Northern Dancer (May 27, 1961 – November 16, 1990) was a Canadian-bred Thoroughbred racehorse that won the Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes and became the most successful sire of the 20th century. The National Thoroughbred Racing Association calls him "one of the most influential sires in Thoroughbred history".
A bay stallion, Northern Dancer was by Nearctic and his dam, Natalma, was by Native Dancer. In 1952, Edward P. Taylor, Canadian business magnate and owner of Windfields Farm, attended the December sale at Newmarket, England, where he purchased Lady Angela, a mare in foal to leading English-based sire Nearco. The following spring, Taylor sent Lady Angela to be bred to Nearco again, then shipped her to his farm in Canada later in 1953. In 1954, Lady Angela foaled a colt in Canada named Nearctic. In 1958, he won the Sovereign Award for Horse of the Year.
At the yearling sales at Windfields in Toronto, Ontario, the diminutive Northern Dancer did not find a buyer at the $25,000 reserve price, so he joined the Windfields Farm racing stable.
Northern Dancer was ridden by Ron Turcotte in his first victory as a two-year-old at Fort Erie Race Track. He won the Summer Stakes and the Coronation Futurity in Canada and the Remsen Stakes in New York. His record of seven victories in 9 starts earned him the Canadian Juvenile Championship.
At three, Northern Dancer won the Grade I Flamingo Stakes and Grade I Florida Derby with jockey Bill Shoemaker aboard. Before the running of the Blue Grass Stakes at Keeneland Race Course in Lexington, Kentucky, trainer Horatio Luro asked Shoemaker to commit to riding Northern Dancer in the Kentucky Derby. But Shoemaker chose a colt he had never ridden named Hill Rise as his Derby mount. The unbeaten Hill Rise had won the San Felipe Stakes and the Grade I Santa Anita Derby in California. Shoemaker campaigned hard to get Hill Rise as his mount, believing the colt represented his best chance for a Derby win. As a result of Shoemaker's decision, Bill Hartack became Northern Dancer's permanent jockey and guided him to victories in the Blue Grass and the Kentucky Derby, winning the latter race over a fast-finishing Hill Rise in a record time that stood until Secretariat broke it in 1973. Hartack and Northern Dancer won the Preakness Stakes and finished third in the Belmont Stakes to Quadrangle and Roman Brother. After the Belmont, Northern Dancer won Canada's Queen's Plate by seven and a half lengths before tenderness in his left front tendon ended his racing career. He was named both North America's champion three-year-old colt of 1964 and Canadian Horse of the Year.
In his two years of racing, Northern Dancer won 14 of his 18 races and never finished worse than third. In The Blood-Horse ranking of the top 100 U.S. Thoroughbred champions of the 20th century, he was ranked #43.
Northern Dancer stood at stud at Taylor's Windfields Farm in Oshawa, Ontario, until 1969, when he was moved to Windfields' Maryland farm, where he remained until his death. He was the most successful 20th-century Thoroughbred sire. His offspring earned more money and won more major stakes races than those of any other sire, including North American, Japanese, Australian, and European champions, until the 1990s era of shuttle stallions. He sired 147 stakes winners, including Nijinsky II, winner of England's Triple Crown; The Minstrel; Shareef Dancer; Secreto; Northernette; El Gran Senor; Lomond; and Fanfreluche.
He has been named the 20th century's best sire of sires, producing multiple champions in the United States and the United Kingdom. According to Thoroughbred Times, least 11 sons of Northern Dancer became outstanding sires: Be My Guest, Danzig, El Gran Senor, Fairy King, Lyphard, Nijinsky, Northern Taste, Nureyev, Sadler's Wells, Storm Bird, and Vice Regent. Northern Dancer's influence extends to Japan, where Northern Taste stood at stud at the Yoshida family's Shadai Stallion Station and was the leading sire in Japan for 10 years. By early 1980, Northern Dancer and his son Nijinsky II had combined to sire the winners of almost US$20 million in stakes. He also became the grandsire of 1991 Canadian Triple Crown winner Dance Smartly, who became the richest filly at that time with 12 wins from 17 career starts, including the 1991 Breeders' Cup Distaff and purses of over $2 million. She was also a success as a broodmare.
$1 million stud fee and world record offspring prices
The National Thoroughbred Racing Association calls Northern Dancer "one of the most influential sires in Thoroughbred history." At the time of his 1990 death, his offspring and further descendants had won more than 1,000 stakes races.
With this penchant for siring winners, Northern Dancer's stud fee reached $1 million, an amount four to five times that of his rivals and a record amount that, as of 2009, has not been equalled.
On twelve occasions between 1974 and 1988, Northern Dancer yearlings led the Keeneland July Selected Yearling Sale by average price. In 1984, 12 yearlings by Northern Dancer sold for an unrivaled sale-record average price of US$3,446,666. Combined over a period of 22 years, the top 174 Northern Dancer offspring at the Keeneland Sales sold for a total $160 million.
As of 2014, the top ten horses on the list of top auction prices were sired by – or further descended from – Northern Dancer. This includes Northern Dancer's son Snaafi Dancer, who became the first $10-million yearling when sold by Winfields Farms at the 1983 Keeneland Sales horse auction.
Although he has been dead for more than 20 years, more Northern Dancer-line horses are Breeder's Cup winners than from any other horse. According to France Galop, since 1994, the male bloodline of every Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe winner goes back to Nearco, his son Nasrullah, and his grandson Northern Dancer.
Northern Dancer is also the paternal grandsire of several prominent stallions, including Storm Cat, Deputy Minister, El Prado, and Danehill. He is the great-grandsire (on both the sire and dam side) of Big Brown, the winner of the 2008 Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes. Northern Dancer is the great-grandsire of Australia's superstar mare Makybe Diva. He is an ancestor of the winners of all three U.S. Triple Crown races in 2009: Mine That Bird in the Kentucky Derby, Rachel Alexandra in the Preakness, and Summer Bird in the Belmont. He is on both sides of the pedigrees of Mine That Bird and Rachel Alexandra. He is the great-grandsire of California Chrome, winner of the 2014 Kentucky Derby and 2014 Preakness Stakes, and also appears in the fifth generation of his pedigree. He is the great-great-grandsire of Sea the Stars. Undefeated racehorse Frankel is inbred 3 x 4 to Northern Dancer, meaning Northern Dancer appears once in the third generation and once in the fourth generation of his pedigree. Northern Dancer is the great-great-grandsire (all paternal) to undefeated Australian mare Black Caviar.
Northern Dancer won the American Eclipse Award as Three-Year Old Male Champion of 1964 and the Sovereign Award for Horse of the Year. In 1965, he became the first horse voted into Canada's Sports Hall of Fame. The next horse to be inducted was Canadian Equestrian Champion Big Ben (inducted 1996). When the Canadian Horse Racing Hall of Fame was founded, he was among its first group of inductees; he was also inducted into the National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame in 1976. In 1977, Northern Dancer won three world sires' premiership titles for the number of international stakes winners, international stakes wins, and total stake earnings of his progeny.
He was retired from stud (breeding) on 15 April 1987 at the age of 26. He died in 1990 and is buried at Windfields Farm in Oshawa, Ontario. Northern Dancer's remains were brought back to Canada for burial. Windfields Farm has subsequently been sold to the University of Ontario, and Northern Dancer's burial site is not publicly accessible. Northern Dancer was inducted into the Ontario Sports Hall of Fame in 1998. In 1999, Canada Post honoured the horse with his image placed on a postage stamp. A residential street was named after Northern Dancer on the former site of the Greenwood Race Track in east-end Toronto. Also, a life-sized bronze statue of the horse was placed outside Woodbine Race Track in northwest Toronto.
During the past 40 years, a number of books have been written about Northern Dancer, with the latest two editions coming out in 2006. One, by respected pedigree authority Avalyn Hunter, author of American Classic Pedigrees (1914–2002), recounts how Northern Dancer and his sons have established a royal dynasty that has profoundly dominated the international bloodstock market.
In 2011, the Canadian Horse Racing Hall of Fame held an induction ceremony; Canadian saxophone instrumentalist Matthew James Poulton performed his tribute song, entitled "Northern Dancer", from his latest album, Generations. The ceremony included a 50th-anniversary tribute for Northern Dancer.
In 2012, Breyer Animal Creations released a portrait model of Northern Dancer sculpted by Jeanne Mellin Herrick.
|Lady Angela (IRE)||Hyperion||Gainsborough|
|Sister Sarah||Abbots Trace|
- "Delaware Park adds five to Wall of Fame", Daily Racing Form, July 12, 2012, accessed May 11, 2013.
- "Windfields Farm", NTRA biography database, accessed June 16, 2013.
- de Bourg, Ross, "The Australian and New Zealand Thoroughbred", Nelson, West Melbourne, 1980, ISBN 0-17-005860-3
- "Another Stakes Winner for Northern Dancer". BloodHorse.com. 2004-04-08. Retrieved 2014-05-09.
- "Thoroughbred Times". Thoroughbred Times. Retrieved 2014-05-09.
- Thomas, Robert McG., Jr. (1990-11-17). "Northern Dancer, One of Racing's Great Sires, Is Dead". New York Times. Retrieved 2014-09-23.
- "Keeneland November to feature Windfields Farm, Overbrook dispersals - Bloodstock Journal". Brisnet.com. Retrieved 2014-05-09.
- "Northern Dancer". http://oshof.ca/. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
- Lennox, Muriel Anne. Northern Dancer: The Legend and His Legacy (Hushion House Publishing Ltd: 1995) ISBN 0-9699025-0-6
- Hunter, Avalyn. The Kingmaker : How Northern Dancer Founded a Racing Dynasty. (Eclipse Press : 2006) ISBN 1-58150-137-4
- Gamble-Arsenault, Debbie. Great Canadian Race Horses: The Incredible Feats of Northern Dancer and other Speed Demons (Altitude Publishing : 2006) ISBN 1-55439-000-1
- Article on Northern Dancer by the Thoroughbred Times, a division of the New York Times, entitled "Canada's Northern Dancer is the 20th century's best sire of sires"
- Northern Dancer's Kentucky Derby
- Northern Dancer 's offspring at the Triple Crown database by Kathleen Irwin and Joy Reeves