Northern Thailand is geographically characterised by multiple mountain ranges, which continue from the Shan Hills in bordering Myanmar and Laos, and the river valleys which cut through them. Though like most of Thailand, it has a tropical savanna climate, its relatively high altitude and latitude contribute to more pronounced seasonal temperature variation, with cooler winters than the other regions. Historically it is related to the Lanna Kingdom and its culture.
Regional classification of Northern Thailand 
The northern region, as defined by the National Geographical Committee in 1978, consists of nine provinces. Geographically the division according to the six-region system includes most of the mountainous natural region of the Thai Highlands.
The four-region classification system adds an additional seven bringing the total up to sixteen provinces. In the four-region system Northern Thailand includes the upper-central-region Provinces of Kamphaeng Phet, Nakhon Sawan, Phetchabun, Phichit, Phitsanulok, Sukhothai and Uthai Thani; as well as western-region Tak Province.
Based on the six-region system the provinces are the following:
|Seal||Name||Capita||Population||Area (km²)||Density||ISO code|
|Chiang Mai Province||Chiang Mai||1,646,144||20,107.0||81.9||TH-50|
|Chiang Rai Province||Chiang Rai||1,198,656||11,678.4||102.6||TH-57|
|Mae Hong Son Province||Mae Hong Son||244,048||12,681.3||19.2||TH-58|
Note: The population as 31 December 2011.
Parallel mountain ranges extend from the Daen Lao Range (ทิวเขาแดนลาว), in the southern region of the Shan Hills, in a north/south direction, the Dawna Range (ทิวเขาดอยมอนกุจู) forming the western border of Thailand between Mae Hong Son and the Salween River. To the east the Thanon Thong Chai Range (เทือกเขาถนนธงชัย), the Khun Tan Range (อยขุนตาน), the Phi Pan Nam Range (ทิวเขาผีปันน้ำ), as well as the western part of the Luang Prabang Range (ะทิวเขาหลวงพระบาง), form the natural region of the Thai Highlands together with the former.
These high mountains are incised by steep river valleys and upland areas that border the central plain. A series of rivers, including the Nan, Ping, Wang, Yom and Nan, flow southwards through mountain valleys and join to form the Chao Phraya in Nakhon Sawan Province in the central region. Sirikit Dam is situated on the Nan River in Uttaradit Province. The Northeastern part is drained by rivers flowing into the Mekong basin, like the Kok and Ing.
The four-region system includes the northern parts of the Central Plain as well as some mountainous areas bordering the western and the northeastern limits.
See also 
- Northern Thailand
- ดร.กระมล ทองธรรมชาติ และคณะ, สังคมศึกษา ศาสนาและวัฒนธรรม ม.1, สำนักพิมพ์ อักษรเจริญทัศน์ อจท. จำกัด, 2548, หน้า 24-25
- North (Thailand) travel guide from Wikivoyage