Northrop Grumman RQ-4 Global Hawk
|RQ-4/MQ-4 Global Hawk|
|An RQ-4 Global Hawk flying in 2007|
|National origin||United States|
|First flight||28 February 1998|
|Primary users||United States Air Force
United States Navy
|Number built||42 RQ-4Bs as of FY2013|
|Program cost||US$10 billion (USAF cost through FY2014)|
|Variants||Scaled Composites Model 396|
|Developed into||Northrop Grumman MQ-4C Triton|
The Northrop Grumman RQ-4 Global Hawk is an unmanned (UAV) surveillance aircraft. It was initially designed by Ryan Aeronautical (now part of Northrop Grumman), and known as Tier II+ during development. In role and operational design, the Global Hawk is similar to the Lockheed U-2. The RQ-4 provides a broad overview and systematic surveillance using high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and long-range electro-optical/infrared (EO/IR) sensors with long loiter times over target areas. It can survey as much as 40,000 square miles (100,000 km2) of terrain a day.
The Global Hawk is operated by the United States Air Force and U.S. Navy. It is used as a high-altitude platform covering the spectrum of intelligence collection capability to support forces in worldwide military operations. According to the United States Air Force, the superior surveillance capabilities of the aircraft allow more precise weapons targeting and better protection of friendly forces. Cost overruns led to the original plan to acquire 63 aircraft being cut to 45, and to a 2013 proposal to mothball the 21 Block 30 signal-intelligence variants. Each aircraft was to cost US$60.9 million in 2001, but this had risen to $222.7 million per aircraft (including development costs) by 2013. The U.S. Navy has developed the Global Hawk into the MQ-4C Triton maritime surveillance platform.
- 1 Development
- 2 Design
- 3 Operational history
- 4 Variants
- 5 Operators
- 6 Specifications (RQ-4B)
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
|This section requires expansion with: development, context, and history of the design; this article is focused almost entirely on events after 2006-2008.. (July 2014)|
The first seven aircraft were built under the Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration (ACTD) program, sponsored by DARPA, in order to evaluate the design and demonstrate its capabilities. Demand for the RQ-4's abilities was high in the Middle East; thus, the prototype aircraft were actively operated by the U.S. Air Force in the War in Afghanistan. In an unusual move, the aircraft entered initial low-rate production while still in engineering and manufacturing development. Nine production Block 10 aircraft, sometimes referred to as RQ-4A, were produced; of these, two were sold to the US Navy and an additional two were deployed to Iraq to support operations there. The final Block 10 aircraft was delivered on 26 June 2006.
In order to increase the aircraft's capabilities, the airframe was redesigned, with the nose section and wings being stretched. The modified aircraft, designated RQ-4B Block 20, allow it to carry up to 3,000 lb of internal payload. These changes were introduced with the first Block 20 aircraft, the 17th Global Hawk produced, which was rolled out in a ceremony on 25 August 2006. First flight of the Block 20 from the USAF Plant 42 in Palmdale, California to Edwards Air Force Base took place on 1 March 2007. Developmental testing of Block 20 took place in 2008.
The United States Navy took delivery of two of the Block 10 aircraft to be used to evaluate maritime surveillance capabilities, designated N-1 (BuNo 166509) and N-2 (BuNo 166510). The initial example was tested in a naval configuration at Edwards Air Force Base for several months, later ferrying to NAS Patuxent River on 28 March 2006 to begin the Global Hawk Maritime Demonstration (GHMD) program. Navy squadron VX-20 was tasked with operating the GHMD system.
The GHMD aircraft flew in the Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC) exercise for the first time in July 2006. Although RIMPAC operations were in the vicinity of Hawaii, the aircraft was operated from Edwards, requiring flights of approximately 2,500 mi (4,000 km) each way to the operations area. Four flights were performed, resulting in over 24 hours of persistent maritime surveillance coordinated with Abraham Lincoln and Bonhomme Richard. As a part of the demonstration program, Global Hawk was tasked with maintenance of maritime situational awareness, contact tracking, and imagery support of various exercise operations. In operation, images from Global Hawks were transmitted to NAS Patuxent River for processing before being forwarded to the fleet operations off Hawaii.
Northrop Grumman entered a version of the RQ-4B in the US Navy's Broad Area Maritime Surveillance (BAMS) UAV contract competition. On 22 April 2008, the announcement was made that the Northrop Grumman RQ-4N had won the bid, with the Navy awarding a contract worth US$1.16 billion. In September 2010, the RQ-4N was officially designated the MQ-4C.
The Navy MQ-4C differs from the Air Force RQ-4 mainly in its wing. While the Global Hawk remains at high altitude to conduct surveillance, the Triton climbs to 50,000 ft to see a wide area and can drop to 10,000 ft to get further identification of a target. The Triton's wings are specially designed to take the stresses of rapidly decreasing altitude. Though similar in appearance to the Global Hawk's wings, the Triton's internal wing structure is much stronger and has additional features including anti-icing capabilities and impact and lightning strike protection.
Cost increases and procurement
Program development cost overruns had put the Global Hawk system at risk of cancellation. Per-unit costs in mid-2006 were 25% over baseline estimates, caused by both the need to correct design deficiencies as well as increase the system's capabilities. This caused some concerns about a possible congressional termination of the program if its national security benefits could not be justified. However, in June 2006, the Global Hawk program was restructured. Completion of an operational assessment report by the Air Force was delayed from August 2005-November 2007 due to manufacturing and development delays. The operational assessment report was released in March 2007 and production of the 54 air vehicles planned has been extended by two years to 2015.
In February 2011, the Air Force reduced its planned purchase of RQ-4 Block 40 aircraft from 22 to 11 in order to cut costs. In June 2011, the U.S. Defense Department's Director, Operational Test and Evaluation (DOT&E) found the RQ-4B "not operationally effective" for its mission due to reliability issues.
In June 2011, the Global Hawk was certified by the Secretary of Defense as critical to national security following a breach of the Nunn-McCurdy Amendment; the Secretary stated: "The Global Hawk is essential to national security; there are no alternatives to Global Hawk which provide acceptable capability at less cost; Global Hawk costs $220M less per year than the U-2 to operate on a comparable mission; the U-2 cannot simultaneously carry the same sensors as the Global Hawk; and if funding must be reduced, Global Hawk has a higher priority over other programs."
On 26 January 2012, the Pentagon announced plans to end Global Hawk Block 30 procurement as the type was found to be more expensive to operate and with less capable sensors than the existing U-2. Plans to increase procurement of the Block 40 variant were also announced. The Air Force's fiscal year 2013 budget request said it had resolved to divest itself of the Block 30 variant, however, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013 mandated operations of the Block 30 fleet through the end of 2014. The USAF plans to procure 45 RQ-4B Global Hawks as of 2013. Just before his release from ACC, Hostage said of the U-2's replacement by the drone that "The combatant commanders are going to suffer for eight years and the best they’re going to get is 90 percent".
From 2010-2013, costs of flying the Global Hawk fell by more than 50%. In 2010, the cost per flight hour was $40,600. Contractor logistic support, which accounts for much of the overall per flight hour cost, was $25,000 per flight hour. By mid-2013, cost per flight hour dropped to $18,900, with contractor logistic support dropping to $11,000 per flight hour. Cost was driven down in part by higher usage, which meant logistics and support costs were spread over a higher number of flight hours.
The German Air Force (Luftwaffe) ordered a variant of the RQ-4B, to be equipped with a customized sensor suite, designated EuroHawk. The aircraft was based on the RQ-4B Block 20/30/40 and was to be equipped with an EADS-built SIGINT package; it was intended to fulfill Germany's requirement to replace their aging Dassault-Breguet Atlantique electronic surveillance aircraft of the Marineflieger (German Naval Air Arm). The EADS sensor package is composed of six wing-mounted pods; reportedly these sensor pods could potentially be used on other platforms, including manned aircraft.
The EuroHawk was officially rolled out on 8 October 2009 and its first flight took place on 29 June 2010. It underwent several months of flight testing at Edwards Air Force Base. On 21 July 2011, the first EuroHawk arrived in Manching, Germany; after which it was scheduled to receive its SIGINT sensor package and undergo further testing and pilot training until the first quarter of 2012. The Luftwaffe planned to station the type with Reconnaissance Wing 51. Development of the type proved to be problematic. In 2011 the German ministry of defence was aware that there were difficulties with the certification for use within the European airspace. During the flight trials, problems with the EuroHawk's flight control system were found; the German certification process was also complicated by Northrop Grumman refusing to share technical data on the aircraft with which to perform evaluations.
On 13 May 2013, German media reported that the EuroHawk would not be certifiable under ICAO rules without an anti-collision system; thus preventing any operations within European airspace or the airspace of any ICAO member. The additional cost of certification was reported to be more than €600 million (US$780 million). On 15 May 2013, the German government announced the immediate termination of the program, attributing the cancellation to the certification issue. Reportedly, the additional cost to develop the EuroHawk to the standards needed for certification may not have guaranteed final approval for certification. German defense minister Thomas de Maizière stated EuroHawk was "very important" for Germany in 2012, then referred to the project as being "a horror without end" in his 2013 statement to the Bundestag. The total cost of the project before it was canceled was €562 million. Northrop Grumman and EADS have described reports of flight control problems and high costs for certification as "inaccurate"; they have stated their intention to provide an affordable plan to complete the first EuroHawk's flight testing and produce the remaining four aircraft.
On 8 August 2013, the EuroHawk set an endurance record by flying continuously in European airspace for 25.3 hours, reaching an altitude of 58,600 feet (17,900 m). It was the longest flight by an unrefueled UAS weighing more than 30,000 lb (14,000 kg) in European skies.
On 5 October 2014, it was reported that German Minister of Defence Ursula von der Leyen was considering bringing the EuroHawk program online again, in order to test its ability to perform reconnaissance over a long period at altitudes of up to 20,000 m (66,000 ft). Attempting to test the EuroHawk's recon system on Airbus aircraft and an Israeli drone as alternate platforms had proven unsuccessful. The reconnaissance system would be used by the Bundeswehr to detect, decrypt, and potentially interfere with enemy communications signals. If tests prove successful, a carrier would be purchased, likely "similar" to the U.S. Global Hawk. Germany is considering installing the EuroHawk program's SIGINT payloads onto the U.S. Navy MQ-4C Triton Global Hawk derivative. The mains reasons for this is that it allows for easy installation of the electronic and communications intelligence sensors that would be difficult to place on other substitute aircraft, it already has icing and lightning-strike protection, and was built with certification over civilian airspace in mind, meeting Stanag 4671 requirements that originally ended the EuroHawk program.
The Global Hawk UAV system comprises the RQ-4 air vehicle, which is outfitted with various equipment such as sensor packages and communication systems; and a ground element consisting of a Launch and Recovery Element (LRE), and a Mission Control Element (MCE) with ground communications equipment. Each RQ-4 air vehicle is powered by an Allison Rolls-Royce AE3007H turbofan engine with 7,050 lbf (31.4 kN) thrust, and carries a payload of 2,000 pounds (910 kilograms). The fuselage comprises an aluminum, semi-monocoque construction with V-tail; the wings are made of composite materials.[specify]
System and ground facilities
The Integrated Sensor Suite (ISS) is provided by Raytheon and consists of a synthetic aperture radar (SAR), electro-optical (EO), and thermographic camera (IR) sensors. Either the EO or the IR sensors can operate simultaneously with the SAR. Each of the sensors provides wide area search imagery and a high-resolution spot mode. The SAR has a ground moving target indicator (GMTI) mode, which can provide a text message providing the moving target's position and velocity. Both SAR and EO/IR imagery are transmitted from the aircraft to the MCE as individual frames, and reassembled during ground processing. An onboard inertial navigation system, supplemented by Global Positioning System updates, comprises the aircraft's onboard navigational suite. Global Hawk is intended to operate autonomously and "untethered" using a satellite data link (either Ku or Ultra high frequency) for sending data from the aircraft to the MCE. The common data link can also be used for direct down link of imagery when the UAV is operating within line-of-sight of compatible ground stations.
The ground segment consists of a Mission Control Element (MCE) and Launch and Recovery Element (LRE), provided by Raytheon. The MCE is used for mission planning, command and control, and image processing and dissemination; an LRE for controlling launch and recovery; and associated ground support equipment. (The LRE provides precision Differential GPS corrections for navigational accuracy during takeoff and landings, while precision coded GPS supplemented with an inertial navigation system is used during mission execution.) By having separable elements in the ground segment, the MCE and the LRE can operate in geographically separate locations, and the MCE can be deployed with the supported command's primary exploitation site. Both ground segments are contained in military shelters with external antennas for line-of-sight and satellite communications with the air vehicles.
The Global Hawk carries the Hughes Integrated Surveillance & Reconnaissance (HISAR) sensor system. HISAR is a lower-cost derivative of the ASARS-2 package that Hughes developed for the Lockheed U-2. HISAR is also fitted in the US Army's RC-7B Airborne Reconnaissance Low Multifunction (ARLM) manned surveillance aircraft, and is being sold on the international market. HISAR integrates a SAR-MTI system, along with an optical and an thermography imager. All three sensors are controlled and their outputs filtered by a common processor and transmitted in real time at up to 50 Mbit/s to a ground station.
The SAR-MTI system operates in the X band and provides a number of operational modes; such as the wide-area MTI mode with a radius of 62 mi (100 km), combined SAR-MTI strip mode provides 20 ft (6.1 m) resolution over 23 mi (37 km) wide sections, and a SAR spot mode providing 6 ft (1.8 m) resolution over 3.8 square miles (9.8 square kilometers).
In July 2006, the US Air Force began testing the Global Hawk Block 30 upgrades in the Benefield Anechoic Facility at Edwards AFB; such as the Advanced Signals Intelligence Payload, an extremely sensitive SIGINT processor. In 2006, a specialist active electronically scanned array radar system, the Multi-Platform Radar Technology Insertion Program, or MP-RTIP, began testing on the Scaled Composites Proteus; one modified Global Hawk shall carry the radar following validation. In 2010, Northrop spoke on the sensor capabilities of the new Block 40 aircraft, including MP-RTIP radar, emphasising surveillance over reconnaissance.
On 14 April 2014, a Block 40 Global Hawk completed the first Maritime Modes program risk reduction flight to enhance the Air Force's maritime surveillance capabilities. The flight took place off the California coast and lasted for 11.5 hours. Maritime Modes is made up of a Maritime Moving Target Indicator and a Maritime Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (MISAR) that function together to provide ISR information on vessels traveling on the water's surface. The MISAR collected data on over 100 items of interest. Maritime Modes is planned to be integrated with the RQ-4B's existing MP-RTIP radar that detects and produces synthetic aperture radar imagery of ground vehicles.
The visible and infrared imagers share the same gimballed sensor package, and use common optics, providing a telescopic close-up capability. It can be optionally fitted with an auxiliary Signals intelligence package. To improve survivability, the Global Hawk is fitted with a Raytheon developed AN/ALR-89 self-protection suite consisting of the AN/AVR-3 Laser warning receiver, AN/APR-49 Radar warning receiver and a jamming system. An ALE-50 towed decoy also aids in the Global Hawk's deception of enemy air defenses.
U.S. Air Force
Air Force Global Hawk flight test evaluations are performed by the 452nd Flight Test Squadron at Edwards AFB. Operational USAF aircraft are flown by the 9th Reconnaissance Wing, 12th Reconnaissance Squadron at Beale Air Force Base. They are also flown by the 9th Reconnaissance Wing, 348th Reconnaissance Squadron at Grand Forks Air Force Base.
Global Hawk ATCD prototypes have been used in the War in Afghanistan and in the Iraq War. Since April 2010, they fly the Northern Route, from Beale AFB over Canada to South-East Asia and back, reducing flight time and improving maintenance. While their data-collection capabilities have been praised, the program lost three prototype aircraft to accidents, more than one quarter of the aircraft used in the wars. The crashes were reported to be due to "technical failures or poor maintenance", with a failure rate per hour flown over 100 times higher than the F-16 fighters flown in the same wars. The manufacturer stated that it was unfair to compare the failure rates of a mature design to that of a prototype aircraft. In June 2012, a media report described the Global Hawk, the MQ-1 Predator and the MQ-9 Reapers "... the most accident-prone aircraft in the Air Force fleet."
On 11 February 2010, the Global Hawks deployed in the Central Command AOR accrued 30,000 combat hours and 1,500 plus sorties. Initial operational capability was declared for the RQ-4 Block 30 in August 2011. The Air Force did not plan to keep the RQ-4B Block 30 Global Hawk in service past 2014, in favor of the U-2 and other platforms that can more cheaply take over the mission. Congress wants the Air Force to keep flying the Block 30 Global Hawk through December 2016. The Air Force had 18 Block 30 Global Hawks by the time of the passage of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013, which directed them to procure 3 more aircraft as part of Lot 11. The Air Force feels 18 Block 30 aircraft are sufficient to meet high altitude ISR needs, and the additional Block 30s will be an "excess to need" and likely be designated as backup or attrition reserve models. Despite the potential retirement of the Block 30 fleet due to low reliability, low mission readiness, and high costs, the Air Force released a pre-solicitation notice on 12 September 2013 for Lot 12 aircraft. In planning the Air Force's FY 2015 budget, the Pentagon reversed its previous decision and shifted $3 billion from operation of the U-2 to the Block 30 Global Hawk. Due to increased flying hours, the Global Hawk is becoming competitive with the U-2. Other factors of operation such as cost per flight hour (CPFH), information gathering rates, mission readiness, adverse weather operational capability, distance to targets, and onboard power still favor use of the U-2.
After the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, the aircraft flew 300 hours over the affected areas in Japan. There were also plans to survey the No. 4 reactor at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant.
The USAF has said that the U-2 pilot and altitude advantages allow it to better function in the stormy weather and airspace restrictions of the East Asia region and its altitude and sensor advantages allow it to see further into hostile territory. On 24 August 2013, the Japanese Ministry of Defense said they plan to operate one Global Hawk by 2015 jointly with the U.S. Misawa Air Base in northern Japan was considered where it would likely be deployed from, although other locations are being perused. In October 2013, the U.S. secured basing rights to deploy long-range Global Hawk surveillance drones from Japan, marking the first time the Pentagon has been able to secure basing rights for the unmanned aircraft in Northeast Asia. The Air Force planned to begin flying “two or three” Global Hawks from an undetermined base in Japan by spring 2014. Global Hawks are stationed at Andersen Air Force Base in Guam, but flights often are curtailed from bad weather. Basing the aircraft in Japan as opposed to Guam would enhance spying capabilities against North Korea because deploying from Guam means the surveillance area is near the edge of its range. Two Global Hawks were moved from Anderson AFB to Misawa AFB from May to October 2014 in the aircraft's first deployment to Japan. They were likely to focus on maritime patrol missions in the region, possibly observing Russian or Chinese air and naval forces being encountered by the Japanese in international waters. The two Global Hawks successfully performed their missions from Misawa AFB during their six-month deployment. This was the first time the aircraft had operated out of a civil-military airport while sharing airspace and runways with commercial aircraft; they were able to integrate safely at Misawa without additional restrictions and usually took off and landed during quieter periods of air traffic. Numerous missions were performed from June through to October, with none cancelled due to poor weather. Officials did not reveal where those missions took place and simply said they were at "various places around the Pacific."
In November 2013, an Air Force Global Hawk collected geographic imagery of the Philippines after Typhoon Haiyan to assist in relief efforts. It flew from Andersen Air Force Base in Guam and relayed images of disaster areas to response personnel. The Global Hawk was tasked with mission planning to feed information quickly to commanders and response teams.
In January 2014, President Obama signed a budget that included $10 million to study how the superior sensors of the U-2 could be adapted to the Global Hawk. In planning for the FY 2015 budget, the U-2 fleet would be retired in favor of operating the Global Hawk; the move is made possible by reductions of Global Hawk operating costs and would be the first time an unmanned aircraft would completely replace a manned aircraft system. However, the Block 40 variant of the Global Hawk may have to be retired in FY 2016 if sequestration is not repealed. The U-2 will continue to fly through 2018 without replacement.
In mid-May 2014, a U.S. Global Hawk conducted a surveillance mission over Nigeria as part of the search for the kidnapped Nigerian schoolgirls. The Global Hawk joined MC-12 manned aircraft in the search.
On 24 April 2001, a Global Hawk flew non-stop from Edwards in the US to RAAF Base Edinburgh in Australia, making history by being the first pilotless aircraft to cross the Pacific Ocean. The flight took 22 hours, and set a world record for absolute distance flown by a UAV, 13,219.86 kilometers (8,214.44 mi).
From its first flight in 1998 to 9 September 2013, Global Hawk aircraft flew 100,000 hours. 88 percent of flights were conducted by U.S. Air Force Global Hawks, while the remaining hours were flown by NASA Global Hawks, the EuroHawk, the Navy BAMS demonstrator, and the MQ-4C Triton. Approximately 75 percent of flights were in combat zones supporting six combatant commands. Global Hawks flew in operations over Afghanistan, Iraq, and Libya, supported disaster response efforts in Haiti and Japan, and even observed wildfires in southern California in 2007. On 27 August 2014, Northrop Grumman announced that Global Hawk and BAMS demonstrator aircraft surpassed 100,000 flight hours solely performing combat and operational support missions.
From 10-16 September 2014, Global Hawk aircraft flew 781 hours, the most the aircraft have flown during a single week. 87 percent of flights were made by Air Force RQ-4s, with the rest flown by the Navy BAMS-D and NASA Global Hawk hurricane research asset.
In December 2007, two Global Hawks were transferred from the U.S. Air Force to NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base. Initial research activities beginning in the second quarter of 2009 supported NASA's high-altitude, long-duration Earth science missions. The two Global Hawks were the first and sixth aircraft built under the original DARPA Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration program, and were made available to NASA when the Air Force had no further need for them. Northrop Grumman is an operational partner with NASA and will use the aircraft to demonstrate new technologies and to develop new markets for the aircraft, including possible civilian uses.
According to an article in the March 2010 issue of Scientific American (p. 25-27), the Global Hawk aircraft belonging to NASA were in use for testing purposes as of October 2009, with science missions expected to start in March 2010. Initial science applications included measurements of the ozone layer and cross-Pacific transport of air pollutants and aerosols. The author of the Scientific American piece speculates that the aircraft could be used for Antarctic exploration while based in and operated from Chile.
In August–September 2010, one of the two Global Hawks was loaned for NASA's GRIP Mission (Genesis and Rapid Intensification Program). Its long-term on station capabilities and long range made it a suitable aircraft for monitoring the development of Atlantic basin Hurricanes. It was modified to equip weather sensors including Ku-band radar, lightning sensors and dropsondes. It successfully flew into Hurricane Earl off the United States East Coast on 2 September 2010.
In 2009, NATO announced that it expects to have a fleet of up to eight Global Hawks by 2012. The aircraft are to be equipped with MP-RTIP radar systems. NATO has budgeted US$1.4 billion (€1 billion) for the project, and a letter of intent has been signed. NATO signed a contract for five Block 40 Global Hawks in May 2012. 12 NATO members are participating in the purchase. On 10 January 2014, Estonia revealed it wanted to participate in NATO Global Hawk usage.
Australia considered the purchase of a number of Global Hawks for maritime and land surveillance. The Global Hawk was to be assessed against the MQ-9 Mariner in trials in 2007. The Global Hawk aircraft would have operated in conjunction with manned Boeing P-8 Poseidon aircraft by 10 and 11 Squadrons of the RAAF, as a replacement of aging AP-3C Orion aircraft. In the end, the Australian government decided not to proceed and canceled the order. In 2012, a procurement effort for seven UAVs by 2019 was initiated. In May 2013 the Australian government confirmed its interest in acquiring the MQ-4C Triton maritime surveillance variant.
Canada has also been a potential customer, looking at the Global Hawk for maritime and land surveillance as either a replacement for its fleet of CP-140 Aurora patrol aircraft or to supplement manned patrols of remote Arctic and maritime environments, before withdrawing from the joint effort in August 2011. Spain has a similar requirement, and has existing contacts with Northrop Grumman.
Japan had been reported as being interested in the purchase of three aircraft. On 24 August 2013, Japan reported that the Japan Air Self-Defense Force plans to operate one Global Hawk jointly with the U.S. by 2015. On 21 November 2014, the Japanese Ministry of Defense officially decided to procure the Global Hawk, which beat out the General Atomics Guardian ER.
In 2011, South Korea's Defense Acquisition Program Administration (DAPA) expressed interest in acquiring at least four RQ-4B and support equipment to increase intelligence capabilities following the exchange of the Wartime Operational Control from the U.S. to the Republic of Korea. Government officials debated on the topic of the Global Hawks and its own domestic UAV programs. In September 2011, the US and South Korea discussed aircraft deployments near its border with North Korea to view North Korea and the North Korea–China border. In January 2012, DAPA announced that it would not proceed with a purchase due to a price rise from US$442M to US$899M, and that other platforms such as the Global Observer or the Phantom Eye were being investigated. However, in December 2012, South Korea notified Congress of a possible Foreign Military Sale of 4 RQ-4 Block 30 (I) Global Hawk UAVs with the Enhanced Integrated Sensor Suite (EISS) at an estimated cost of $1.2 billion. On 5 July 2013, the Korean National Assembly advised the government to re-evaluate plans to buy the Global Hawk, again citing high costs. On 24 March 2014, DAPA announced it intended to buy four Global Hawks through the FMS program at a cost of 880 billion won ($814.63 million), with the first to be delivered by 2018. Northrop Grumman was officially awarded a contract worth over $657 million to provide South Korea with four RQ-4B Block 30 Global Hawks on 17 December 2014, with all to be delivered by June 2019.
The New Zealand Defence Force is studying the Global Hawk, which has the range to conduct surveillance in the Southern Ocean around Antarctica, and in the Pacific Islands. The acquisition process has not moved beyond an expression of interest.
- Initial production version for the USAF, 16 built.
- Improved version with increased payload, wingspan increased to 130.9 ft (39.9 m) and length increased to 47.7 ft (14.5 m). Due to the increased size and payload the range is reduced to 8,700 nmi.
- RQ-4E Euro Hawk
- Version for Germany based on RQ-4B and equipped with an EADS reconnaissance payload for SIGINT. Germany canceled its order in May 2013; it received one of five Euro Hawks originally ordered.
- MQ-4C Triton
- For USN Broad Area Maritime Surveillance (BAMS) role; previously known as the RQ-4N; 4 ordered, 68 total planned.
- Equipped with the Battlefield Airborne Communications Node (BACN) system.
Autonomous tanker variant
Scaled Composites and Northrop Grumman also offered an armed, 50% smaller version of the RQ-4A, known as the Scaled Composites Model 396, as part of the USAF Hunter-Killer program. The aircraft was rejected in favor of the MQ-9 Reaper.
- United States Air Force
- Air Combat Command
- 9th Reconnaissance Wing – Beale Air Force Base, California
- 53d Wing
- Air Force Reserve Command
- Air Combat Command
- United States Navy
- 380th Expeditionary Operations Group
- 12th Reconnaissance Squadron
- Al Dhafra AB, United Arab Emirates,Early since 2002
- RQ-4B (Block 20), RQ-4B Block30 , RQ-4N Since 2013 and Two EQ-4B Since March 2014
Data from USAF
- Crew: 0 onboard (3 remote: LRE pilot; MCE pilot and sensor operator)
- Length: 47.6 ft (14.5 m)
- Wingspan: 130.9 ft (39.9 m)
- Height: 15.3 ft (4.7 m)
- Empty weight: 14,950 lb (6,781 kg)
- Gross weight: 32,250 lb (14,628 kg)
- Powerplant: 1 × Rolls-Royce F137-RR-100 turbofan engine, 7,600 lbf (34 kN) thrust
- Cruise speed: 357 mph (310 kn; 575 km/h)
- Range: 8,700 mi (7,560 nmi; 14,001 km)
- Endurance: 28 hours
- Service ceiling: 60,000 ft (18,288 m)
- Related development
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Related lists
This article contains material that originally came from the web article Unmanned Aerial Vehicles by Greg Goebel, which exists in the Public Domain.
- "GAO-13-294SP, Defense Acquisitions Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs". US Government Accountability Office. March 2013. pp. 113–4. Retrieved 26 May 2013.
- "Soaring Costs Not Likely to Slow Down Global Hawk". National Defence Magazine, May 2006.
- Northrop Grumman Unmanned Aircraft Systems Achieve 100,000 Flight Hours - Defensemedianetwork.com, 13 September 2013
- NASA Dryden Receives Two Early Global Hawk Aircraft
- "Last Block 10 Global Hawk Arrives For Check Flights"."
- "RQ-4 Global Hawk fact sheet". US Air Force. Retrieved 26 July 2014.
- "Northrop unveils next generation Global Hawk", Aerotech News and Review, 1 September 2006.
- McGee, Chris, "Global Hawk in demand, passes 10,000 flight hours milestone", Aerotech News and Review, 11 August 2006.
- Northrop Grumman Press Release, 13 June 2005.
- Selinger, M. "U.S. Navy To Receive First Global Hawk Next Week." Aviation Week & Space Technology. 1 October 2004.
- First Unmanned Global Hawk Delivered to U.S. Navy – U.S. Department of Defense Transformation News Story
- "Navy Global Hawk Performs in RIMPAC", Aerotech News and Review, 18 August 2006.
- Navy Awards Northrop Grumman Unmanned Aircraft System Contract
- BAMS given MQ-4C designation
- "Navy drone crashes in Maryland"
- "Investigators Look Into BAMS-D Loss"
- "Navy UAV crashes in Md.; no injuries reported"
- Triton Testing Ahead of Schedule - News.USNI.org, 21 February 2014
- "Cost overruns put Global Hawk at risk"[dead link]. Flight International, 18 April 2006.
- "Cost overruns put Global Hawk at risk", SBAC.com
- http://www.flightglobal.com/Articles/2006/11/21/Navigation/196/210621/Global+Hawk+costs+soar+to+%2410bn.html[dead link] Flight International, 21 November 2006.
- Putrich, Gayle. "Northrop: Global Hawk not slowing down even with cuts". Flight International, 22 February 2011.
- "Pentagon Says Northrop Drone Isn’t ‘Effective’." Bloomberg News, 6 June 2011.
- "Nunn-McCurdy Certification Acquisition Decision Memorandum for the Restructured RQ-4A/B Unmanned Aircraft System Global Hawk." Memorandum for Secretary of the Air Force, 14 June 2011.
- "Defense Budget Priorities and Choices", p. 11. US DoD, January 2012.
- Clark, Colin. "Air Force To Cut 10,000; Global Hawks Get Warehoused." Aol Defense, 27 January 2012.
- Stephen, Trimble. "Pentagon slashes fighter squadrons, airlifters in new budget proposal". Flightglobal. Retrieved 30 January 2012.
- "USAF Cancels Block 30 RQ-4 Global Hawk". Defense Update, 29 January 2012.
- "Global Hawk Program Manager Plans For Early Deliveries, Budget Cuts". InsideDefense. 22 January 2013.
- Whittle, Richard (September 17, 2014). "A Freed Hostage: ACC Commander’s Parting Shots". breakingdefense.com (Breaking Media, Inc.). Retrieved 22 October 2014.
- Cost of flying Northrop’s Global Hawk down over 50% sources - sUASNews.com, 14 September 2013
- "RQ-4 Euro Hawk UAV Readying for Takeoff". Defense Industry Daily. 15 May 2013.
- Gubisch, Michael (16 May 2013). "Germany pulls plug on Euro Hawk UAV programme". Flight International.
- "Northrop Grumman and EADS Defence & Security's Euro Hawk Unmanned Aircraft Completes Successful First Flight". GlobeNewswire. 30 June 2010.
- Norris, Guy (12 October 2009). "Northrop Grumman Unveils Euro Hawk". Aerospace Daily and Defense Report.
- Hickmann, Christoph (23 May 2013). "De Maizière förderte Drohnenprojekt noch 2012" (in German). Süddeutsche Zeitung.
- Seliger, Marco (13 May 2013). "Euro Hawk wird nicht zugelassen" (in German). Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. Retrieved 14 May 2013.
- "German government culls costly Euro Hawk drone project". Deutsche Welle, 15 May 2013.
- "Germany axes Euro Hawk drone program". Defense News, 14 May 2013.
- "De Maiziere defends Bundeswehr reforms and Euro Hawk halt". Deutsche Welle, 15 May 2013.
- "Germany will not buy Euro Hawk drones." Reuters, 14 May 2013.
- "Euro Hawk" (in German). German Air Force (Luftwaffe). 15 May 2013. Retrieved 16 May 2013.
- Gubisch, Michael. "Germany pulls plug on Euro Hawk UAV programme". Flight International, 16 May 2013.
- "EADS to continue to work with Germany on scrapped drone deal". Reuters. 27 May 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
- Metha, Aaron. "Euro Hawk Team Remains Hopeful". Defense News, 28 May 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
- EURO HAWK Sets Record With 25-Hour Nonstop Flight in Germany - sUASNews.com, 3 September 2013
- Germany's Euro Hawk drone may take flight again - Airrecognition.com, 5 October 2014
- Germany May Revive Euro Hawk Using MQ-4C - Aviationweek.com, 12 January 2015
- "RQ-4 Block 20 Global Hawk". Retrieved 2010-08-16.
- "Hughes Integrated Surveillance & Reconnaissance (HISAR)". Jane's Information Group
- Aerotech News and Review, vol 21, issue 27, August 4, 2006
- "Next generation of Global Hawks ready to roll". Retrieved 2010-08-16.
- Air Force tests new surveillance capability - AF.mil, 28 April 2014
- AN/ALQ to AN/ALT – Equipment Listing
- Global Hawk Crashes: Who’s to Blame?. May 2003.
- Global Hawk crash unlikely to hurt program. Aerospace Daily via globalsecurity.org, 8 January 2002.
- High-Altitude American Spy Plane Crashes in Pakistan; Engine Failure Cited. 10 July 2002.
- McGarry, Brendan (18 June 2012) Drones Most Accident-Prone U.S. Air Force Craft: BGOV Barometer. Bloomberg, Retrieved 4 February 2013.
- Deployed Global Hawks surpass 30,000 combat flying hours, 1,500 sorties
- USAF details plan to halt Block 30 Global Hawk use - Flightglobal.com, April 19, 2013
- Lawmakers: Keep flying Global Hawk Block 30 through 2016 - Militarytimes.com, May 22, 2013
- US Air Force to buy additional RQ-4 Global Hawk Block 30s - Flightglobal.com, 12 September 2013
- "Global Hawk, U-2 Duel Resumes in ’15 Budget Fight". Aviationweek.com, 20 January 2014
- Seth Robson (September 12, 2011). "Global Hawk invaluable after Japan disasters". Stars and Stripes.
- "Military Helicopters Finally Dump Seawater on Over-Heating Fukushima Reactors".
- Northrop Grumman Delivers 37th Global Hawk to US Air Force – Deagel.com, January 7, 2013
- Northrop Grumman Delivers Global Hawk Early and On Cost - WSJ.com, 19 March 2014
- "Will Congress let USAF abandon the Global Hawk?"
- Japan plans to add Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle for reconnaissance duties in 2015 - Armyrecognition.com, 24 August 2013
- Agreement will allow U.S. to fly long-range surveillance drones from base in Japan - sUASNews.com, 4 October 2013
- Global Hawk to deploy to Japan for first time - Militarytimes.com, 22 March 2014
- USAF Global Hawks touch down after Japan deployment - Shephardmedia.com, 20 October 2014
- Block 40 Global Hawk goes to 'war': USAF - Flightglobal.com, 21 November 2013
- Northrop Global Hawk UAV Deployed to Assist Philippine Typhoon Relief - sUASNews.com, 10 January 2014
- MEHTA, AARON (26 January 2014). "Global Hawk Wins in 2015 Request, Sources Say". www.defensenews.com. Gannett Government Media Corporation. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
- How Hagel spending plan will transform US military - Flightglobal.com, 26 February 2014
- 2016 Budget To Bring U-2 Stay Of Execution - Aviationweek.com, 14 January 2015
- U.S. ‘Global Hawk’ Drone Joins Search for Kidnapped Nigerian Schoolgirls - sUASNews.com, 14 May 2014
- "Aviation history as Global Hawk completes US-Australia flight." Australian Ministry of Defence press release. 24 April 2001.
- FAI Aviation World Record database
- Northrop Grumman Unmanned Portfolio Achieves 100,000 Flight Hours Over Last 15 Years - Northrop Grumman news release, 9 September 2013
- Global Hawk Variants Surpass 100,000 Combat/Operational Support Hours - Defensemedianetwork.com, 3 September 2014
- Global Hawk flies record mission hours - Shephardmedia.com, 9 January 2015
- NASA DFRC web description of aircraft
- "Northrop plans civilian market Global Hawk demonstrations" FlightGlobal.com January 23, 2009
- "NASA GRIP Homepage"
- "GRIP Global Hawk Modifications and Capabilities" (PDF)
- "NASA GRIP News Hurricane Earl News Release". NASA
- Trimble, Stephen. "NATO plans to deploy first RQ-4s in 2012". Flight International, 14 January 2009.
- Hoyle, Craig. "NATO inks $1.7 billion Global Hawk order". Flight International, 21 May 2012.
- Estonia plans to purchase Global Hawk drone to increase its military reconnaissance capabilities - Armyrecognition.com, 11 January 2014
- Australia funds study. Flight International 09/05/06.
- "Govt scraps plan for military drones" – ABC news
- "Australia moves to buy $3b spy drone fleet."
- Australia issues Triton Letter of Request, May 16, 2013 Australian Aviation
- Trimble, Stephen (18 August 2011). "AUVSI: Canada withdraws from NATO RQ-4 program". Flightglobal. Retrieved 18 August 2011.
- Northrop negocia la venta de diez aviones espía a España CincoDias.com
- Japan may buy US drones to spy on China military 5 October 2010, The China Post of Taiwan
- "High costs could ground aerial reconnaissance activities." asahi.com, 23 February 2011.
- Japan Officially Selects Osprey, Global Hawk, E-2D - Defensenews.com, 21 November 2014
- "S. Korea vows swifter deployment of spy drones, stealth fighters."
- Global Hawk deploy plan to South Korea, targeting North Korea and China
- Lee, Tae-hoon. "Seoul drops plan to buy Global Hawk UAV". Korea Times.
- South Korea Seeks Four RQ-4 Block 30 Global Hawks – Deagel.com, 24 December 2012.
- Parliament advises review of Taurus, Global Hawk acquisition plan - Koreaherald.com, 5 July 2013
- S.Korea announces plan to buy Northrop Grumman Global Hawks - Reuters.com, 24 March 2014
- Seoul finalises $657 million Global Hawk purchase - Flightglobal.com, 17 December 2014
- Gower, Patrick (2009-09-30). "Spy drones on NZ defence wish list". The New Zealand Herald (APN News & Media). Retrieved 26 February 2012.
- "Indian Navy Interested in Northrop Grumman MQ-4C Maritime Surveillance Unmanned Aircraft Systems". India Defence. February 8, 2011.
- "India will purchase the MQ-4C BAMS drone aircraft". 2012-04-02.
- Air Force Factsheet
- "Roll-out of a marine UAV Global Hawk will be held in June" (Automatically translated into English by Google)
- "U.S. Air Force Officially Designates Aircraft Flying Battlefield Airborne Communications Node System"
- Article: DARPA testing Global Hawk drones as aerial tankers
- "BBC News Technology Unstaffed drone refuelling test 'successful'"
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to RQ-4 Global Hawk.|
|Northrop Grumman RQ-4A Global Hawk Block 10 Cutaway|
|Northrop Grumman RQ-4A Global Hawk Block 10 Cutaway from Flightglobal.com|
- RQ-4 Global Hawk U.S. Air Force fact sheet
- "RQ-4A Global Hawk (Tier II+ HAE UAV)". Federation of American Scientists
- "Global Hawk RQ-4A-B High Altitude Long Endurance UAV". Defense Update
- Raytheon product page on the Global Hawk Integrated Sensor Suite
- Luftwaffe Euro Hawk page, Bundeswehr Euro Hawk page
- Results of Global Hawk accident investigation board
- RQ-4 Global Hawk profile on Air Attack