Northern Dobruja

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Map of Romania and Bulgaria with Northern Dobrudja highlighted in orange.

Northern Dobruja (Romanian: Dobrogea; Bulgarian: Северна Добруджа, Severna Dobrudzha) is the part of Dobruja within the borders of Romania. It lies between the lower Danube river and the Black Sea, bordered in south by Bulgarian Southern Dobruja.

History[edit]

Main article: History of Dobruja

Around 600 BC, the Greeks colonized the Black Sea shore and founded numerous fortress: Tomis (today's Constanta), Callatis, Histria, Argamum, Heracleea, Aegysus. After Greek civilization faded, Dobrogea became a Roman province. One of the best preserved remnants of this period is the Enisala citadel.[1]

For a short period in the 14th century, Dobrogea became part of the Romanian principality under the rule of King Mircea of Wallachia. However, the territory fell under Ottoman rule from the mid-15th century until 1878, when it was awarded to Romania for its role in the 1877-78 Russo-Turkish War, and as compensation for the transfer of a region partly overlapping the Southern Bessarabia.[2] Under the treaties of San Stefano and Berlin, Romania received Northern Dobruja while the newly restored principality of Bulgaria received the smaller Southern part of the region. After the Second Balkan War in 1913, Romania also occupied the Bulgarian Southern Dobruja, which it ruled until the signing of the 1940 Treaty of Craiova.

Geography[edit]

The territory of Northern Dobruja now forms the counties of Constanţa and Tulcea, with a total area of 15,500 km² and a current population of slightly over a million.

Cities[edit]

Rivers[edit]

Lakes[edit]

Danube Delta[edit]

Main article Danube Delta

The Danube Delta consists of numerous lakes. The most important ones are:

  • Roşu
  • Isac
  • Gorgova
  • Furtuna
  • Ledeanca
  • Tatanir
  • Merhel
  • Matiţa
  • Uzlina
  • Dranov
  • Lumina
  • Puiu
  • Puiuleţ

Demographics[edit]

Ethnicity 1880[3] 1899[3] 1913[4] 19301[5] 1956[6] 1966[6] 1977[6] 1992[6] 2002[6]
All 139,671 258,242 380,430 437,131 593,659 702,461 863,348 1,019,766 971,643
Romanian 43,671 (31%) 118,919 (46%) 216,425 (56.8%) 282,844 (64.7%) 514,331 (86.6%) 622,996 (88.7%) 784,934 (90.9%) 926,608 (90.8%) 883,620 (90.9%)
Bulgarian 24,915 (17%) 38,439 (14%) 51,149 (13.4%) 42,070 (9.6%) 749 (0.13%) 524 (0.07%) 415 (0.05%) 311 (0.03%) 135 (0.01%)
Turkish 18,624 (13%) 12,146 (4%) 20,092 (5.3%) 21,748 (5%) 11,994 (2%) 16,209 (2.3%) 21,666 (2.5%) 27,685 (2.7%) 27,580 (2.8%)
Tatar 29,476 (21%) 28,670 (11%) 21,350 (5.6%) 15,546 (3.6%) 20,239 (3.4%) 21,939 (3.1%) 22,875 (2.65%) 24,185 (2.4%) 23,409 (2.4%)
Russian-Lipovan 8,250 (6%) 12,801 (5%) 35,859 (9.4%) 26,210 (6%)² 29,944 (5%) 30,509 (4.35%) 24,098 (2.8%) 26,154 (2.6%) 21,623 (2.2%)
Ruthenian
(Ukrainian from 1956)
455 (0.3%) 13,680 (5%) 33 (0.01%) 7,025 (1.18%) 5,154 (0.73%) 2,639 (0.3%) 4,101 (0.4%) 1,465 (0.1%)
Dobrujan Germans 2,461 (1.7%) 8,566 (3%) 7,697 (2%) 12,023 (2.75%) 735 (0.12%) 599 (0.09%) 648 (0.08%) 677 (0.07%) 398 (0.04%)
Greek 4,015 (2.8%) 8,445 (3%) 9,999 (2.6%) 7,743 (1.8%) 1,399 (0.24%) 908 (0.13%) 635 (0.07%) 1,230 (0.12%) 2,270 (0.23%)
Roma 702 (0.5%) 2,252 (0.87%) 3,263 (0.9%) 3,831 (0.88%) 1,176 (0.2%) 378 (0.05%) 2,565 (0.3%) 5,983 (0.59%) 8,295 (0.85%)
1According to the 1926–1938 Romanian administrative division (counties of Constanţa and Tulcea), which excluded a part of today's Romania (chiefly the communes of Ostrov and Lipnița, now part of Constanţa County) and included a part of today's Bulgaria (parts of General Toshevo and Krushari municipalities)
2Only Russians. (Russians and Lipovans counted separately)

Heraldry[edit]

Northern Dobruja is represented by two dolphins in the Coat of arms of Romania.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Dobrogea fortresses and history
  2. ^ Woolf, Stuart Joseph (December 21, 1995). Nationalism in Europe, 1815 to the present: a reader. Routledge. p. 115. ISBN 978-0-415-12563-5. 
  3. ^ a b G. Dănescu, Dobrogea (La Dobroudja). Étude de Géographie physique et ethnographique
  4. ^ Roman, I. N. (1919). "La population de la Dobrogea. D'apres le recensement du 1er janvier 1913". In Demetrescu, A. La Dobrogea Roumaine. Études et documents (in French). Bucarest. OCLC 80634772. 
  5. ^ Calculated from results of the 1930 census per county, taken from Mănuilă, Sabin (1939). La Population de la Dobroudja (in French). Bucarest: Institut Central de Statistique. OCLC 1983592. 
  6. ^ a b c d e Calculated from statistics for the counties of Tulcea and Constanţa from "Populaţia după etnie la recensămintele din perioada 1930–2002, pe judete" (PDF) (in Romanian). Guvernul României — Agenţia Naţională pentru Romi. pp. 5–6, 13–14. Retrieved 2007-05-02.