Downtown Northfield, September 2010
|Motto: "Striving For Excellence Committed To Service"|
Location of the city of Northfield
within Rice and Dakota Counties
in the state of Minnesota
|• Mayor||Dana Graham|
|• Total||8.61 sq mi (22.30 km2)|
|• Land||8.56 sq mi (22.17 km2)|
|• Water||0.05 sq mi (0.13 km2) 0.58%|
|Elevation||912 ft (278 m)|
|• Estimate (2013)||20,581|
|• Density||2,337.3/sq mi (902.4/km2)|
|Time zone||Central (UTC-6)|
|• Summer (DST)||Central (UTC-5)|
|GNIS feature ID||0648725|
|Website||City of Northfield|
Northfield is a city in Dakota and Rice counties in the State of Minnesota. Most of the city is located in Rice County, with a small part extending into Dakota County. The population was 20,007 at the 2010 census.
Northfield was founded by John W. North in 1855. Northfield was founded by immigrants from New England known as "Yankees" as part of a New England colonization of what was then the far west. Northfield was an early agricultural center with many wheat and corn farms. The town also supported lumber and flour mills powered by the Cannon River. As the "wheat frontier" moved west, dairy operations and diversified farms replaced the wheat-based agriculture. The region has since moved away from dairy and beef operations. Today it produces substantial crops of corn, and soybeans, as well as producing hogs. The local cereal producer Malt-O-Meal is one of the few remnants of Northfield's historic wheat boom. The city's motto, "Cows, Colleges, and Contentment", reflects the influence of the dairy farms.
Since early in its history, Northfield has been a center of higher education. Carleton College (then Northfield College) was founded in 1866 on the northern edge of town by the Minnesota Conference of Congregational Churches whose Congregation consisted of the "Yankee" settlers who had largely founded the town. These were people descended from the English Puritans who settled New England in the 1600s. St. Olaf College was founded in 1874 on the western edge of town by Norwegian Lutheran immigrant pastors and farmers, who were eager to preserve their faith and culture by training teachers and preachers. These two institutions, which today enroll a total of more than 5,000 students, make Northfield a college town.
In the 1970s, construction was completed of Interstate Highway 35 (six miles west of Northfield) enabled the expansion of the Minneapolis–Saint Paul metro area south of the Minnesota River. Northfield is now growing and urbanizing. The downtown grain elevator accepted its last load of corn in 2000 and was torn down in 2002. Residential growth has been rapid since the mid-1990s. Northfield is becoming a suburb and bedroom community on the southern fringe of the Twin Cities metropolitan area. A new area hospital, which opened in 2003 in the northwest corner of town, is in Dakota County.
Many of the buildings in downtown Northfield are reasonably well-preserved examples of late 19th & early 20th century architecture. Because of early economic successes and the stability of two thriving colleges, the downtown is more extensive and better maintained than in similar Midwest communities. Today, commercial development continues on the southern edge of the city, where room for growth remains.
Roughly speaking, the town is centered around the Cannon River and rises both to the east and the west away from this bisecting river body.
As of the census of 2010, there were 20,007 people, 6,272 households, and 3,946 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,337.3 inhabitants per square mile (902.4/km2). There were 6,832 housing units at an average density of 798.1 per square mile (308.1/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 88.8% White, 1.3% African American, 0.2% Native American, 3.5% Asian, 4.0% from other races, and 2.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.4% of the population.
There were 6,272 households of which 32.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.0% were married couples living together, 9.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.6% had a male householder with no wife present, and 37.1% were non-families. 30.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 3.04.
The median age in the city was 26.4 years. 19.8% of residents were under the age of 18; 29% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 19.1% were from 25 to 44; 20.1% were from 45 to 64; and 12% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 47.4% male and 52.6% female.
As of the census of 2000, there were 17,147 people, 4,909 households, and 3,210 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,452.2 people per square mile (947.1/km²). There were 5,119 housing units at an average density of 732.1 per square mile (282.8/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 92.57% White, 0.90% African American, 0.34% Native American, 2.36% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 1.78% from other races, and 1.99% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.73% of the population.
There were 4,909 households out of which 35.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.7% were married couples living together, 9.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.6% were non-families. 27.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.08.
In the city the population was spread out with 20.2% under the age of 18, 32.1% from 18 to 24 (a figure heavily influenced by the student population of St. Olaf and Carleton College), 21.0% from 25 to 44, 16.1% from 45 to 64, and 10.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 23 years. For every 100 females there were 91.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.7 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $49,972, and the median income for a family was $61,055. Males had a median income of $40,008 versus $28,456 for females. The per capita income for the city was $18,619. About 2.8% of families and 7.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.3% of those under age 18 and 7.4% of those age 65 or over.
Early in the city's history, local merchants created a small town square between Fourth Street to the north, Division Street to the east, the Cannon River to the west, and the southern storefronts. The old Ames Mill/Malt-O-Meal plant was also nearby, originally powered by the dam on the river. Bridge Square and the surrounding downtown area remain a strong cultural attraction for the city. The square has several amenities including a large fountain, a memorial statue, and a concession stand known as "the popcorn wagon" run by the senior center. Several scenic walkways follow the river, and numerous shops and boutiques can be found on the neighboring streets.
Businesses serving the growing senior citizen community of Northfield have expanded to include the Northfield Senior Center (warm water pool, fitness studio, meeting rooms, fitness center, dining program, art classes, computer lab), the Village on the Cannon, Millstream Commons, and new construction at the Northfield Retirement Center complex. The northern edge of the city has also been expanding with several residential and commercial developments.
Jesse James' and the James-Younger Gang's 1876 attempt to rob the First National Bank of Northfield serves as a heritage tourism draw for the town. The original bank building was converted to a museum operated by the Northfield Historical Society. The First National Bank of Northfield operates from a main office built half a block away from the historic site. In its front lobby, a glass case showcases a gun used during the robbery.
The Northfield Convention and Visitors Bureau provides comprehensive tourism information and visit planning services.
Arts and culture
Defeat of Jesse James Days
On September 7, 1876, Northfield experienced one of its most important historical events, when The James-Younger Gang attempted a robbery on the First National Bank of Northfield. Local citizens, recognizing what was happening, armed themselves and resisted the robbers and successfully thwarted the theft. The gang killed the bank's cashier, Joseph Lee Heywood and a Swedish immigrant, Nicholas Gustafson. A couple of members of the gang were killed in the street, while the rest were cornered near Madelia, Minnesota. Jesse and Frank James escaped west into the Dakotas, while the remaining gang members were killed or taken into custody. Considering the James gang as related to postwar insurgency, the raid has sometimes been called the last major event of the American Civil War. One of Northfield's slogans is "Jesse James Slipped Here", based on the raid's failure.
The events have become the basis of an annual outdoor heritage festival called The Defeat of Jesse James Days. It is held the weekend after Labor Day and is among the largest outdoor celebrations in Minnesota. Thousands of visitors witness reenactments of the robbery, which is staged on Division street, outside of the First National Bank of Northfield. Other activities during the festival include: a championship rodeo, carnival, car show, and parade, horseshoe hunt, as well as arts and crafts expositions, and musical performances. Many food stations are set up in Bridge Square, and during the evenings live music is played in a "beer tent" on Water Street.
For over a decade friends and family have come to love the annual "Horseshoe Hunt" the week prior to the celebration where an antique horseshoe is hidden somewhere within the city on public grounds. This has become a tradition and family event for locals. The finder claims that year's cash purse.
In popular media
- Films based on the failed raid include The Great Northfield Minnesota Raid (1972) and The Long Riders (1980).
Park and recreation
The Carleton College Cowling Arboretum is a sizable, well-established arboretum and nature preserve adjacent to Carleton College. It offers extensive trails for walking in the summer and cross-country skiing in the winter.
Government and politics
The Northfield public school district operates three elementary schools, a middle school, and a high school. Northfield High School is known as one of the high schools with the highest standards in southern Minnesota. In addition, Northfield has public charter schools: ARTech (grades 6–12) and Prairie Creek Community School (grades K–5) in nearby Castle Rock. They receive state funding from the State of Minnesota.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Northfield, Minnesota.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Northfield, Minnesota.|
|Wikisource has the text of a 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article about Northfield, Minnesota.|
- City of Northfield, MN – Official site
- Northfield Convention and Visitors Bureau – Visitor Information
- Northfield History Collaborative
- James-Younger Gang photos at the Minnesota Historical Society
- Northfield photos at the Minnesota Historical Society
- Northfield, Minnesota at DMOZ