Northern Inca Empire
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The Northern Inca Empire was a temporary found state in western South America. The Northern Confederacy, consisting of the parts of the "regular" Inca Empire, was formed in 1527 when the Inca Huayna Capac died. After his will, the empire was divided between the "right" heir Huáscar, who received the traditional empire, ruled from Cuzco apart from those areas given to the Northern Inca Empire, with Quito as capital. Atahualpa, the favorite son, inherited this new, sovereign empire who stretched from Cajamarca in south to southern Colombia in the north. However, though Huáscar had inherited more than 90% of the original Empire's area, he ordered his brother and general Atoc to invade the north in 1529.
Cajamarca, the latter place of battle between Atahualpa and the Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro, was briefly seized, and the "second Cuzco", Tumebamba, did defect to Huáscar shortly after.
After initial setbacks, Atahualpa however managed to halt the southern advance at Mullihambato and later won a stunning victory in the battle of Chimborazo, much to the help of his generals Quizquiz, Rumiñahui and Chalicuchima. Tumebamba was recaptured and razed, its Cañaris population massacred, and Huáscar forced to evacuate the north.
In 1532, the although so superior southern empire was yet again defeated at Quipaipan, Huáscar was caught and Cuzco seized by Quizquiz. Atahualpa stayed himself in Cajamarca and was the same year caught by Spanish explorers. However, the capture of the Sapa Inca (Huáscar) and his capital in early 1532 marked the end of this empire as the empire was reunited under Atahualpa's reign. His luck was short found, however, as he himself was defeated and captured seven months later in Cajamarca. The capital of Quito was burnt to the ground in 1535 by his half-brother Rumiñahui.