Northeast Coast Campaign (1745)

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Northeast Coast Campaign (1745)
Part of King George's War
Brigadier General Samuel Waldo.jpg
Commander Samuel Waldo
Date July 19 – Sept 5, 1745
Location Berwick, Maine to St. Georges (Thomaston, Maine)
Result French and Wabanaki Confederacy victory
Belligerents
 English colonists  French colonists
 Wabanaki Confederacy
Commanders and leaders
Commander Samuel Waldo (Falmouth)[1]
Captain Jonathan Bean
Captain Mochus[2]
Captain Thomas Bradbury (Saco)[3][4] [5]
Colonel Morris 
Captain Sam 
Colonel Job[6]
Strength
625
unknown
Casualties and losses
approximately 30 persons killed or captured unknown

The Northeast Coast Campaign (1745) occurred during King George's War from 19 July until 5 September 1745. Three weeks after the British Siege of Louisbourg (1745), the Wabanaki Confederacy of Acadia retaliated by attacking New England settlements along the coast of present-day Maine below the Kennebec River, the former border of Acadia. They attacked English settlements on the coast of present-day Maine between Berwick and St. Georges (Thomaston, Maine), within two months there were 11 raids - every town on the frontier had been attacked.[7] Casco (also known as Falmouth and Portland) was the principal settlement.

Background[edit]

Main article: King George's War

After the two attacks on Annapolis Royal in 1744, Governor William Shirley put a bounty on the Passamaquoddy, Mi’kmaq and Maliseet on Oct 20.[8] The following year, during the Campaign, on August 23, 1745, Shirley declared war against the rest of the Wabanaki Confederacy – the Penobscot and Kennebec tribes.[9] In response to the New England expedition against Louisbourg which finished in June 1745, the Wabanaki retaliated by attacking the New England border.[10] New England braced itself for such an attack by appointing a provisional force of 450 to defend the frontier. After the attacks began they increased the number of soldiers by 175 men.[11] Massachusetts established forts along the border with Acadia: Fort George at Brunswick (1715),[12] St. George's Fort at Thomaston (1720), and Fort Richmond (1721) at Richmond.[13] Fort Frederick was established at Pemaquid (Bristol, Maine).

The campaign[edit]

Part of a series on the
Military history of
Nova Scotia
Citadel hill.jpg
Events
Battle of Port Royal 1690
Conquest of Acadia 1710
Battle of Jeddore Harbour 1722
Northeast Coast Campaign 1745
Battle of Grand Pré 1747
Dartmouth Massacre 1751
Bay of Fundy Campaign 1755
Fall of Louisbourg 1758
Headquarters established for Royal Navy's North American Station 1758
Burying the Hatchet ceremony 1761
Battle of Fort Cumberland 1776
Raid on Lunenburg 1782
Halifax Impressment Riot 1805
Establishment of New Ireland 1812
Capture of USS Chesapeake 1813
Battle at the Great Redan 1855
Siege of Lucknow 1857
CSS Tallahassee Escape 1861
Departing Halifax for Northwest Rebellion 1885
Departing Halifax for the Boer War 1899
Imprisonment of Leon Trotsky 1917
Jewish Legion formed 1917
Sinking of HMHS Llandovery Castle 1918
Battle of the St. Lawrence 1942–44
Sinking of SS Point Pleasant Park 1945
Halifax VE-Day Riot 1945
Walter Callow Wheelchair Bus established 1947
Notable military regiments
Mi'kmaq militias 1677-1779
Acadian militias 1689-1761
40th Regiment 1717-57
Troupes de la marine 1717-58
Gorham's Rangers 1744-62
Danks' Rangers 1756-62
84th Regiment of Foot 1775-84
Royal Fencible American 1775-83
Royal Nova Scotia Volunteers 1775-83
1st Field Artillery 1791-present
Royal Nova Scotia 1793-1802
Nova Scotia Fencibles 1803-16
The Halifax Rifles (RCAC) 1860-present
The Princess Louise Fusiliers 1867
Cape Breton Highlanders 1871-present
West Nova Scotia 1916-present
The Nova Scotia Highlanders 1954-present
Other

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The Campaign began when, on July 19, Mi’kmaq from Nova Scotia, Maliseet and some from St. Francois attacked Fort St.George (Thomaston) and New Castle. They set fire to numerous buildings; killed cattle and took one villager captive.[14] They also killed a person at Saco.[15] At the same time, Penobscot and Norridgewock attacked Fort Frederick at Pemaquid.[16] They took captive a woman, which alarmed the garrison but she escaped. The same month they killed a boy at Topsham and a man at New Meadows.[17] In the same month, 30 Wabanaki attacked North Yarmouth and killed a man. At Flying-point they killed three members of a family and taking a daughter prisoner to Canada. During this raid on Flying-point, they also killed one man, made another prisoner, while another escaped.[18] St. Georges garrison at Thomaston was attacked again and one company of men was killed, while three other men were taken captive.[19] Near the garrison, two women were captured: one was taken to Canada, while the other escaped.[20] They attacked Scarborough and one man killed.[21] Then at Sheepscot they attacked and killed two and wounded one.[22] On Sept 5 tribes of the Confederacy attacked Thomston (St. Georges) for the third time, killing and scalping two people.[23]

Aftermath[edit]

In response to these events, Shirley sent more troops and munitions to the Maine frontier over the winter, anticipating the Wabanaki Campaign in the spring of 1746.[24] There were nine raids in the Campaign of 1746 and 12 raids in the Northeast Coast Campaign of 1747.[25]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Folsom, p. 242
  2. ^ Williamson, p. 239
  3. ^ Folsom, p. 243
  4. ^ https://archive.org/stream/bradburymemorial00laph#page/80/mode/2up/search/captain
  5. ^ http://books.google.ca/books?id=VbdhSERhILgC&pg=PA147&lpg=PA147&dq=Captain+%22Thomas+Bradbury%22+Saco&source=bl&ots=Pw-uIkot71&sig=Ov-JA-RMyOvEbwU-CdaSK4c0YxM&hl=en&sa=X&ei=X_mdU-upMcGZyAS5yoKYDA&ved=0CDUQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=Captain%20%22Thomas%20Bradbury%22%20Saco&f=false
  6. ^ Williamson, p. 241
  7. ^ Williamson, p. 240
  8. ^ Williamson, p. 217-218
  9. ^ Williamson, p. 240
  10. ^ Williamson, p. 239
  11. ^ Williamson, p. 239
  12. ^ Fort George replaced Fort Andros which was built during King William's War (1688).
  13. ^ The history of the state of Maine: from its first discovery, A.D ..., Volume 2, by William Durkee Williamson. 1832. p.88, 97.
  14. ^ Williamson, p. 236
  15. ^ Folsom, p. 243
  16. ^ Williamson, p. 236
  17. ^ Williamson, p. 237
  18. ^ Williamson, p. 238
  19. ^ Williamson, p. 238
  20. ^ Williamson, p. 239
  21. ^ Williamson, p. 241
  22. ^ Williamson, p. 241
  23. ^ Williamson, p. 241
  24. ^ Williamson, p. 242
  25. ^ Williamson, p. 242

References[edit]

See also[edit]