|Religion||Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion|
|Historical era||Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period|
|-||Ended by the Song Dynasty||979 979|
|Currency||Chinese cash, Chinese coin, copper coins etc.|
|Today part of||China|
History of the Turkic peoples
|Wei (Dingling) 388–392|
|Turkic Khaganate 552–744|
|Avar Khaganate 564–804|
|Khazar Khaganate 618–1048|
|Great Bulgaria 632–668|
|Kangar union 659–750|
|Turgesh Khaganate 699–766|
|Tatar confederation 8th century–1202|
|Uyghur Khaganate 744–840|
|Karluk Yabgu State 756–940|
|Kara-Khanid Khanate 840–1212|
|Gansu Uyghur Kingdom 848–1036|
|Kingdom of Qocho 856–1335|
|Oghuz Yabgu State
|Shatuo dynasties 923–979|
|Later Han (Northern Han)|
|Seljuk Empire 1037–1194|
|Khwarazmian Empire 1077–1231|
|Sultanate of Rum 1092–1307|
|Delhi Sultanate 1206–1526|
|Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo) 1250–1517|
The Northern Han kingdom (simplified Chinese: 北汉; traditional Chinese: 北漢; pinyin: Běi Hàn) is a state of the Ten Kingdoms in the Period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms. It was founded by Liu Min (劉旻), a Shatuo Turk, formerly known as Liu Chong (劉崇), and lasted from 951 to 979.
Founding of the Northern Han
The Shatuo Turks had ruled most of northern China since 923 through the Later Tang, Later Jin, and Later Han. The short-lived Later Han fell in 950. Liu Min founded the Northern Han Kingdom, sometimes referred to as the Eastern Han, in 951 claiming that he was the legitimate heir to the imperial throne of Later Han. Liu Min immediately restored the traditional relationship the Shatuo Turks had with the Khitans, who had founded the Liao Dynasty.
The Northern Han was a small kingdom located in Shanxi with its capital located at Taiyuan. Shanxi had been a traditional base of power since the fading days of the Tang Dynasty in the late ninth century and early tenth century. It was wedged between the two major powers of the day, the Liao Dynasty to the north and the Song Dynasty to the south. It also shared a border with the Tangut kingdom of Western Xia.
Wedge Between Liao and Song
The existence of the Northern Han was one of the two major thorns in relations between the Liao Dynasty and the Song Dynasty, the other being the continued possession of the Sixteen Prefectures by the Liao Dynasty. The Northern Han had placed itself under the protection of the Liao.
Emperor Taizu was successful in nearly completing the incorporation of the southern kingdoms into the Song Dynasty by his death in 976. His younger brother, Emperor Taizong wished to emulate his older brother’s successes. Wuyue was brought into the realm in 978.
Fall of the Northern Han
Emboldened by his success to the south, Emperor Taizong decided to embark on a campaign to finally destroy the Northern Han. Leading the army himself, he brought his forces to the Northern Han capital of Taiyuan, which was laid under siege in June. An initial relief force sent by the Liao was easily defeated by Song. After a two-month siege of the capital, the leader of the Northern Han surrendered, the kingdom was incorporated into the Song Dynasty.
|Temple Names (Miao Hao 廟號)||Posthumous Names (Shi Hao 諡號)||Personal Names||Period of Reigns||Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their according range of years|
|世祖 Shìzǔ||神武帝 Shénwǔdì||Liu Min (劉旻)||951–954||Qiányòu (乾祐) 951–954|
|睿宗 Ruìzōng||孝和帝 Xiàohédì||Liu Jun (劉鈞)||954–968||Qiányòu (乾祐) 954–957
Tiānhuì (天會) 957–968
|少主 Shàozhǔ||Did not exist||Liu Ji'en (劉繼恩)||968||Did not exist|
|Did not exist||英武帝 Yīngwǔdì||Liu Jiyuan (劉繼元)||968–979||Guǎngyùn (廣運) 968–979|
- Lorge, Peter Allan (2012). Chinese Martial Arts: From Antiquity to the Twenty-First Century. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS. p. 115.
- Gumilev, Lev Nikolaevich. Searches for an Imaginary Kingdom: The Legend of the Kingdom of Prester John. Cambridge University Press 1987. p. 78.
- Mote, Frederick W (2003). Imperial China 900-1800. pp. 67–68.
- Mote, F.W. (1999). Imperial China: 900-1800. Harvard University Press. pp. 16, 106–108. ISBN 0-674-01212-7.