Interstate 476

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"PA 9" redirects here. For the Pennsylvania congressional district, see Pennsylvania's 9th congressional district. For other uses, see PA9 (disambiguation).
For the 1920s route, see Pennsylvania Route 9 (1920s).

Interstate 476 marker

Interstate 476
Northeastern Extension
Route information
Maintained by PennDOT and PTC
Length: 132.10 mi[2][1][3] (212.59 km)
History: Established 1964
Completed on December 16, 1992[1]
Major junctions
South end: I-95 in Woodlyn
  US 1 near Springfield
US 30 in Villanova
I-76 in West Conshohocken
I-276 / Penna Turnpike in Plymouth Meeting
US 22 near Allentown
US 209 near Lehighton
I-80 near Hickory Run State Park
North end: I-81 / US 6 / US 11 near Clarks Summit
Location
Counties: Delaware, Montgomery, Bucks, Lehigh, Carbon, Luzerne, Lackawanna
Highway system
PA 475 PA 476
PA 8 PA-9.svg PA 9
I‑479 I-480 (PA 1957).svg PA 480
PA 492 I-495 (PA 1957).svg PA 501

Interstate 476 (I-476) is a 132.10-mile (212.59 km) auxiliary Interstate Highway in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania designated between Interstate 95 near Chester and Interstate 81 near Scranton, serving as the primary north–south Interstate corridor through eastern Pennsylvania. It consists of both the 20-mile (32.19 km) Mid-County Expressway, locally referred to as the "Blue Route" (although no signs exist with that designation), through the suburban Philadelphia-area counties of Delaware and Montgomery, and the 110.6-mile (177.99 km) Northeast Extension of the Pennsylvania Turnpike connecting the Philadelphia metropolitan area with the Lehigh Valley, the Poconos, and the Wyoming Valley. The Blue Route passes through suburban areas, while the Northeast Extension predominantly runs through rural areas of mountains and farmland, with development closer to Philadelphia and in the Lehigh Valley and the Wyoming Valley. I-476 intersects many major roads including Interstate 76 (the Schuylkill Expressway) in West Conshohocken, Interstate 276 (the Pennsylvania Turnpike) in Plymouth Meeting, U.S. Route 22 near Allentown, and Interstate 80 near Hickory Run State Park.

While proposed as early as 1929, the construction of the Mid-County Expressway through did not begin until 1967 and was not completed until 1991 due to massive community and environmental opposition during the freeway revolts of the 1960s and 1970s, leading The Philadelphia Inquirer to dub it "the most costly, most bitterly opposed highway in Pennsylvania history." In order to get the route through Delaware County, it was built with many environmental compromises such as a parkway design and four lanes south of the Pennsylvania Route 3 interchange. The Mid-County Expressway received its "Blue Route" nickname from the chosen route through Delaware County on planning maps on which it was differentiated from the other proposed routes by its color.

Following the completion of the Mid-County Expressway, in 1996 the Interstate 476 designation was extended to include the entire length of the existing Northeast Extension, replacing PA 9. The Northeast Extension was built between 1955 and 1957 and was originally projected to continue past Clarks Summit to the New York border; however, I-81 was built between these two points instead. Since the extension, I-476 has been the longest auxiliary Interstate Highway in the United States. In fact, it is longer than some main-line interstates such as Interstate 83 in Maryland and Pennsylvania, Interstate 99 in Pennsylvania, Interstate 12 in Louisiana, Interstate 19 in Arizona, Interstate 97 in Maryland, and Interstate 2 in Texas. Additionally, its numbering is unusual since auxiliary interstates beginning in even numbers are typically bypasses or loops rather than spurs.

Route description[edit]

Blue Route[edit]

The Blue Route north of US 1.

The portion of Interstate 476 between Interstate 95 and Interstate 276 runs north–south through Delaware and Montgomery Counties and is officially known as the Mid-County Expressway and the Veterans Memorial Highway, as well as by the nickname the "Blue Route". The road's southern terminus is at a junction with Interstate 95 near Chester, a city southwest of Philadelphia, near Philadelphia International Airport.[4] Heading north, the road immediately narrows to a four-lane parkway north of Exit 1, MacDade Boulevard. It winds through the western Philadelphia suburbs of Wallingford and Swarthmore, where I-476 comes to an interchange with Baltimore Pike. From here, the freeway continues north to Springfield, where it meets U.S. Route 1 at a three-level diamond interchange.[4]

Past US 1, I-476 continues through wooded suburban areas and interchanges with Pennsylvania Route 3 in Broomall, where it widens to six lanes.[4] The route continues to Radnor Township, on the Main Line, where it interchanges with U.S. Route 30.[4] Stone monuments, including a large stone cairn atop a hill and a large crushed-stone image of a mythological griffin on a hillside, were constructed at the Route 30 interchange to commemorate Radnor's history as part of the Welsh Tract.[5] Proceeding northward, the route enters Montgomery County and comes to an interchange with Interstate 76 (Schuylkill Expressway) at West Conshohocken. After crossing the Schuylkill River on the Pearl Harbor Memorial Bridge, the freeway heads into Plymouth Township, where it interchanges with Ridge Pike and Germantown Pike before coming to the Mid-County Interchange with the Pennsylvania Turnpike in Plymouth Meeting.[4][6] The entire length of the Blue Route is designated the Blue Route Scenic Byway, a Pennsylvania Scenic Byway.[7]

Northeast Extension[edit]

Approaching exit 44 (PA 663 in Quakertown).

Beyond the Mid-County Interchange, Interstate 476 enters the Pennsylvania Turnpike system, interchanging with Interstate 276 and continuing north as the Northeast Extension of the Pennsylvania Turnpike. The route continues through the Philadelphia suburbs as a four-lane road, interchanging with Pennsylvania Route 63 near Lansdale. Past this interchange, the route enters a more rural setting of woods and farms, crossing into Bucks County and coming to an interchange with Pennsylvania Route 663 near Quakertown. The Northeast Extension continues into Lehigh County, part of the Lehigh Valley metropolitan area, past the PA 663 interchange. Here, it interchanges with U.S. 22 (Lehigh Valley Thruway) near Allentown, which offers an indirect connection to Pennsylvania Route 309 and Interstate 78.[4]

North of Allentown, the route passes through more farmland before passing under the Blue Mountain in the Lehigh Tunnel and entering Carbon County in the Poconos. Here, I-476 crosses over the Lehigh River and interchanges with U.S. 209 near Lehighton. Continuing through mountainous areas, it cuts through Hickory Run State Park before interchanging with Interstate 80 and Pennsylvania Route 940 just to the north of the state park.[4] The route continues through mountainous terrain, heading into Luzerne County and coming to an interchange with Pennsylvania Route 115 in Bear Creek that provides access to nearby Wilkes-Barre.[4] The route comes to a toll barrier near Pittston that marks the northern end of the toll ticket system in the Northeast Extension.[4][8] A short distance later, an interchange with Pennsylvania Route 315 provides indirect access to Interstate 81 and Scranton. Past this interchange, I-476 enters Lackawanna County and crosses built-up areas of the Wyoming Valley and skirts around Scranton, with a mainline toll plaza and an exit to Keyser Avenue. North of Scranton in Clarks Summit, the route comes to a hairpin curve and ends at an interchange with connections to Interstate 81, U.S. Route 6 and U.S. Route 11.[6]

Tolls[edit]

The Mid-County mainline toll plaza, which marks the southern terminus of the Northeast Extension

The Northeast Extension of the Pennsylvania Turnpike uses the ticket system method of tolling between the Mid-County and Wyoming Valley toll plazas along with the mainline Pennsylvania Turnpike.[9] With the ticket system, a motorist receives a ticket upon entering the turnpike at an interchange and pays the fare and surrenders the ticket upon exiting. If a motorist loses the ticket, the turnpike charges the highest fare to the exit where the motorist leaves.[10] Mainline toll plazas are also located at Keyser Avenue and Clarks Summit, charging a flat rate. There are no tolls on exit ramps between Wyoming Valley and Clarks Summit. E-ZPass is accepted at all toll plazas. As of 2014, it costs a passenger vehicle $10.20 to travel the length of the Northeast Extension between Mid-County and Wyoming Valley using cash and $7.24 using E-ZPass. The Keyser Avenue and Clarks Summit toll plazas cost $1.15 using cash and $0.69 using E-ZPass for passenger vehicles.[9]

The tickets along the Northeast Extension of the Pennsylvania Turnpike were originally handed out by person. In 1987, machines started to replace humans in distributing tickets.[11] In 1990, an electronic toll collection system was proposed for the Pennsylvania Turnpike, where a motorist would create an account and use an electronic device that would be read from an electronic tollbooth. The motorist would be billed later.[12] The multi-state electronic tolling system, which was to be called E-ZPass, was planned to be implemented by 1998.[13][14] The planned installation date was later pushed back to 2000.[15] On December 2, 2000, E-ZPass debuted along the Northeast Extension of the Pennsylvania Turnpike between Mid-County and Lehigh Valley.[16][17] On December 15, 2001, E-ZPass was extended to include the entire length of the Northeast Extension of the Pennsylvania Turnpike.[18][19] Commercial vehicles were allowed to start using E-ZPass on December 14, 2002.[20]

On November 24, 2004, the day before Thanksgiving, 2,000 Teamsters Union employees went on strike, after contract negotiations failed. This was the first strike in the history of the roadway. As this is usually one of the busiest traffic days in the United States, to avoid traffic jams, tolls were waived for the rest of the day.[21] Starting on November 25, turnpike management personnel collected flat-rate passenger tolls of $2 and commercial tolls of $15 from cash customers on the ticketed system, while E-ZPass customers were charged the lesser of the actual toll or the same flat rates.[22] The strike ended after seven days when both sides reached an agreement on November 30. Normal toll collection resumed December 1.[23]

The turnpike commission announced plans to consider eliminating manned toll booths in favor of all-electronic tolls. With this, tolls will be paid using either E-ZPass or credit cards.[24] Drivers unable to pay by either of these methods will be billed in the mail using license plate recognition; an additional surcharge will be applied.[25] In addition to E-ZPass, the turnpike commission offered other automated options to pay for tolls such as using a prepaid account that utilizes license plate recognition. McCormick Taylor and Wilbur Smith Associates have been hired to conduct a feasibility study on converting the road to all-electronic tolls.[26]

On March 6, 2012, the turnpike commission announced that it was going forward with an all-electronic tolling plan.[27] Such a plan will take at least five years to implement to allow time for equipment to be installed and the reconfiguration of ramps. It will save the turnpike commission $65 million a year on labor costs by eliminating toll collectors. The plans call for a 76% surcharge for motorists who do not have E-ZPass that are billed by mail. This surcharge could raise the toll for someone without E-ZPass to $53.10 to travel the entire turnpike.[28]

Services[edit]

Emergency assistance and information[edit]

The Northeast Extension has a callbox every mile for its entire length.[29] Motorists may also dial *11 on their mobile phones. First responder services are available to all turnpike customers via the State Farm Safety Patrol program. The safety patrol program, which is free, looks for disabled motorists, debris, and accidents along the roadway and provides assistance. The patrol service is available 24 hours every day of the year. Each patrol vehicle covers a 20-to-25-mile (32 to 40 km) stretch of the turnpike.[29] Towing services are available from authorized service garages located near the highway.[30] Pennsylvania State Police Troop T patrols the Pennsylvania Turnpike Northeast Extension. It has headquarters in Highspire and a substation at Pocono.[31]

The Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission broadcasts current roadway, traffic, and weather conditions via "Highway Advisory Radio" transmitters at each exit. Broadcasts are available on AM 1640 and can be received approximately two miles away from each exit.[32] Motorists can also receive alerts and information via the internet, mobile phone, a hotline, and message boards at service plazas through the Turnpike Roadway Information Program (TRIP).[33]

Service plazas[edit]

The Northeast Extension of the Pennsylvania Turnpike has 2 service plazas. The service plazas offer various fast food restaurants such as Burger King, Roy Rogers, Famous Famiglia Pizzeria, Auntie Anne's, Hershey's Ice Cream, and Starbucks, and a gift shop. Each service plaza also has a Sunoco gas station and an A-Plus convenience store. Other amenities are available such as an ATM, pay phone, picnic areas, restrooms, tourist information, and Wi-Fi. The Allentown plaza contains a seasonal farmers market.[34]

In 2006, HMSHost was awarded a contract to reconstruct the service plazas along the turnpike.[35] The reconstruction of the service plazas, which is to cost $150 million, will include a food court layout and modernized restrooms. Sunoco will continue to operate the gas stations at the renovated service plazas. The Allentown service plaza was rebuilt between September 2007 and May 2008 while the Hickory Run service plaza was rebuilt between January 2009 and November 2010.[36]

History[edit]

Mid-County Expressway[edit]

Originally planned as far back as 1929, the Mid-County Expressway was later proposed by the Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission as the "Chester Extension" of the Pennsylvania Turnpike in 1954. After the advent of the Interstate Highway System, the project was transferred to the Pennsylvania Department of Highways to be built as part of the system, designating it first as Interstate 495, and later as Interstate 480, as I-76 was designated as I-80S at the time. The present-day I-476 designation was assigned on February 6, 1964 when I-80S was renumbered as I-76.[37]

A 1960 map of central Delaware County, oriented with east on top, outlining the proposed corridors of the Mid-County Expressway.

The road received its nickname from a 1958 location report indicating various proposed geographic configurations of an expressway through Delaware County with lines of various colors on a map. The "blue route" through the Crum Creek valley won out over other contenders, which included a more easterly "red route" and "yellow route" and a more westerly "green route".[38]

As one of the most controversial Interstate Highways in Pennsylvania, construction of I-476 began in 1967, but was not completed until 1991 between MacDade Boulevard (Exit 1) and Interstate 76 (Exit 16), and until 1992 between Germantown Pike east/Chemical Road (Exit 19) and Interstate 276/Pennsylvania Turnpike (Exit 20), due to litigation between the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation and several communities in the road's path over environmental concerns. However, the section of Interstate 476 (south end of I-476) between I-95 and MacDade Blvd. (Exit 1) was opened in 1987, but the signs refer to as "To MacDade Blvd" until 1991 when I-476/The Blue Route was opened between Exits 1 and 16, and connected with the short existing section of roadway dating back to 1979 from Exit 16-Exit 19.

An agreement in 1985 led to many environmental compromises in the road's design, including a downsized four-lane design south of Pennsylvania Route 3, ramp meters, and federal scenic route status, prohibiting the erection of advertisement billboards along the entire freeway portion. While the redesigned highway was largely well-received, the constriction to four lanes has led to bottleneck conditions in the area, and many communities that originally opposed the road have now called for its widening.[39] The Philadelphia Inquirer dubbed I-476 "the most costly, most bitterly opposed highway in Pennsylvania history" due to the decades of opposition it garnered.[40]

The road is currently undergoing a complete rehabilitation project, including paving, bridge repair, and ramp maintenance of the entire length of the freeway between Interstate 95 and the Pennsylvania Turnpike.[41]

The section between I-95 and I-76 was completed in 2007 and the section between I-76 and I-276 was completed in the end of 2011.

Northeast Extension[edit]

PA Route 9
Location: Plymouth MeetingClarks Summit
Existed: 1955–1996

In 1953, an extension of the Pennsylvania Turnpike from the mainline near Philadelphia north through Northeastern Pennsylvania to the New York border near Binghamton was proposed.[42][43] Groundbreaking for the Northeastern Extension occurred on March 25, 1954 in White Haven, with Governor John S. Fine and commission chairman Thomas J. Evans present. The Northeast Extension was planned to run from the mainline Pennsylvania Turnpike in Plymouth Meeting north to a temporary terminus at Scranton.[44] In April 1954, $233 million in bonds were issued to build the Northeastern Extension along with the Delaware River Bridge on the mainline Pennsylvania Turnpike.[45] The Northeast Extension was built with a 4-foot (1.2 m) median in order to save money.[46] Due to the mountainous terrain it passed through, a large amount of earthwork was necessary to build the road along with the construction of large bridges.[47] Among the bridges built was the 1,632-foot-long (497 m) Clark's Summit Bridge over US 6/US 11, which was the tallest bridge on the Pennsylvania Turnpike system at 135 feet (41 m).[48] The Northeast Extension also included the two-lane Lehigh Tunnel through Blue Mountain. The tunnel was originally going to be named for commission chairman Evans, but was changed when he was convicted of conspiracy to defraud the commission of $19 million (equal to $134,384,232 today).[47]

The roadway opened between Plymouth Meeting and the Lehigh Valley interchange near Allentown on November 23, 1955. The highway was extended north to Emerald on December 28, 1955.[49] The Northeast Extension was opened between Emerald and Wyoming Valley on April 1, 1957.[50] The entire length of the Northeast Extension was finished on November 7, 1957 with the completion of the northernmost part between Wyoming Valley and Scranton.[51] The part of the Northeast Extension between Scranton and the New York border would not be built as part of the Pennsylvania Turnpike system but rather the Interstate Highway System as I-81.[52][53] At the northern terminus, the Northeast Extension narrowed to two lanes along the northbound off-ramp at Scranton to come to its northern terminus, with an abandoned short spur of the mainline heading north. A pair of trumpet interchanges were built to connect the Northeast Extension and I-81.[53] Following completion, the roadway would be designated PA 9.[54]

Lehigh Tunnel heading southbound

When it first opened, traffic on the Northeast Extension of the Pennsylvania Turnpike was light.[46] By the 1970s, traffic along the roadway would increase with the completion of the connecting I-80 and the rising popularity of the Poconos as a vacation destination. As a result, the two-lane Lehigh Tunnel faced serious congestion. Plans were made to either bypass the tunnel or add a second tube. The turnpike commission decided it would build a second tunnel as the cost was lower than building a bypass.[55] In 1988, a $37 million contract was awarded to build the second tube.[56] Groundbreaking for the tunnel took place on February 14, 1989, with Governor Robert P. Casey in attendance.[57] Excavation of the new tunnel began in July of that year. Construction of the second tube utilized the New Austrian Tunnelling method, which reduced the cost of the tunnel by $5 to $6 million. It was the first tunnel in the United States to use this construction method. The second tube at Lehigh Tunnel opened on November 22, 1991, with Governor Casey in attendance leading a line of antique cars. Construction of the tunnel cost $45 million. The new tube is used for southbound traffic while the original tube carries northbound traffic. The newer tunnel is wider, higher, and brighter than the original.[58]

On February 1, 1995, the Keyser Avenue interchange near Scranton was slated to open at a cost of $22.4 million. Construction of this interchange also involved constructing a new mainline flat-rate toll barrier near the new interchange.[59]

On November 1, 1996, the Northeast Extension was added to the Interstate Highway System as an extension of I-476, replacing the PA 9 designation along the road. The addition of the second tube at the Lehigh Tunnel along with new guardrails and line striping was necessary for the toll road to become an interstate. It was hoped that the interstate designation would bring economic development and tourism to the areas served by the roadway.[60] This extension resulted in I-476 surpassing the 120-mile (190 km) I-495 in Massachusetts as the longest auxiliary Interstate Highway.[61]

In 2007, the turnpike commission announced plans to widen the Northeast Extension to six lanes between Mid-County and Lansdale.[62] In January 2008, work began on the replacement of two bridges over the Northeast Extension to accommodate the widened highway. The widening was expected to be complete in 2013.[63] Construction of the widening fell a year behind schedule and is projected to be completed in fall 2014.[64] Following the completion of widening this section, the portion of the roadway from Lansdale to Quakertown will be widened.[63]

In 1990, plans were made to build an interchange at PA 903 in Carbon County. A bill authorizing construction of this interchange was signed into law by Governor Casey in July of that year.[65] Plans for this interchange were cancelled by the turnpike commission in 1995.[66] In 2006, plans for an interchange at PA 903 were resurrected, with the proposed interchange to be all-electronic, in that it will only accept E-ZPass.[67] Construction on the $23 million interchange began in the middle of 2008, with completion expected in fall 2014.[68]

Exit list[edit]

The old exit numbers (31 and upward) on the turnpike Northeast Extension were a continuation of old exit numbers 1 through 30 on the east-west turnpike. On the east-west turnpike, the interchange with I-476 was old exit 25A because it was between old exits 25 and 26 on the east–west turnpike.

County Location Mile[69] km Old exit[70] New exit[70] Name Destinations Notes
Delaware Ridley Township 0.00 0.00 I-95 – Philadelphia, Chester Southern terminus
0.48 0.77 1 1 MacDade Boulevard Access to Ridley and Chester.
Springfield Township 3.39 5.46 2 3 Media, Swarthmore (Baltimore Pike) Access to Springfield and Swarthmore College.
Marple Township 5.07 8.16 3 5 US 1 – Lima, Springfield
8.77 14.11 4 9 PA 3 – Broomall, Upper Darby Access to Havertown and Newtown Square
Radnor Township 13.24 21.31 5 13 US 30 – Villanova, St. Davids Access to Villanova University, Eastern University, Cabrini College, Harcum College, Bryn Mawr College, Rosemont College, and Haverford College.
Montgomery West Conshohocken 15.84 25.49 6 16 I-76 (Schuylkill Expressway) – Philadelphia, Valley Forge Signed as exits 16A (east) and 16B (west) northbound. To PA 23.
6 16 To PA 23 – Conshohocken Signed as exit 16A northbound
Plymouth Township 18.81 30.27 7A 18A Conshohocken (Ridge Pike east) Northbound exit and southbound entrance
18.81 30.27 7B 18B Norristown (Ridge Pike west) Signed as exit 18 southbound
19.69 31.69 8 19 Germantown Pike east – Plymouth Meeting Northbound exit and southbound entrance
9 20 To I-276 west / Penna Turnpike west (Germantown Pike west / Plymouth Road) Northbound exit and southbound entrance, last free exit northbound
19.97 32.14 Mid-County Toll Plaza
Northern terminus of the Blue Route, Southern terminus of the Pennsylvania Turnpike Northeast Extension
20.33 32.72 I-276 / Penna Turnpike – Norristown, Harrisburg, New Jersey Northbound exit to westbound I-276 is via exit 20
Towamencin Township 30.78 49.54 31 31 Lansdale PA 63 – Lansdale
Bucks Milford Township 44.39 71.44 32 44 Quakertown PA 663 – Pottstown, Quakertown
Lehigh Upper Macungie Township 56.37 90.72 Allentown Service Plaza
South Whitehall Township 57.71 92.88 33 56 Lehigh Valley US 22 to I-78 / PA 309 – Allentown, Harrisburg
Lehigh
Carbon
Washington Township
East Penn Township
71.68 115.36 Lehigh Tunnel
Carbon Franklin Township 75.73 121.88 34 74 Mahoning Valley US 209 – Stroudsburg, Lehighton Access to Pocono towns of Jim Thorpe, Lehighton, Palmerton, and Tamaqua
Penn Forest Township 86.62 139.40 Hickory Run Service Plaza
87.39 140.64 PA 903 – Jim Thorpe, Lake Harmony Proposed E-Z Pass-only Slip Ramp. Access to Albrightsville and northern Carbon County
Kidder Township 94.82 152.60 35 95 Pocono I-80 / PA 940 – Hazleton, Mount Pocono
Luzerne Bear Creek Township 105.85 170.35 36 105 Wilkes-Barre PA 115 – Wilkes-Barre, Bear Creek
Pittston Township 113.42 182.53 Wyoming Valley Toll Plaza
North end of ticket system
115.17 185.35 37 115 Wyoming Valley PA 315 to I-81 – Scranton, Pittston
Lackawanna Taylor 121.61 195.71 Keyser Avenue Toll Plaza
122.36 196.92 38 122 Keyser Avenue Old Forge, Taylor (Keyser Avenue) Access to Scranton.
Clarks Summit 131.20 211.15 Clarks Summit Toll Plaza
131.37 211.42 Clarks Summit I-81 / US 6 east – Binghamton, Wilkes-Barre End of turnpike. Access to Scranton.
Clarks Summit US 11 / US 6 west – Scranton, Clarks Summit Northbound exit and southbound entrance
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Jeremy Rogoff; Mari A. Schaefer (2007-06-10). "No remedy soon for a clogged Blue Route". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. 2. 
  2. ^ "Resurfacing" (PDF). I-476 Improvement Project. Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. Retrieved 2007-03-07. 
  3. ^ "Pennsylvania Turnpike Toll/Mileage Calculator". Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission. Retrieved 2007-03-07. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i Google Inc. "overview of Interstate 476". Google Maps (Map). Cartography by Google, Inc. http://maps.google.com/maps?f=d&source=s_d&saddr=I-95+and+I-476+chester,+pa&daddr=I-476+%40+41.483,+-75.683&geocode=%3BFfj6eAIdSCt9-w&hl=en&mra=ls&sll=41.483505,-75.700779&sspn=0.056841,0.109863&ie=UTF8&t=h&z=8. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
  5. ^ Radnor Township website, Gateway Enhancement Strategy
  6. ^ a b Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (2006). Official Tourism and Transportation (Map). ftp://ftp.dot.state.pa.us/public/pdf/BPR_PDF_FILES/MAPS/Statewide/otm/2006/otm_2006.PDF. Retrieved 2007-03-07.
  7. ^ "Blue Route". VisitPA.com. Retrieved March 27, 2012. 
  8. ^ "Toll Schedule – Cash Rates". Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission. January 4, 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-01. 
  9. ^ a b 2014 Toll Schedule. Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission. 2014. Retrieved January 7, 2014. 
  10. ^ "Traffic Rules and Regulations". Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission. Retrieved September 21, 2012. 
  11. ^ Blankenship, Karl (July 22, 1987). "That's the ticket: Machines replacing man on turnpike". The Patriot-News (Harrisburg, PA). p. B1. 
  12. ^ "Drive Now, Pay The Toll Later Pike Travelers Favor The Electronic System". Philadelphia Daily News. July 12, 1990. p. 28. 
  13. ^ "Electronic tolls coming to Pa. Turnpike by 1998". Lancaster New Era. Associated Press. March 22, 1994. p. A03. 
  14. ^ Gilbert, Pat R. (March 22, 1994). "7 Agencies OK Electronic Toll-Collection Firm - Project Expected To Speed Traffic On Parkway, Turnpike". The Record (Bergen County, NJ). p. A03. 
  15. ^ Wyckoff, P.L. (March 12, 1998). "E-ZPass to debut on Atlantic City highway - But 2000 is target for Turnpike and Parkway". The Star-Ledger (Newark, NJ). p. 22. 
  16. ^ Downs, Jere (December 3, 2000). "E-ZPass Off To UnE-Z Beginning On Turnpike". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. B04. 
  17. ^ "E-ZPass not so easy for drivers on first day". Erie Times-News. Associated Press. December 3, 2000. 
  18. ^ "Pennsylvania Turnpike extends E-ZPass service". The Express-Times (Easton, PA). December 15, 2001. 
  19. ^ Fuoco, Michael A. (December 22, 2001). "Turnpike E-ZPass Will Get More Lanes". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. p. D-6. 
  20. ^ Therolf, Garrett (December 15, 2002). "E-ZPass making life harder for bridge users". The Morning Call (Allentown, PA). p. B1. 
  21. ^ Wartenberg, Steve (November 25, 2004). "Turnpike strike lops tolls for a day ** 2,000 Teamsters take action. Non-union staff will be in booths today.". The Morning Call (Allentown, PA). p. A1. 
  22. ^ Shields, Jeff (November 26, 2004). "Traffic moves, despite strike - Turnpike managers working the toll booths gave drivers a pass when backups occurred. Negotiations were on hold.". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. B01. 
  23. ^ "Turnpike returns tolls to normal - Drivers were issued tickets beginning at 9 p.m. Wednesday.". The Express-Times (Easton, PA). December 2, 2004. p. B1. 
  24. ^ Schmitz, Jon (October 6, 2010). "Turnpike considers all-electronic tolls". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved October 7, 2010. 
  25. ^ "No E-ZPass? Expect to pay extra to drive Interstate 76". Reading Eagle. October 11, 2010. Retrieved October 12, 2010. 
  26. ^ Mattar, George (December 29, 2010). "Turnpike considers getting rid of cash tolls". The Intelligencer (Doylestown, PA). p. 1. 
  27. ^ Thompson, Charles (March 6, 2012). "Caution: All-E-Z Pass turnpike ahead". The Patriot-News (Harrisburg, PA). p. A01. 
  28. ^ Nussbaum, Paul (March 13, 2012). "Pa. Turnpike looks at much higher non-E-ZPass rates". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. A01. 
  29. ^ a b "TRIP - Turnpike Roadway Information Program". Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission. Retrieved April 14, 2009. 
  30. ^ "If Your Vehicle Breaks Down...". Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission. Retrieved November 5, 2012. 
  31. ^ "Pennsylvania State Police Troop T -Highspire". Pennsylvania State Police. Retrieved September 22, 2012. 
  32. ^ "HAR Transmissions Now Broadcast at Every PA Turnpike Interchange". Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission. July 3, 2000. Retrieved April 14, 2009. 
  33. ^ "Preferred Traveler". Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission. Retrieved January 28, 2013. 
  34. ^ The Travelers Guide to PA Turnpike service plazas. Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission. 2012. Retrieved September 17, 2012. 
  35. ^ "Pennsylvania Turnpike Contract Awarded to HMSHost". Business Wire. July 28, 2006. 
  36. ^ "Service Plazas - Tentative Reconstruction Schedule". Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission. Retrieved October 8, 2012. 
  37. ^ "Was I-76 Numbered to Honor Philadelphia for Independence Day, 1776?". Ask the Rambler. Federal Highway Administration. 2005-01-18. Retrieved 2007-06-06. 
  38. ^ "History of the Blue Route". I-476 Improvement Project. Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. Archived from the original on February 19, 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-11. 
  39. ^ "Asphalt: the Magazine of the Asphalt Institute, Summer 1997" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-03-07. 
  40. ^ "FHWA By Day - December 19". Retrieved 2007-03-07. 
  41. ^ "I-476 Improvement Project". Retrieved 2007-03-07. 
  42. ^ "Tax-Exempts: Pennsylvania Turnpike Board Plans 125-Mile North-South Extension". The Wall Street Journal. August 5, 1953. p. 11. 
  43. ^ "Surveys To Expand Pennsylvania Pike". The New York Times. August 9, 1953. p. 56. 
  44. ^ "Turnpike Link Begins". The New York Times. March 26, 1954. p. 28. 
  45. ^ "Pike Funds Raised By Pennsylvania". The New York Times. April 8, 1954. p. 41. 
  46. ^ a b Dakelman and Schorr, p. 105.
  47. ^ a b Dakelman, p. 106.
  48. ^ Dakelman and Schorr, p. 107.
  49. ^ Cupper, p. 31.
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External links[edit]

Route map: Google / Bing