Northern hairy-nosed wombat

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Northern hairy-nosed wombat[1]
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Infraclass: Marsupialia
Order: Diprotodontia
Family: Vombatidae
Genus: Lasiorhinus
Gray, 1863
Species: L. krefftii
Binomial name
Lasiorhinus krefftii
(Owen, 1873)
Northern Hairy-nosed Wombat area.png
Northern hairy-nosed wombat range

The northern hairy-nosed wombat (Lasiorhinus krefftii), is one of three species of wombats. It is one of the rarest large mammals in the world and is critically endangered. Its historical range extended across New South Wales, Victoria, and Queensland as recently as 100 years ago, but it is now restricted to one place, a 3-km2 range within the 32-km2 Epping Forest National Park in Queensland. In 2003, the total population consisted of 113 individuals, including only around 30 breeding females.[3] In the last census taken in 2010 there was found to be an estimated population of 163 individuals, and in recent years the population has experienced a slow but steady increase.[4]

Description[edit]

In general, all species of wombats are heavily built, with large heads and short powerful legs. They have strong claws to dig their burrows, where they live much of the time. It usually takes about a day for an individual to dig a burrow.

Northern hairy-nosed wombats have bodies covered in soft, grey fur and even have fur on their noses, a trait that sets them apart from the common wombat. They have longer, more pointed ears and a much broader muzzle than the other two species.[5] Individuals can be 35 cm high, up to 1 m long and weigh up to 40 kg. The species exhibits sexual dimorphism, with females being somewhat larger than males due to the presence of an extra layer of fat. They are slightly larger than the common wombat and able to breed somewhat faster (giving birth to two young every three years on average).

The northern hairy-nosed wombat's nose is very important in its survival because it has very poor eyesight, so it can easily detect its food in the dark through smell.

Behaviour[edit]

The Northern hairy-nosed wombat is nocturnal, living underground in networks of burrows. They avoid coming above ground during harsh weather, as their burrows maintain a constant humidity and temperature.[6] They have been known to share burrows with up to 10 individuals, equally divided by sex. Young are usually born during the wet season, between November and April. When rain is abundant, 50-80% of the females in the population will breed, giving birth to one offspring at a time. Juveniles stay in the mother's pouch for 8 to 9 months, and are weaned at 12 months of age.[7]

The fat reserves and low metabolic rate of this species permit Northern hairy-nosed wombats to go without food for several days when food is scarce. Even when they do feed every day, it is only for 6 hours a day in the winter and 2 hours in the summer, significantly less than a similar-sized kangaroo, which feeds for at least 18 hours a day. Their diet consists of native grasses (black speargrass (Heteropogon contortus), bottle washer grasses(Enneapogon spp.), golden beard grass (Chrysopogon fallax), and three-awned grass(Aristida spp.) as well as various types of roots. The teeth continue to grow beyond the juvenile period, and are worn down by the abrasive grasses they eat.[citation needed]. Its habitat has become infested with African buffel grass, which outcompetes the native grasses on which the wombat prefers to feed.[8]

Taxonomy[edit]

Nomenclature[edit]

The genus name Lasiorhinus comes from the Latin words lasios, meaning hairy or shaggy, and rhinus, meaning nose.[9] The widely accepted common name is Northern hairy-nosed wombat, based on the historical range of the species as well as the fur, or "whiskers", on its nose. In some older literature it is referred to as the Queensland hairy-nosed wombat.[10]

Classification[edit]

The Northern hairy-nosed wombat shares its genus with one other extant species, the Southern hairy-nosed wombat, while the common wombat is in the Vombatus genus. Both Lasiorhinus species differ morphologically from the common wombat by their silkier fur, broader hairy noses, and longer ears.[11]

Placental and marsupial mammals are an example of divergent evolution: a single group of organisms splits into two groups and each group evolves in a different direction. The wombat, with all marsupials, diverged from placental mammals during the Cretaceous. The koala is the most closely related marsupial to wombats, and is categorised in the same suborder, Vombatiformes.[12]

Conservation[edit]

Threats to the Northern hairy-nosed wombat include small population size, predation, competition for food, disease, floods, droughts, wildfires, and habitat loss. Its small, highly localised population makes the species especially vulnerable to natural disasters. Wild dogs are the wombat's number one predator. The habitat at Epping Forest National Park is now well-protected to ensure better chances of survival.

Due to these threats, the Northern hairy-nosed wombat is listed as "endangered" by the Australian Species Profile and Threats Database (SPRAT),[13] and "critically endangered" by the IUCN.[2] Its range is restricted to about 300 ha (750 acres) of the Epping National Forest in East-Central Queensland, 120 km northwest of Clermont.

To combat the vulnerability of this species, there have been a number of conservation projects put into action over recent years. One example was the construction of a two-metre-high, predator-proof fence around 25 km2 of the park in 2000. Recently, a second population of wombats has been established at Richard Underwood Nature Refuge at Yarran Downs near St. George in Southern Queensland.[14] This second population was established in 2008 and is also in a reserve surrounded by a predator-proof fence.[14] Within Epping Forest National Park, there have been increased attention and funds for wombat research and population monitoring, fire management, maintenance of the predator-proof fence, general management and control of predators and competitors, and elimination of invasive plant species. [15] In addition, the species recovery plan of 2004 to 2008 includes communication and community involvement in saving the species and works to increase the current population in the wild, establish other populations within the wombat's historical range, and work with zoos to establish a captive husbandry program. There is also a volunteer caretaker program that allows volunteers to contribute in monitoring the population and keeping the predator fence in good repair. Finally, DNA fingerprint identification of wombat hairs allows research to be conducted without an invasive trapping or radio tracking program. Due to the combined efforts of these forces, the Northern hairy-nosed wombat population is slowly making a comeback.[16]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Groves, C. P. (2005). "Order Diprotodontia". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494. 
  2. ^ a b Taggart, D., Martin, R. & Horsup (2008). Lasiorhinus krefftii. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 02 Sept 2009.
  3. ^ Eastwood, K. (October–December 2003). "Saving the northern hairy-nosed wombat". Australian Geographic (72). 
  4. ^ Horsup, Alan. "Northern hairy-nosed wombat". Queensland Government. The State of Queensland (Department of Environment and Heritage Protection). Retrieved 22 February 2014. 
  5. ^ Jew, Darren. "Northern Hairy-Nosed Wombat". Wildlife Preservation Society of Qld. Wildlife Queensland. Retrieved 23 February 2014. 
  6. ^ Banks, Sam; Hoyle, Horsup, Sunnucks, Taylor (28 February 2006). "Demographic monitoring of an entire species (the northern hairy-nosed wombat, Lasiorhinus krefftii) by genetic analysis of non-invasively collected material". Animal Conservation 6 (2): 101–107. doi:10.1017/S1367943003003135. Retrieved 23 February 2014. 
  7. ^ Johnson, C. N.; Crossman (23 March 2009). "Dispersal and social organization of the northern hairy-nosed wombat Lasiorhinus krefftii". Journal of Zoology 225 (4): 605–613. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1991.tb04328.x. Retrieved 25 February 2014. 
  8. ^ Johnson, C. N. (November 1991). "Utilization of habitat by the northern hairy-nosed wombat Lasiorhinus krefftii". Journal of Zoology 225 (3): 495–507. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1991.tb03831.x. Retrieved 25 February 2014. 
  9. ^ Gotch, A. F. (1979). Mammals, their Latin names explained. Poole: Blanchford Press. 
  10. ^ Gordon, G.; Riney, T.; Toop, J.; Lawrie, B.C.; Godwin, M.D. (1985). "Observations on the Queensland Hairy-nosed Wombat, Lasiorhinus krefftii (Owen)". Biological Conservation 33: 165–195. doi:10.1016/0006-3207(85)90102-8. 
  11. ^ Horsup, A. "Recovery plan for the northern hairy-nosed wombat Lasiorhinus krefftii 2004-2008". Report to the Department of Environment and Heritage, Canberra. 
  12. ^ Triggs, B (2009). Wombats. Collingwood, Australia: CSIRO Publishing. 
  13. ^ "Lasiorhinus krefftii Northern Hairy-nosed Wombat". Species Profile and Threats Database. Retrieved 2007-01-05. 
  14. ^ a b Department of Environment and Resource Management. "Northern hairy-nosed wombat". Queensland Government. 
  15. ^ Short, Jeff; Smith (2 May 1994). "Mammal Decline and Recovery in Australia". Journal of Mammology 75 (2): 288–301. doi:10.2307/1382547. Retrieved 28 February 2014. 
  16. ^ Sloane, M. A.; Sunnucks, Alpers, Taylor, Beheragary (September 2000). "Highly reliable genetic identification of individual northern hairy-nosed wombats from single remotely collected hairs: a feasible censusing method". Molecular Ecology 9 (9): 1233–1240. doi:10.1046/j.1365-294x.2000.00993.x. Retrieved 28 February 2014. 
  • Underhill D (1993). Australia's Dangerous Creatures. Sydney NSW: Reader's Digest. ISBN 0-86438-018-6. 

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