Northeastern coastal forests

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Northeastern coastal forests
Posts Brook from Norvin Green State Forest Lower Trail.jpg
Northeastern coastal forests map.svg
Ecology
Biome Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests
Borders
Bird species 251[1]
Mammal species 63[1]
Geography
Area 89,691 km2 (34,630 sq mi)
Country United States
States
Conservation
Habitat loss 40.8%[1]
Protected 6.2%[1]

The Northeastern coastal forests are a temperate broadleaf and mixed forests ecoregion of the northeastern United States. The ecoregion covers an area of 34,630 sq miles (89,691 km²) encompassing the Piedmont and coastal plain of seven states, extending from northern Maryland and Delaware through southeast Pennsylvania, New Jersey, southern New York State, Connecticut, Rhode Island, eastern Massachusetts and southeastern New Hampshire to southwestern Maine.

The ecoregion is bounded on the east by the Atlantic Ocean. To the north, it transitions to the New England-Acadian forests, which cover most of northern and inland New England. To the west, the ecoregion transitions to Allegheny Highlands forests and the Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests of the Appalachian Mountains. To the south lie the Southeastern mixed forests and the Middle Atlantic coastal forests. The ecoregion surrounds the distinct Atlantic coastal pine barrens ecoregion, which covers portions of southern New Jersey, Long Island and Cape Cod in southeastern Massachusetts.

Climate[edit]

The climate in this ecoregion varies from the transition between humid subtropical and humid continental in the south to the humid continental in the north.

Flora[edit]

Oak forests dominate this ecoregion. American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was formerly important, but its population was devastated by the chestnut blight early in the 20th century.

Dry-mesic oak forests[edit]

Northeastern interior dry-mesic oak forests are found throughout this ecoregion. They cover large areas at low and middle elevations, typically on flat to gently rolling terrain. Red oak (Quercus rubra), white oak (Quercus alba), and black oak (Quercus velutina) are common oaks in this habitat. Other trees include hickories (Carya spp.), red maple (Acer rubrum), sugar maple (Acer saccharum), white ash (Fraxinus americana), tulip tree (Liriodendron tulipifera), American beech (Fagus grandifolia), black cherry (Prunus serotina), black birch (Betula lenta), black tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica), and American elm (Ulmus americana). Flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) is a common understory tree.[2][3]

Common shrubs are maple-leaved viburnum (Viburnum acerifolium), spicebush (Lindera benzoin), and witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana). In sandier or more acidic soils are mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia), blueberry (Vaccinium pallidum), huckleberry (Gaylussacia baccata), and swamp azalea (Rhododendron viscosum).[2]

Mayapple (Podophyllum peltatum) is a common herbaceous plant.[2]

Hemlock-northern hardwood forests[edit]

Hemlock-northern hardwood forests occur in deep coves, moist flats, and ravines. They include sugar maple, yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis), and beech. These trees often form a deciduous canopy, but are sometimes mixed with hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) or white pine (Pinus strobus). Other common trees include oaks (most commonly red oak), tuliptree, black cherry, and sweet birch. In the Northeast, red spruce (Picea rubens) can be a minor canopy associate. Hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana) is frequent but not dominant.[4]

Dry oak-pine forests[edit]

Central Appalachian dry oak-pine forests occur on dry sites with loamy to sandy soils. A mix of oak and pine tree species dominate the canopy, typically chestnut oak (Quercus prinus), Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana), and white pine (Pinus strobus), but sometimes white oak (Quercus alba) or scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea). Varying amounts of oaks and pines result in oak forests, mixed oak-pine forests, or small pine forests. Shrubs such as hillside blueberry (Vaccinium pallidum), black huckleberry (Gaylussacia baccata), and mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) are common in the understory and can form a dense layer.[5]

Pine-oak rocky woodlands[edit]

Central Appalachian pine-oak rocky woodlands occur on lower-elevation hilltops, outcrops, and rocky slopes and have a patchy or open aspect. Pitch pine (Pinus rigida) and Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana) are common within their respective ranges. These pines are often mixed with dry-site oaks such as chestnut oak (Quercus prinus), bear oak (Quercus ilicifolia), northern red oak (Quercus rubra), and scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea). Sprouts of chestnut (Castanea dentata) can also be found. In the northeast, eastern red-cedar (Juniperus virginiana) or hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana) are sometimes important. In the understory, some areas have a fairly well-developed heath shrub layer, others a graminoid layer, the latter particularly common under deciduous trees such as oaks.[6]

Harriman State Park in New York.

Successional plant communities[edit]

These occur in formerly cleared land, such as old farms, that has been abandoned. Eastern Red Cedar (Juniperus virginiana) are some of the first trees to occupy these lands.[2]

Freshwater wetlands[edit]

Marshes occur where standing water is present for most of the year. Common reed (Phragmites australis) and cattails (Typha spp.) are often abundant.[2]

Swamps and floodplains occur where standing water is present for only some parts of the year. Red maple is common tree, and can be found with swamp tupelo, white ash, American elm, pin oak (Quercus palustris), swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor), and silver maple (Acer saccharinum). Spicebush is a common shrub. Skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus) is found here.[2]

Fauna[edit]

Some of the animals that live in the Northeastern coastal deciduous forests are white-tailed deer, eastern gray squirrels, chipmunks, red foxes, sparrows, chickadees, garter snakes, snails, coyotes, black bears, and raccoons. Chickadees, white-tailed deer, and eastern gray squirrels can be seen quite often. Gray wolves used to be quite common, but are extirpated, causing endemic growth in deer populations near suburban areas.

Areas of intact habitat[edit]

The following natural areas are within this ecoregion[7]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Hoekstra, J. M.; Molnar, J. L.; Jennings, M.; Revenga, C.; Spalding, M. D.; Boucher, T. M.; Robertson, J. C.; Heibel, T. J.; Ellison, K. (2010). Molnar, J. L., ed. The Atlas of Global Conservation: Changes, Challenges, and Opportunities to Make a Difference. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-26256-0. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f Collins, B. R.; Anderson, K. H. (1994). Plant Communities of New Jersey: A Study in Landscape Diversity. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-0-8135-2071-1. 
  3. ^ "Northeastern Interior Dry-Mesic Oak Forest". NatureServe Explorer. Retrieved 7 October 2012. 
  4. ^ "Appalachian (Hemlock)-Northern Hardwood Forest". NatureServe Explorer. Retrieved 7 October 2012. 
  5. ^ "Central Appalachian Dry Oak-Pine Forest". NatureServe Explorer. Retrieved 3 November 2012. 
  6. ^ "Central Appalachian Pine-Oak Rocky Woodland". NatureServe Explorer. Retrieved 4 November 2012. 
  7. ^ Olson; D. M; E. Dinerstein et al. (2001). "Terrestrial Ecoregions of the World: A New Map of Life on Earth". BioScience 51 (11): 933–938. doi:10.1641/0006-3568(2001)051[0933:TEOTWA]2.0.CO;2. 

External links[edit]