Northeast Region, Brazil

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"Nordeste" redirects here. For other uses, see Nordeste (disambiguation).
Northeast Region
Região Nordeste
Region
Location of Northeast Region in Brazil
Location of Northeast Region in Brazil
Coordinates: 12°58′S 38°31′W / 12.967°S 38.517°W / -12.967; -38.517Coordinates: 12°58′S 38°31′W / 12.967°S 38.517°W / -12.967; -38.517
Country Brazil
Largest cities Salvador (by city proper)
Recife (by metro pop.)
States Alagoas, Bahia, Ceará, Maranhão, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Piauí, Rio Grande do Norte and Sergipe
Area
 • Region 1,558,196 km2 (601,623 sq mi)
Area rank 3rd
Population (2005 census)
 • Region 53,081,950 (2,010)
 • Rank 2nd
 • Density rank 3rd
 • Urban 71.5%
GDP
 • Year 2007 estimate
 • Total R$347,797,041,000 (3rd)
 • Per capita R$6,749 (5th)
HDI
 • Year 2005/2006
 • Category 0.720 – medium (5th)
 • Life expectancy 69 years (5th)
 • Infant mortality 36.9 per 1,000 (1st)
 • Literacy 79.3% (5th)
Time zone BRT (UTC-03)
 • Summer (DST) BRST (UTC-02)

The Northeast Region of Brazil (Portuguese: Região Nordeste do Brasil) is the third largest of five geopolitical regions of Brazil composed of nine states: Maranhão, Piauí, Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Alagoas, Sergipe and Bahia, and the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago (formerly the federal territory of Fernando de Noronha, now part of Pernambuco state). It stretches from the Atlantic seaboard in the northeast and southeast, northwest and west to the Amazon Basin and south through the Espinhaço highlands in southern Bahia. It encloses the São Francisco River and drainage basin, which were instrumental in the exploration, settlement and economic development of the region. The northeast was the first region to be discovered and colonized by European (principally Portuguese, Spanish and Dutch) explorers in the 16th century.

The Northeast Region represents 18% of Brazilian territory, has a population of 53.6 million people, 28% of the total population of the country, and contributes 13.4% (2011) of Brazil's GDP. Nearly three quarters of the population lives in urban areas clustered along the Atlantic coast[citation needed] and about 15 million people live in the hinterland. It is an impoverished region: 58% of the population lives in poverty, defined as less than $2/day. It is known in Brazil for its hot weather, beautiful beaches, rich culture (unique folklore, music, cuisine, literature), Brazilian Carnival and Festival of St. John, and the arid sertão backlands.

The region lies entirely within the earth's Tropical zone and encompasses Caatinga, Atlantic Forest and part of the Cerrado ecoregions. The climate is hot and varies from xeric in Caatinga, to mesic in Cerrado and hydric in the Atlantic Forest.

Recife, the capital of the state of Pernambuco, is the largest metropolitan area of the Northeast Region.[1] The biggest cities are Salvador, Fortaleza, Recife, and São Luís, all lying on the Atlantic coast, each with a population above a million inhabitants.

The Northeast has nine international airports[Note 1], and the region has the second largest number of passengers (roughly 20%) in Brazil.

Brazilians of the Northeast are of mixed ethnicity including chiefly Portuguese, African and Amerindian. The dominant language in the region is Portuguese, the official language of Brazil, with English and Spanish as common secondary languages.

Geography and climate[edit]

Subregions of Brazilian Northeast:
1 Meio-norte,
2 Sertão,
3 Agreste,
4 Zona da Mata

Nordeste da mata (Atlantic Rainforest zone)[edit]

Main article: Atlantic Forest

On the humid eastern littoral, before European settlement was a long thin area of tropical rainforest with species completely different from those found in the much larger Amazon rainforest, known as the Mata Atlantica. Because of the fact that the climate was extremely suitable for the cultivation of sugar cane, however, very little of the forest remains today. For many years, sugar cane cultivation in this region was the mainstay of Brazil's economy, being superseded only when coffee production developed in the late 19th century. The sugar cane is cultivated on large estates and the owners of these had and maintain tremendous political influence.

Agreste[edit]

Main article: Agreste

Since the escarpment does not generate any further rainfall on its slopes from the lifting of the trade winds, annual rainfall decreases steadily inland. After a relatively short distance, there is no longer enough rainfall to support tropical rainforest, especially since the rainfall is extremely erratic from year to year. This transitional zone is known as the agreste and because it is located on the steep escarpment, was not generally used whilst flatter land was abundant. Today, with irrigation water available, however, the agreste, as its name suggest, is a major farming region despite containing no major city, contains well developed medium large cities such as Caruaru, Campina Grande and Arapiraca.

Sertão Nordestino (North-Eastern Backlands)[edit]

Main article: Sertão

In Portuguese, the word "sertão" (Portuguese pronunciation: [sexˈtɐ̃w̃], "backcountry" or "outback") first referred to the vast hinterlands of Asia and South America that Lusitanian explorers encountered. In Brazil, the geographical term referred to backlands away from the Atlantic coastal regions where the Portuguese first settled in South America in the early sixteenth century.

Geographically, the sertão consists mainly of low uplands that form part of the Brazilian Highlands. Most parts of the sertão are between 200 and 500 meters above sea level, with higher elevations found on the eastern edge in the Planalto da Borborema, where it merges into a sub-humid region known as agreste, in the Serra da Ibiapaba in western Ceará and in the Serro do Periquito of central Pernambuco. In the north, the sertão extends to the northern coastal plains of Rio Grande do Norte state, whilst in the south it fades out in the northern fringe of Minas Gerais.

Because the sertão lies close to the equator, temperatures remain nearly uniform throughout the year and are typically tropical, often extremely hot in the west. However, the sertão is distinctive in its low rainfall compared to other areas of Brazil. Because of the relatively cool temperatures in the South Atlantic Ocean, the intertropical convergence zone remains north of the region for most of the year, so that most of the year is very dry.

Although annual rainfall averages between 500 and 800 millimeters over most of the sertão and 1300 millimeters on the northern coast at Fortaleza, it is confined to a short rainy season. This season extends from January to April in the west, but in the eastern sertão it generally occurs from March to June. However, rainfall is extremely erratic and in some years the rains are minimal, leading to catastrophic drought.

Meio Norte Nordestino (Northeast Mid North)[edit]

Main article Meio Norte

It is a transition area between the high rainfalls region of amazonas and the semi arid region of sertão (hot and drought). Covers the states of Maranhão and half of Piaui.[more information needed]

Hydrology[edit]

The Northeast region comprises the drainage basins of the Rio Sao Francisco, Piaui-Caninde and Parnaiba Rivers.

Geology and Topography[edit]

Geographically, the Northeast consists chiefly of an eroded continental craton with many low hills and small ranges. The highest peaks are around 1,850 metres (6,070 ft) in Bahia, while further north there are no peaks above 1,123 metres (3,684 ft). On its northern and western side, the plateaus fall steadily to the coast and into the basin of the Tocantins River in Maranhão, but on the eastern side it falls off quite sharply to the coast except in the valley of the São Francisco river. The steep slopes and long cliffs of the eastern coastline are known as "The Great Escarpment".

The escarpment serves an extremely important climatic function. Because for most of the year the Nordeste is out of reach of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, the easterly trade winds blow across the region, giving abundant rainfall to the coast but producing clear, dry conditions inland where the escarpment blocks moisture flow. This gives rise to four distinct regions, the zona da mata on the coast, the agreste on the escarpment, sertão beyond and the Mid north.

Ecology and Biodiversity[edit]

Conservation[edit]

Summary of threats[edit]

  • Deforestation
  • Degradation of Mangroves and Restingas
  • Poaching and Animal Trading
  • Infrastructure
  • Dams
  • Mining
  • Tourism Development
  • Introduction of Alien Species

Protected Areas in Brazil[edit]

Brazil is characterized by a complex system of conservation units. As a matter of fact, 2,61% of the national territory is covered by strict protected areas and 5,52% by areas dedicated to sustainable development, for a total of 8,13% of the national territory. However, this figure is slightly overestimated, since many areas of environmental protection (APAs) include one or more conservation units dedicated to indirect use.

The conservation units managed by Instituto Brasileiro de Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renovaveis (IBAMA) cover approximately 45 million hectares and include about 256 conservation units of direct or indirect use, among which Areas of Environmental Protection, Biological Reserves, Ecological Stations, National Forests, Areas of Considerable Ecological Interest, National Parks, several Natural Heritage Private Reserves, and Wildlife Sanctuaries. There are also several conservation units that are managed by the Brazilian states, and cover about 22 million hectares. Moreover, there are wetlands protected as Ramsar sites:

   * Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentado Mamirauá
   * Área de Proteção Ambiental da Baixada Maranhense
   * Parque Nacional da Lagoa do Peixe
   * Área de Proteção Ambiental das Reentrâncias Maranhenses
   * Parque Estadual Marinho do Parcel de Manuel Luiz
   * Parque Nacional do Araguaia
   * Parque Nacional do Pantanal Matogrossense
   * Reseva Particular do Patrimônio Natural do SESC Pantanal

and Biosphere Reserves:

   * Reserva da Biosfera da Mata Atlântica
   * Reserva da Biosfera do Cerrado
   * Reserva da Biosfera do Pantanal

Main Categories of Protected Areas

Area of Environmental Protection: it is a rather large area characterized by a considerable population density and with abiotic, biotic, aesthetic, or cultural features of great importance, above all for the quality of life and well-ness of man. Protecting biological diversity, regulating the settlement processes, and ensuring the sustainable use of natural resources are among its main aims.

Wildlife Sanctuary: this protected area aims at protecting the natural environments ensuring the conditions for the survival and reproduction of species or communities belonging to the local flora and to resident or migratory fauna.

Biological Reserve: it aims at strictly safeguarding the natural aspects within its borders, avoiding direct human interference or environmental changes, through measures to recover altered ecosystems and management actions necessary to recover or maintain the natural balance, biological diversity, and natural ecological processes.

Ecological Station: it aims at safeguarding nature and carrying out scientific research activities.

National Park: it aims at preserving natural ecosystems of great beauty and ecological importance, giving the opportunity to carry out scientific research activities or developing environmental education and interpretation activities, as well as promoting recreational activities at direct contact with nature and ecological tourism.

Area of Considerable Ecological Interest: not very large area, with a scarce population density and extraordinary natural features of great importance at a regional and local level.

Sustainable Development Reserve: natural area including traditional populations whose existence is based on sustainable systems of exploitation of the natural resources which have been developed generation after generation and adapted to local ecological conditions. They play an essential role in the protection of nature and maintenance of biological diversity.

Source: Instituto Brasileiro de Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renovaveis (IBAMA), Ministério do Meio Ambiente

History[edit]

Main articles: Colonial Brazil, History of Brazil
View of a sugar-producing farm (engenho) in colonial Pernambuco by Dutch painter Frans Post (17th century).

The Northeast was primarily inhabited by indigenous peoples, mostly speaking languages of the Tupi–Guarani family, who, before the colonial era, helped Europeans with the extraction of brazilwood from the coastal rainforest (or mata atlântica) in exchange for spices. But as colonization and commercial interest intensified in the region the number of Indians became drastically reduced due to the constant battles with the owners of the large sugar mills. Conflicts arose because the settlers had displaced the native inhabitants and then tried to enslave them as labor in the fields. The Portuguese colonials then considered the idea of importing black African slaves to use as manual labor. To this day culture in Northeast Brazil remains fully permeated by this African influence.

The Northeast was the first area of discovery in Brazil, when roughly 1,500 Portuguese arrived on April 22, 1500, under the command of Pedro Álvares Cabral at Porto Seguro, in the state of Bahia.

Olinda with Recife in the background. Olinda was declared a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1982.

The coast of the Northeast was the stage for the first economic activity of the country, namely the extraction and export of pau Brasil, or brazilwood. Brazilwood was highly valued in Europe where it was used to make violin bows (especially the Pau de Pernambuco variety) and for the red dye it produced. Countries like France, who disagreed[needs copy edit] with the Treaty of Tordesillas, (a papal bull decreed by the Spanish-born Pope Alexander VI in 1493 which sought to divide the South American continent between the Spanish and the Portuguese), launched constant attacks against the coast with the objective of stealing the wood.

In the early seventeenth century, Pernambuco reached the rank of largest and richest area of sugar production in the world.[2]

French colonists not only tried to settle in present-day Rio de Janeiro, from 1555 to 1567 (the so-called France Antarctique episode), but also in present-day São Luís, from 1612 to 1614 (the so-called France Equinoxiale). The Dutch, also opposed to the Treaty of Tordesillas, plundered the Northeast coast, sacked Bahia in 1604, and even temporarily captured Salvador. From 1630 to 1654 the Dutch set up more permanently in the Northeast and controlled a long stretch of coast that was most accessible to Europe without, however, penetrating the interior. But the colonists of the Dutch West India Company in Brazil were in a constant siege despite the presence in Recife of the great[peacock term] John Maurice of Nassau as governor.

The Historic centre of Salvador, Bahia, was declared a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1985.

Slave resistance began during the colonial era, in the 17th century, and eventually led to the formation of quilombos, or settlements of runaway and free-born African slaves. The Quilombo dos Palmares, the largest and most well-known of these settlements, was founded around 1600 in the Serra da Barriga hills, in the present state of Alagoas. Palmares, at the height of its power, was an independent, self-sustaining republic, hosting a population of over 30,000 free African men, women and children. There were over 200 buildings in the community, a church, four smithies, and a council house. Although Palmares managed to defend itself from the Dutch military and the Portuguese colonials for several decades, it was finally taken and destroyed and its leader Zumbi dos Palmares was captured and beheaded. His head was then displayed in a public plaza in Recife.

Besides being Brazil’s main sea port, Brazil's center of the African slave trade, a center of the sugar industry, and the seat of the first Catholic bishop of Brazil (in 1552) the city of Salvador was also the first general seat of government in Brazil as it is strategically located in the center of the eastern coast of the country. The government in Salvador sought to centralize power in an effort to support the various captaincies, geographical subdivisions that preceded the present states of Brazil, which at this time were in a state of crisis. Salvador remained the colonial capital until 1763 when it was succeeded by Rio de Janeiro, the new economic power center of that era.

Political Sub-Divisions[edit]

Main article: States of Brazil

Unlike the provinces of Canada, the regions of Brazil do not have their own governmental or administrative bodies. Also unlike the "midwest" United States, the regions of Brazil are well defined:[Note 2] their boundaries and constituent states are part of the recognized geopolitical structure of the country. The Northeast Region is divided into nine states or approximately 1793 municipalities[Note 3] and two special municipalities, Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago and Fernando de Noronha Archipelago; there are no unincorporated areas. Brazilian states are divided into Mesoregions, and Mesoregions into Microregions, each region representing a group of municipalities. These regions were created by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics for statistical purposes and do not, therefore, constitute an administrative area. Municipalities are analogous to counties in states of the United States; a city is the urban area of the municipality, and always has the same name as the municipality. A municipality may include cities other than the one which gives it its name. The largest state of the Northeast region in terms of area, population and economic output is Bahia; its capital Salvador is the largest city of the Northeast.

State Symbol Area km2 Municipalities Mesoregions Microregions Population
2009 IBGE
HDI
2005
GDP (R$x1000)
2011 IBGE[3]
GDP per capita
2011 (R$)
Alagoas AL 27,768 102 3 13 3,156,108 0.677 28,540,000 9.079
Bahia BA 564,693 417 7 32 14,637,364 0.742 159,869,000 11.340
Ceará CE 148,826 184 7 33 8,547,809 0.723 87,982,000 10.314
Maranhão MA 331,983 217 5 21 6,367,138 0.683 52,187,000 7.852
Paraiba PB 56,440 223 4 23 3,769,977 0.718 35,444,000 9.348
Pernambuco PE 98,312 185 5 18 8,810,256 0.718 104,394,000 11.776
Piaui PI 251,529 223 4 15 3,145,325 0.703 24,607,000 7.835
Rio Grande do Norte RN 52,797 167 4 19 3,137,541 0.738 36,103,000 11.286
Sergipe SE 21,910 75 3 13 2,019,679 0.742 26,199,000 12.536
Northeast NE 1,558,196 1,793 42 187 53,591,197 0.720 555,325,0000 10.379
Recife is the largest metropolitan area of the Northeast Region, and the third largest city of the region.
City Population (2009)
Salvador 2,998,056
Fortaleza 2,505,552
Recife 1,561,659
São Luís 997,098
Maceió 936,314
Natal 806,203
Teresina 802,537
João Pessoa 702,235
Jaboatão 687,688
Feira de Santana 591,707
Aracaju 544,039

Economy[edit]

Main article: Economy of Brazil
Ceará is the 4th textile industrial center of Brazil.[4] The picture shows Fortaleza, the second largest metropolitan region of the Northeast

Northeastern Brazil’s economy is based on coffee, sugar cane, livestock, manufacturing and textiles. Forest products. Its economy is mainly based on the production of sugar, cocoa and cotton; as well as the extensive cattle breeding. Some time ago, at São Francisco River Valley (between States of Bahia and Pernambuco), fruits for export started being produced, too. At the seaside and the continental platform of the Region, the main activity is the exploitation of oil, which is later processed in the State of Bahia. Major industries (clothing, food, small machinery) are in the main metropolitan areas of the northeast.

Official reclamation activities have spurred the construction of numerous dams and hydroelectric projects, especially on the São Francisco River. In the 1960s a violent dictatorship in Brazil created a resilient state of poverty in the region.[5] Development of tourism is a concerted, ongoing effort.[6] The São Francisco River is responsible for the regional production of energy and it also bathes the states of Bahia, Sergipe, Alagoas and Pernambuco. The Northeast is rich in natural beauties with its beaches of clear, warm water. Beyond tourism, the Northeast also develops its industrial sector. Every day, important investors from many countries come to this region to search for new opportunities.[vague] The governments try to motivate the inflow of new investment money, based on the needs of its states.[7]

Camaçari, in Bahia, has the largest integrated industrial complex in the southern hemisphere with plants of Brazilian multinational companies such as Braskem.[8]

Energy[edit]

Agriculture[edit]

Manufacturing[edit]

Service sector[edit]

Information Processing[edit]

Livestock[edit]

Mining[edit]

Forest Products[edit]

Tourism and recreation[edit]

Main article: Tourism in Brazil
See Also: List of beaches#Brazil, List of national parks of Brazil, Brazil#Economy#Tourism
Arruda Stadium in Recife.

Tourism has grown significantly in the Region in the last decades, showing the high potential of each State.[vague]

Besides the capitals, most coastal cities of the Northeast Region have many natural beauties, such as the Abrolhos Marine National Park, Itacaré, Comandatuba Island, Costa do Sauípe, Canasvieiras and Porto Seguro, in the State of Bahia; the Marine National Park of Fernando de Noronha, Porto de Galinhas beach in the State of Pernambuco; tropical paradises, such as Canoa Quebrada and Jericoacoara, on the coast of Ceará, as well as the places to practice free flight, as Quixadá and Sobral; and Lençóis Maranhenses, embellishing the coast of Maranhão State, among many others. In the interior area, National Parks of Serra da Capivara and Sete Cidades, both in the State of Piauí; João Pessoa, in the State of Paraíba; Chapada Diamantina, in the State of Bahia; and many other attractions.

The economy is based on tourism (in coastal or historical cities) or agriculture. The tourist industry is based largely on the beaches, which attract thousands of tourists per year, not only from other regions of Brazil but also many from Europe (especially Italy, Portugal, Germany, France, United Kingdom and Spain), the United States, and Australia. There are two recognized nudist beaches in the Northeast: Tambaba Beach north of Recife, Paraiba, and Massarandupio Beach 100 km north of Salvador, Bahia.

Infrastructure[edit]

Mossoró city in Rio Grande do Norte is one of the largest onshore petroleum producers in Brazil.

Educational institutions[edit]

International airports[edit]

Oil refineries[edit]

  • Lubnor (Petrobras), Fortaleza 82,000 bbl/d (13,000 m3/d)

Seaports[edit]

Petrochemical plant[edit]

Railroads[edit]

By 2013, if all runs to plan, a new railway will link Suape to the north-eastern interior (see map). The federal government began building it in 1990, but it stalled for lack of money and only restarted in 2006. A second branch will travel north to the port of Pecém, which is also being expanded. There, the Ceará state government is setting up an institute to train 12,000 workers a year, and Petrobras is building another refinery. Paulo Roberto Costa, its downstream director, envisages trains taking soyabeans, corn and iron ore from the interior to the ports and returning with oil. Journey times to Europe and America will be three or four days less than from south-eastern ports. The 1,728-km line will one day carry 30m tonnes of cargo a year.

Mines[edit]

Hydroelectric Dams and reservoirs[edit]

Brazil counts on hydroelectricity for more than 80% of its electricity.

Alagoras

  • Xingu Hydroelectric Power Plant 3162

Bahia

  • Apollonius Sales (Moxoto) Hydroelectric Power Plant 400
  • Paulo Afonso Complex Hydroelectric Power Plant 1417.2
  • Paulo Afonso IV Hydroelectric Power Plant 2642.4
  • Sobradinho Hydroelectric Power Plant 1050

Maranhao

  • Boa Esperanca (Castelo Branco) Hydroelectric Power Plant 237.4

Pernambuco

  • Luiz Gonzaga (Itaparica) Hydroelectric Power Plant 1479.6

Demographics[edit]

Rendeira woman from Ceará
The Maracatu, a cultural aspect resulted from the mix between Amerindians, Portuguese and Africans in Northeast Brazil.
Local health care training by the Olinda local administration

Urban areas and rural areas[edit]

Nordeste's major cities are almost all on the Atlantic coast. Some exceptions can be seen, however, like Petrolina-Juazeiro conurbation Bahia/Pernambuco (population over 500,000) on the São Francisco River and Teresina-Timon conurbation Piaui (population nearly 1,000,000) on the Parnaiba River.

Good rural areas are scarce and generally they are all near the coast, or in the west of Maranhão, and are mainly used for exportation products. In the semi-arid areas of the Northeast Region, rural areas do exist, but rain is scarce in the region; rural areas in the interior are generally based on subsistence agriculture. Fazendas (large farms) are common in the interior, where cattle-rasing and the cultivation of tropical fruit is often practiced. Also, in the areas where water is scarce local politicians often use the promise of irrigation projects as a bargaining chip to win elections.[relevant? ]

Ethnic groups[edit]

Northeast Brazilians are a result of the mixing of European, Africans and Native Americans. The African ancestry is significant particularly in the coastal areas, and especially in Bahia, Pernambuco and Maranhão. The Native American ancestry is also present in all states, though more significant in Ceará and Maranhão. Northeast Brazilians also have a significant degree of European ancestry, the most important in the region, according to genetic studies.[more information needed][citation needed]

Ethnic composition of Northeast Brazil compared to other regions[edit]

The composition of the Northeast of Brazil compared to other regions of Brazil according to autosomal genetic studies focused on the Brazilian population (which has been found to be a complex melting pot of European, African and Native Americans components):

An autosomal study from 2013, with nearly 1300 samples from all of the Brazilian regions, found a pred. degree of European ancestry combined with African and Native American contributions, in varying degrees. 'Following an increasing North to South gradient, European ancestry was the most prevalent in all urban populations (with values up to 74%). The populations in the North consisted of a significant proportion of Native American ancestry that was about two times higher than the African contribution. Conversely, in the Northeast, Center-West and Southeast, African ancestry was the second most prevalent. At an intrapopulation level, all urban populations were highly admixed, and most of the variation in ancestry proportions was observed between individuals within each population rather than among population'.[9]

Region[10] European African Native American
North Region 51% 17% 32%
Northeast Region 56% 28% 16%
Central-West Region 58% 26% 16%
Southeast Region 61% 27% 12%
South Region 74% 15% 11%

A 2011 autosomal DNA study, with nearly 1000 samples from all over the country ("whites", "pardos" and "blacks"), found a major European contribution, followed by a high African contribution and an important Native American component.[11] The study showed that Brazilians from different regions are more homogeneous than previously thought by some based on the census alone. "Brazilian homogeneity is, therefore, a lot greater between Brazilian regions than within Brazilian regions."[12]

Region[11] European African Native American
Northern Brazil 68.80% 10.50% 18.50%
Northeast of Brazil 60.10% 29.30% 8.90%
Southeast Brazil 74.20% 17.30% 7.30%
Southern Brazil 79.50% 10.30% 9.40%

According to an autosomal DNA study from 2010, a new portrayal of each ethnicity contribution to the DNA of Brazilians, obtained with samples from the five regions of the country, has indicated that, on average, European ancestors are responsible for nearly 80% of the genetic heritage of the population. The variation between the regions is small, with the possible exception of the South, where the European contribution reaches nearly 90%. The results, published by the scientific American Journal of Human Biology by a team of the Catholic University of Brasília, show that, in Brazil, physical indicators such as colour of skin, eyes and hair have little to do with the genetic ancestry of each person, which has been shown in previous studies (regardless of census classification).[13] Ancestry informative SNPs can be useful to estimate individual and population biogeographical ancestry. Brazilian population is characterized by a genetic background of three parental populations (European, African, and Brazilian Native Amerindians) with a wide degree and diverse patterns of admixture. In this work we analyzed the information content of 28 ancestry-informative SNPs into multiplexed panels using three parental population sources (African, Amerindian, and European) to infer the genetic admixture in an urban sample of the five Brazilian geopolitical regions. The SNPs assigned apart the parental populations from each other and thus can be applied for ancestry estimation in a three hybrid admixed population. Data was used to infer genetic ancestry in Brazilians with an admixture model. Pairwise estimates of F(st) among the five Brazilian geopolitical regions suggested little genetic differentiation only between the South and the remaining regions. Estimates of ancestry results are consistent with the heterogeneous genetic profile of Brazilian population, with a major contribution of European ancestry (0.771) followed by African (0.143) and Amerindian contributions (0.085). The described multiplexed SNP panels can be useful tool for bioanthropological studies but it can be mainly valuable to control for spurious results in genetic association studies in admixed populations."[10]

Region[10] European African Native American
Northern Brazil 71.10% 18.20% 10.70%
Northeast of Brazil 77.40% 13.60% 8.90%
West-Central Brazil 65.90% 18.70% 11.80%
Southeast Region, Brazil 79.90% 14.10% 6.10%
Southern Brazil 87.70% 7.70% 5.20%

An autosomal DNA study from 2009 found a similar profile "all the Brazilian samples (regions) lie more closely to the European group than to the African populations or to the Mestizos from Mexico."[14]

Region[14] European African Native American
Northern Brazil 60.6% 21.3% 18.1%
Northeast of Brazil 66.7% 23.3% 10.0%
West-Central Brazil 66.3% 21.7% 12.0%
Southeast Region, Brazil 60.7% 32.0% 7.3%
Southern Brazil 81.5% 9.3% 9.2%

According to another autosomal DNA study from 2008, by the University of Brasília (UnB), European ancestry dominates in the whole of Brazil (in all regions), accounting for 65.90% of heritage of the population, followed by the African contribution (24.80%) and the Native American (9.3%); the European ancestry being the dominant ancestry in all regions including the Northeast of Brazil.[15]

A study from 1965, "Methods of Analysis of a Hybrid Population" (Human Biology, vol 37, number 1), led by the geneticists D. F. Roberts e R. W. Hiorns, found out the average the Northeastern Brazilian to be predominantly European in ancestry (65%), with minor but important African and Native American contributions (25% and 9%).[16]

Religion[edit]

The Northeast has the largest percentage of Roman Catholics of any region of the country.

Culture[edit]

Main article: Culture of Brazil
Festa Junina celebration in Mossoró.
Cordel literature is a literary genre very popular in the Northeast of Brazil; according to the poet Carlos Drummond de Andrade, it is one of the purest manifestations of the inventive spirit, the sense of humour and the critical capacity of Brazilians from the interior and of the humblest backgrounds.[17]

Nordeste has a rich culture, with its unique constructions in the old centers of Salvador, Recife and Olinda, dance (frevo and maracatu), music (axé and forró) and unique cuisine. Dishes particular to the region include carne de sol, farofa, acarajé, vatapá, paçoca, canjica, pamonha, quibebe, bolo de fubá cozido, sururu de capote and many others. Salvador was the first Brazilian capital.

The festival of São João (Saint John), one of the festas juninas, is especially popular in the Northeast, particularly in Caruaru in the state of Pernambuco and Campina Grande in the state of Paraíba. The festival takes place once a year in June. As the Northeast is mostly arid or semi-arid the Nordestinos give thanks to Saint John for the rainfall that typical falls this time of year, which greatly helps the farmers with their crops. And because this time of year also coincides with the corn harvest many regional dishes containing corn, such as canjica, pamonha, and milho verde, have become part of the cultural tradition.

The Bumba-Meu-Boi festival is also popular, especially in the state of Maranhão. During the Bumba-Meu-Bói festival in the city of São Luis do Maranhão and its environs there are many different groups, with elaborate costumes and different styles of music, which are called sotaques: sotaque de orquestra, as the names implies, uses an orchestra of saxophones, clarinets, flutes, banjos, drums, etc.; sotaque de zabumba employs primarily very large drums; and sotaque de matraca, a percussion instrument made of two pieces of wood that you carry in your hands and hit against each other. Some matracas are very large and are carried around the neck.

Many major cities in the Northeast also hold an off-season carnaval (or "micareta"), such as the Carnatal in Natal or the Fortal in Fortaleza. Since its inception in 1991, Carnatal has become the largest off-season carnaval in Brazil. The event takes place once a year, in December, and draws roughly one million participants. The Fortal takes place once every year as well but in the month of July. Held in a stadium called Cidade Fortal, the Fortal is considered the largest indoor off-season carnaval in Brazil.

Celebrities[edit]

The Northeast of Brazil is home to many notable Brazilians, including 6 former presidents:

Arts & Letters

Science & Math

Medicine

Business & Economics

Politics & Law

Entertainment

Sports

  • Marta, female football player, five-time FIFA Women's World Player of the Year

Scholars & Educators

  • Paulo Freire, educator and a theorist of Critical Pedagogy;
  • Ruy Barbosa, intellectuals;
  • Anísio Teixeira, educator
  • Gilberto Freyre, sociologist, author of work about the structure of Brazil's Social Relations, the "Casa Grande & Senzala", a source of the origins of the intrincate Social & Ethnics in the Country;

Spiritual, Religious & Cultural Figures

  • Nísia Floresta, pioneer of feminism in Brasil;
  • Padre Cícero, spiritual leader of the whole Region, widely worshipped in the Northeast
  • Zumbi, a freedom fighter, leader of Brazil's most important Quilombo, the "Quilombo of Palmares";
  • Virgulino Ferreira da Silva(Lampião), bandit leader of a Cangaço band of marauders and outlaws, who defied the authorities of Brazilian Northeast in the 1920s and 1930s.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ AJU Santa Maria Airport (Sergipe), Aracaju, Sergipe; 'MCZ Zumbi dos Palmares International Airport, Maceio, Alagoras; PHB Parnaíba-Prefeito Dr. João Silva Filho International Airport Parnaiba, Piaui; SLZ Marechal Cunha Machado International Airport, Sao Luis, Maranhao; NAT Augusto Severo International Airport, Natal, Rio Grande du Notre; FOR Pinto Martins International Airport, Fortaleza, Ceara; JPA Presidente Castro Pinto International Airport, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba, REC Guararapes International Airport, Recife, Pernambuco; SSA Deputado Luís Eduardo Magalhães International Airport, Salvador, Bahia
  2. ^ by the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE), an agency of the Brazilian federal administration
  3. ^ The 1988 Brazilian Constitution treats the municipalities as parts of the Federation and not simply dependent subdivisions of the states.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ranking das maiores regiões metropolitanas do Brasil
  2. ^ Recife — cidade que surgiu do açúcar
  3. ^ Produto Interno Bruto - PIB e participação das Grandes Regiões e Unidades da Federação - 2011
  4. ^ Ceará retoma o posto de 4º maior produtor têxtil nacional | Profissão Moda. O seu portal de moda
  5. ^ http://www.infoescola.com/geografia/industria-da-seca/
  6. ^ Exploring Brazil's Northeast
  7. ^ ImoveisNordeste.com
  8. ^ Polo Industrial de Camaçari
  9. ^ http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0075145&representation=PDF
  10. ^ a b c Lins, T. C.; Vieira, R. G.; Abreu, B. S.; Grattapaglia, D.; Pereira, R. W. (March–April 2009). "Genetic composition of Brazilian population samples based on a set of twenty-eight ancestry informative SNPs". American Journal of Human Biology 22 (2): 187–192. doi:10.1002/ajhb.20976. PMID 19639555.  edit
  11. ^ a b Pena, Sérgio D. J.; Di Pietro, Giuliano; Fuchshuber-Moraes, Mateus; Genro, Julia Pasqualini; Hutz, Mara H.; Kehdy, Fernanda de Souza Gomes; Kohlrausch, Fabiana; Magno, Luiz Alexandre Viana; Montenegro, Raquel Carvalho; Moraes, Manoel Odorico; de Moraes, Maria Elisabete Amaral; de Moraes, Milene Raiol; Ojopi, Élida B.; Perini, Jamila A.; Racciopi, Clarice; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Ândrea Kely Campos; Rios-Santos, Fabrício; Romano-Silva, Marco A.; Sortica, Vinicius A.; Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme (2011). "The Genomic Ancestry of Individuals from Different Geographical Regions of Brazil is More Uniform Than Expected". In Harpending, Henry. PLoS ONE 6 (2): e17063. Bibcode:2011PLoSO...6E7063P. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017063. PMC 3040205. PMID 21359226.  edit
  12. ^ Nossa herança europeia —
  13. ^ DNA de brasileiro é 80% europeu, indica estudo
  14. ^ a b Forensic Science International: Genetics. Allele frequencies of 15 STRs in a representative sample of the Brazilian population (inglés) basandos en estudios del IBGE de 2008. Se presentaron muestras de 12.886 individuos de distintas etnias, por regiones, provenían en un 8,26% del Norte, 23,86% del Nordeste, 4,79% del Centro-Oeste, 10,32% del Sudeste y 52,77% del Sur.
  15. ^ Untitled Document
  16. ^ BVGF - A Obra / OpЩsculos
  17. ^ http://www.bibliotecadigital.ufmg.br/dspace/bitstream/1843/BUOS-8FMH5A/1/entre_fanaticos_e_her_is___gabriel_braga.pdf

External links[edit]