Philippine languages

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Philippine
Geographic
distribution:
Philippines
Northern Sulawesi, Indonesia
Linguistic classification: Austronesian
Subdivisions:
ISO 639-2 / 5: phi
Glottolog: None
grea1284  (Greater Central Philippine)[1]
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The Philippine languages, per Adelaar and Himmelmann (2005)

In linguistics, the Philippine languages are a 1991 proposal by Robert Blust that all the languages of the Philippines and northern Sulawesi—except Sama–Bajaw (languages of the "Sea Gypsies") and a few languages of Palawan—form a subfamily of Austronesian languages. Although the Philippines is near the center of Austronesian expansion from Formosa, there is little linguistic diversity among the approximately 150 Philippine languages, suggesting that earlier diversity has been erased by the spread of the ancestor of the modern Philippine languages (Adelaar & Himmelmann 2005).[2] Philippine languages make up the oldest non-Formosan branch of the Austronesian language family, with several languages preserving the proto-Austronesian schwa and d–r assonance lost in the Sunda-Sulawesi grouping.

Classification[edit]

From approximately north to south, Adelaar and Himmelmann (2005) divide the Philippine languages into the following groups:

In addition, Umiray Dumaget Agta and the ManideInagta languages are unclassified within the Philippine family.

Vocabulary comparison[edit]

Comparison chart between several selected Philippine languages spoken from north to south with Proto-Austronesian first for comparison.

English one two three four person house dog coconut day new we what fire
Proto-Austronesian isa duSa telu Sepat Cau Rumaq asu niuR qalejaw baqeRu i-kita n-anu apuy
Tao ása dóa (raroa) tílo (tatlo) apat (ápat) tao vahay chito niyoy araw vayo yaten ango apoy
Ivatan asa dadowa tatdo apat tao vahay chito niyoy araw va-yo yaten ango apoy
Ilokano maysa dua tallo uppat tao balay aso niog aldaw baro sitayo ania apoy
Ibanag tadday dua tallu appa' tolay balay kitu niuk aggaw bagu sittam anni afi
Gaddang antet addwa tallo appat tolay balay atu ayog aw bawu ikkanetam sanenay afuy
Pangasinan sakey dua, duara talo, talora apat, apatira too abong aso niyog ageo balo sikatayo anto pool
Kapampangan métung adwâ atlû ápat táu balé ásu ngúngut aldô báyu íkatamu nánu api
Tagalog isa dalawa tatlo apat tao bahay aso niyog araw bago tayo ano apoy
Bikol saro duwa tulo upat tawo harong ayam niyog adlaw ba-go kita ano kalayo
Waray usa duha tulo upat tawo balay ayam/ido lubi adlaw bag-o kita ano kalayo
Romblomanon isa duha tuyo upat tawo bayay ayam niyog adlaw bag-o kita ano kalayo
Bantoanon usa ruha tuyo upat tawo bayay iro nidog adlaw bag-o kita ni-o kayado
Onhan isya darwa tatlo ap-at tawo balay ayam niyog adlaw bag-o kita ano kalayo
Akeanon isa daywa tatlo apat tawo baeay ayam niyog adlaw bag-o kita ano kaeayo
Kinaray-a sara darwa tatlo apat taho balay ayam niyog adlaw bag-o kita, tatən ano kalayo
Hiligaynon isa duha tatlo apat tawo balay ido lubi adlaw bag-o kita, taton ano kalayo
Cebuano usa duha tulo upat tawo balay iro lubi adlaw bag-o kita unsa kalayo
Maranao isa dowa t'lo phat taw walay aso neyog gawi'e bago tano tonaa apoy
Tboli sotu lewu tlu fat tau gunu ohu lefo kdaw lomi tekuy tedu ofih
Tausug hambuuk duwa tu upat tau bay iru' niyug adlaw ba-gu kitaniyu unu kayu
Bolaang Mongondow inta' dua tolu opat intau baloi ungku' cekut singgai mo-bagu kita onda tulu'
Gorontalo tuwewu duluwo totolu wopato tawu bele 'apula sekat dulahu bohu 'ito wolo tulu
Tombulu (Minahasa) esa zua (rua) telu epat tou walé asu po'po' endo weru kai, kita apa api

Philippine Negrito languages[edit]

The Negrito peoples of the Philippines speak various languages. They have more in common with neighboring languages than with each other, and are listed here merely as an aid to identification.

Lobel (2013)[edit]

Lobel (2013)[3] lists the following Black Filipino (i.e., Philippine Negrito) ethnolinguistic groups.

Northern Luzon

(Lobel (2010)[4] lists the following Negrito languages that are spoken on the eastern coast of Luzon Island, listed from north to south.)

Furthermore, Robinson & Lobel (2013)[5] argue that Dupaningan Agta, Pahanan Agta, Casiguran Agta, Nagtipunan Agta, Dinapigue Agta, and Paranan do not belong to the Northern Cordilleran branch, but rather a new branch that they call Northeastern Luzon, which they consider to be a primary branch of the Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) group.

Zambales Mountains
Southern Luzon
Southern Philippines
Extinct varieties

Reid (1994)[edit]

Reid (1994) lists the following Negrito languages.[6]

Other Philippine Negrito languages

Ethnologue adds extinct and unclassified Katabaga of southern Luzon.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Greater Central Philippine". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  2. ^ More diverse Philippine-type are found in Borneo.
  3. ^ Lobel, Jason William. 2013. Philippine and North Bornean languages: issues in description, subgrouping, and reconstruction. Ph.D. dissertation. Manoa: University of Hawai'i at Manoa.
  4. ^ Lobel, Jason William. 2010. Manide: An Undescribed Philippine Language. Oceanic Linguistics, Vol. 49, no. 2.
  5. ^ Robinson, Laura C. and Jason William Lobel (2013). "The Northeastern Luzon Subgroup of Philippine Languages." Oceanic Linguistics 52.1 (2013): 125-168.
  6. ^ Reid, Lawrence A. 1994. Possible Non-Austronesian Lexical Elements in Philippine Negrito Languages. Oceanic Linguistics, Vol. 33, No. 1 (Jun. 1994), pp. 37-72.
  7. ^ Wimbish, John. 1986. The languages of the Zambales mountains: a Philippine lexicostatistic study. In Work Papers of the Summer Institute of Linguistics, University of North Dakota Session, vol. 30:133-142.
  • Fay Wouk and Malcolm Ross (ed.), The history and typology of western Austronesian voice systems. Australian National University, 2002.
  • K. Alexander Adelaar and Nikolaus Himmelmann, The Austronesian languages of Asia and Madagascar. Routledge, 2005.
  • Austronesian Basic Vocabulary Database, 2008.

External links[edit]