% of those age 65 or over. [47]

Northampton's public schools include four elementary schools (kindergarten through 5th grade), one middle school (6th to 8th grade), one high school (9th to 12th grade), and one vocational-agricultural high school (9th to 12th grade). There are a few charter schools and several private schools in Northampton and surrounding towns.

According to the website ePodunk's Gay Index, which is based on figures from the 2000 US Census, Northampton has a score of 535, vs. a national average score of 100 (i.e., Northampton's population includes 5.35 times the national average of same-sex unmarried households).[49]

Government[edit]

As of April 2012, David Narkewicz is the mayor.[50] Previous mayors include former president Calvin Coolidge and James "Big Jim" Cahillane, who served from 1954 to 1960. Well-known Judge Sean M. Dunphy was the youngest elected mayor in its history, at age 28.

The Paradise City Forum was founded November 2001 to provide a nonpartisan discussion tool for the community.

Voter Registration and Party Enrollment as of October 15, 2008[51]
Party Number of Voters Percentage
  Democratic 10,066 49.49%
  Republican 994 4.89%
  Unaffiliated 8,998 44.24%
  Minor Parties 280 1.38%
Total 20,338 100%

Education[edit]

Public schools[edit]

Colleges and universities[edit]

Northampton is home to Smith College. Smith students (along with those of the associated Five Colleges) contribute to Northampton's college town atmosphere.

Clarke School for the Deaf[edit]

The Clarke School for the Deaf is located in Northampton.

Media[edit]

The Daily Hampshire Gazette is based in Northampton, covering Hampshire and Franklin counties.

Northampton is the city of license for three commercial radio stations: WLZX, WEIB, and WHMP. Northampton is also home to WXOJ-LP, a low-power community radio station owned and operated by Valley Free Radio. The station was built by more than 400 volunteers from Northampton and around the country in August 2005 at the eighth Prometheus Radio Project barnraising, in conjunction with the tenth annual Grassroots Radio Coalition conference. Valley Free Radio broadcasts music, news, public affairs, and locally-produced radio content to listeners at 103.3 FM. Northampton is also the birthplace of The Rainbow Times (ISSN (Online): 2169-6136), a lesbian-owned LGBT newspaper founded in 2006, now based out of Boston but serving all of New England.

In addition, Northampton is home to Northampton Community Television, which has existed in numerous forms since the mid-1980s but experienced a radical change in 2006 when it became an independently run nonprofit community media center.[citation needed] After a new public unveiling in November 2007, NCTV grew to over 200 active members in less than 18 months and had already attracted statewide and national attention in the community media landscape. In both 2012 and 2013 NCTV won awards for best web sites (for two different sites) in the United States for community media organizations with budgets under $300,000.. [3]

Infrastructure[edit]

Transportation[edit]

Northampton is served by Interstate 91, which passes to the east of downtown along the Connecticut River. U.S. Route 5, Massachusetts Route 9, and Massachusetts Route 10 all intersect in the city's downtown area. Massachusetts Route 66 also is partially in Northampton.

The Pioneer Valley Transit Authority operates several local passenger buses that originate in Northampton, with service to local towns such as Amherst, Williamsburg, Hadley, South Hadley, and Holyoke as well as the nearby universities and colleges: Mount Holyoke College, Amherst College, University of Massachusetts Amherst, and Hampshire College. The Franklin Regional Transit Authority operates a bus to Greenfield, Massachusetts. There is a Peter Pan Bus terminal with services to Springfield, Boston, and other locations in New England. The Vermont Transit Lines bus also serves this terminal.

The active freight rail line through Northampton is operated by the Pan Am Railways.

At present, passenger railway service to the Northampton area is provided by Amtrak via the Springfield Union Station, about a 20-minute drive south of Northampton or a short walk from the Peter Pan Bus terminal in Springfield. The Amtrak Montrealer was the last passenger train to run through Northampton, in 1988. Part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 includes $8 billion for rail, of which $70 million will be spent to realign Amtrak's Vermonter route. The Vermonter now travels from Springfield to Brattleboro, Vermont, via Palmer, Massachusetts, but in the future will take the original more direct Montrealer (train) route through Northampton and Greenfield. In addition to restoring the Northampton stop, stops will be added at Greenfield and Holyoke.

Major domestic and limited international service is available 40 miles to the south at Bradley International Airport (BDL) in Windsor Locks, Connecticut. Northampton Airport, identified by the airport code 7B2, offers a 3,365 x 50-foot runway and is within a mile-and-a-half walk from downtown.

Northampton serves as the hub of a growing rail trail network. The north-south Manhan Rail Trail extends from the downtown into neighboring Easthampton, and as part of the Farmington Canal Trail is planned eventually to reach New Haven, Connecticut. The Norwottuck Rail Trail runs eastward from Woodmont Road through Hadley, Amherst, and into Belchertown, with planned future integration into the Central Mass Rail Trail to Boston. To the west, the Northampton Bikeway provides access to the city's Florence and Leeds neighborhoods, including a route through historic Look Park, while downtown, the bikeway provides an alternative to the congested King and Main Streets.[52]

The city of Northampton faces daily traffic congestion in the downtown area and connector roads, often resulting in long delays and traffic buildup. The limitation of one bridge, one route to the nearby city of Amherst, and a narrow main street results in unsafe driving behavior and danger to pedestrians.[53] The City of Northampton is attempting to solve this long-time problem by redesigning problematic intersections and installing traffic cameras.[54]

Points of interest[edit]

The Connecticut River in Northampton
  • First Church,[55] located on Main Street, was the home church of Jonathan Edwards, 18th century theologian, philosopher, and leader of the First Great Awakening.
  • Smith College, founded in 1871, is a women's college (one of the Seven Sisters). It is also one of the Five Colleges.
  • Clarke Schools for Hearing and Speech (formerly the Clarke School for the Deaf) specializes in oral education (speech and lip-reading, as opposed to signing) and holds an annual summer camp, the theme varying from summer to summer. Clarke is also the oldest oral school for the deaf in the country, established in 1867 on Round Hill Road overlooking the Connecticut River Valley.
  • The Elm Street Historic District runs from the commencement of Elm at State Street almost one mile westerly to Woodlawn Avenue. A local historic district,[56] it includes a range residential architectural styles including 18th century Colonial, Queen Anne, Italianate, Second Empire and Colonial Revival.
  • The Connecticut River and The Oxbow are popular areas for boaters.
  • 21% of Northampton is protected open space; this includes Broad Brook/Fitzgerald Lake Conservation Area, Connecticut River Greenway (Elwell and Rainbow Beach), Mill River Greenway, Mineral Hills Conservation Area, and Saw Mill Hills/Roberts Hill Conservation Area.[34]
  • Look Park is a 150+ acre recreational park founded in 1930. The park is free for visitors arriving by foot or bicycle, consistent with the will of Frank Newhall Look, who left the property to the city and requested that the park would always have free admission for the public. A day-use fee or annual membership fee provides for parking. Musicians such as Bob Dylan have played at the park's amphitheater.
  • Childs Park is a serene 40-acre city park near Cooley Dickinson Hospital. It features two ponds, formal gardens and rose gardens, and an Italian-style garden house.
  • The Botanic Garden of Smith College is a diverse, outdoor collection of trees, shrubs, and plants as well as a fine collection of plant conservatories for the tropics, semitropics, and desert regions. It also includes an indoor greenhouse.
  • The Mill River Greenway[57] is a walking path on Smith College and adjacent land along the Mill River in the Bay State Village neighborhood of Northampton. The path is sometimes also called the Paradise Pond Trail based on a misleadingly named portion of the river near Smith College's boathouse and pier.
  • Northampton is a rail trail hub. Currently, the Norwottuck Rail Trail extends 18 miles (29 km) from Leeds, Florence, and the downtown sections of Northampton to Amherst and Belchertown. The Manhan Rail Trail extends 8 miles (13 km) from the Norwottuck Rail Trail through Northampton and Easthampton to Southampton. Four other rail trail extensions are in the planning process.
  • The Three County Fair[58] is the "longest consecutive running agricultural fair in the country", having been established and incorporated in 1818.
  • The Calvin Theater, Iron Horse Music Hall, and Pearl Street Nightclub are among the many venues that play host to Northampton's music scene.
  • The Academy of Music, built in 1890 by Edward H. R. Lyman, is the only municipally owned theater in the United States and is the first to be so owned. Boris Karloff and Harry Houdini (who installed a trap door in the stage) performed there. Today it serves as a music venue, cinema, and performance space.
  • The Northampton Independent Film Festival[59] (NIFF) is held each fall. Founded as the Northampton Film Festival in 1995 by Howard Polonsky and Dee DeGeiso, it has continued to grow under a variety of directors. It is now one of the largest in New England.
  • Forbes Library,[60] built in 1894, is Northampton's public library. The second floor houses the Calvin Coolidge presidential library.
  • Mirage Studios, creators of the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles franchise. In the TMNT series, the turtles and Casey Jones visit Casey Jones's grandmother's farm in Northampton, Massachusetts.
  • Students from the Northampton Community Music Center (NCMC)[61] fill the streets with music each May.
  • LGBT Pride,[62] on the first Saturday of May, is an annual Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Pride March & Rally, with a colorful parade down Main Street that ends with an all-day, family-friendly festival at a designated location in town.
  • Thornes Marketplace in downtown Northampton contains many shops and eateries.
  • Northampton State Hospital was a large psychiatric hospital, constructed in 1856. Several abandoned buildings remain, but much of the site has been redeveloped.
  • On a small hill overlooking the city, near the site of the former Northampton State Hospital, a simple stone monument marks the spot of the hangings of Domenic Daley and James Halligan, two Irishmen wrongfully convicted of murder in 1806.[21]
  • Pioneer Valley Roller Derby, the first co-ed flat track roller derby league, trains in the village of Florence, Massachusetts.

Notable people[edit]

Cultural references[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kneeland, Frederick N. (1894). Northampton, the meadow city. Northampton, Massachusetts: F. N. Kneeland and L. P. Bryant. OCLC 24093077. 
  2. ^ Lipsyte, Robert (June 26, 1994). "Gay Games". The New York Times. Retrieved March 22, 2011. 
  3. ^ Brown, Jane Roy (November 20, 2006). "Paradise found". The Boston Globe. Retrieved March 22, 2011. 
  4. ^ "Profile for Northampton, Massachusetts, MA". ePodunk. Retrieved September 26, 2012. 
  5. ^ a b "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data (DP-1): Northampton city, Massachusetts". U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder. Retrieved July 17, 2012. 
  6. ^ Sachs, Andrea. "Northampton, Mass: Where Alternative Goes Main Street". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2011-11-20. 
  7. ^ "Most liberal places in America". ePodunk. Retrieved 2011-11-20. 
  8. ^ Posted by languagehat at August 19, 2007 02:44 PM (2007-08-19). "Norwottuck". Languagehat.com. Retrieved 2011-11-20. 
  9. ^ (Allen 9, Dwight 10, Leach 124)
  10. ^ a b "Pocumtuc". Dickshovel.com. Retrieved 2011-11-20. 
  11. ^ "Map of history of political boundaries, plantation period". Retrieved 2011-11-20. 
  12. ^ Trumbull, James Russell. History of Northampton, Massachusetts, From Its Settlement in 1654. Northampton (1898), pp. 5–12.
  13. ^ Historical Collections; John Warner Barber; Dorr; 1841; P. 313.
  14. ^ "Map of history of political boundaries c1775". Retrieved 2011-11-20. 
  15. ^ "Map of history of political boundaries, Federal period". Retrieved 2011-11-20. 
  16. ^ "US-5: A Highway To History". Chronos-historical.org. Retrieved 2011-11-20. 
  17. ^ see The Great Awakening: The Roots of Evangelical Christianity in Colonial America. Kidd, Thomas.
  18. ^ Images and Shadows of Divine Things. Edwards, Jonathan.
  19. ^ Historic Northampton: Caleb Strong
  20. ^ Historic Northampton: Shays' Rebellion
  21. ^ a b "Daley & Halligan - Historic Northampton Museum and Education Center". Historic-northampton.org. 2005-11-20. Retrieved 2011-11-20. 
  22. ^ "Dominic Daley and James Halligan Trial: 1806 - The Crime, The Trial, An Execution And An Exoneration, The Issue Of Bias, Suggestions For Further Reading - JRank Articles". Law.jrank.org. Retrieved 2011-11-20. 
  23. ^ "Hampshire and Hampden Canal - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia". En.wikipedia.org. Retrieved 2011-11-20. 
  24. ^ Copeland, Alfred M. "Our County And Its People": A History of Hampden County, Massachusetts. Century Memorial Publishing (1902), pp. 174–75.
  25. ^ Andrews, E. Benjamin. The United States In Our Own Time: A History from Reconstruction to Expansion. C. Scribner's Sons (1903), pp. 183–84.
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Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]