Northern Italy is a wide geographical definition, without any administrative usage, used to indicate the northern part of the Italian state, also referred as Il Nord, Settentrione or Alta Italia. It coincides with two areas belonging to Italian first level NUTS of the European Union:
- North-East (Nord-Est) that includes the regions of: Emilia-Romagna, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol and Veneto
Northern Italy is occupied by the basin of the Po river, which comprises the whole of the broad plain extending from the foot of the Apennines to that of the Alps, together with the valleys and slopes on both sides of it. Throughout its whole course indeed, from its source in Monte Viso to its outflow into the Adriatic Sea—a distance of more than 5 degrees of longitude, or 220 miles in a direct line—the Po receives all the waters that flow from the Apennines northwards, and all those that descend from the Alps towards the south, till one comes to the Adige, which, after pursuing a parallel course with the Po for a considerable distance, enters the Adriatic by a separate mouth. In 2005, a team of researchers at the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute revealed that Northern Italy was one of Europe's most polluted areas due to smog, and air pollution, due to its climatic and geographic conditions, which favour the stagnation of the pollutants. 
Northern Italy is the most developed and productive area of the country, with one of the highest GDP's per capita in Europe. It was the first part of Italy to be industrialized in the last half of the 19th century, the so-called industrial triangle formed by the manufacturing centres of Milan and Turin, as well as the seaport of Genoa. Since then, the industrial core of the area has shifted eastward; the current industrial triangle consists of Lombardy, Veneto, and Emilia-Romagna. A similar shift happened for GDP per capita, and the eastern regions (including Lombardy) have since become wealthier than Piedmont and Liguria. With a 2008 nominal GDP estimated in €860.6 billion, Northern Italy accounts for about 60% of the Italian economy, despite having less than 50% of the population.
- Southern Italy
- Italian NUTS level 1 regions