Northwest Staging Route

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The Lend-Lease Memorial in Fairbanks, Alaska commemorates the shipment of U.S. aircraft to the Soviet Union along the Northwest Staging Route.

The Northwest Staging Route was a series of airstrips, airport and radio ranging stations built in Alberta, British Columbia, the Yukon and Alaska during World War II. It extended into the Soviet Union as the ALSIB (ALaska-SIBerian air road).

Origins[edit]

The route was developed in 1942 due to several reasons. Initially, the United States Army Air Corps 7th Ferrying Group, Ferrying Command (later Air Transport Command) at Great Falls Army Airfield was ordered to organize and develop an air route to send assistance to Russia though Northern Canada, across Alaska and the Bering Sea to Siberia, and eventually over to the Eastern Front. The Permanent Joint Board on Defense — Canada and the United States — decided in the autumn of 1940 that a string of airports should be constructed at Canadian expense between the city of Edmonton in central Alberta and the Alaska-Yukon border. Late in 1941 the Canadian government reported that rough landing fields had been completed.[1]

With the outbreak of war, American lines of communication with Alaska by sea were seriously threatened and alternative routes had to be opened. The string of airports through the lonely tundra and forests of northwest Canada provided an air route to Alaska which was practically invulnerable to attack, and it seemed to be in the best interests of international defense to develop them and open a highway which would at once be a service road for the airports and a means for transporting essential supplies to the Alaskan outposts. In response to this need, United States Army engaged in the Alaskan Highway project.[1]

Neither the Eleventh Air Force and United States Army military installations could wait for the Alaska Highway to be completed. Nor could Lend-Lease aid to the Soviet Union. The long route though the Caribbean to Brazil and across Africa to Iran was unworkable, nor could aircraft be flown via Greenland or Iceland. A huge program of airport construction and road making, therefore, was undertaken.[1]

The Alaska Highway was but a part of the defenses provided for the Northwest North American frontier. Much less is known about the great air route leading from the United States to Alaska through Canada. Airfields were built or upgraded every 100 mi (160 km) or so from Edmonton, Alberta to Fairbanks, Alaska ("the longest hop being the 140 miles or so between Fort Nelson and the Liard River flight strip"[2] The route of the Alaska Highway, which was built to provide a land route to Alaska, basically connected the airfields together. Edmonton became the headquarters of the Alaskan Wing, Air Transport Command.[1]

Two routes were developed from the United States, which met at Edmonton, Alberta, from which the aircraft were ferried to Ladd Field, near Fairbanks, Alaska where the American-built aircraft were to be turned over to Russian flight crews. Marks Army Airfield, near Nome, Alaska was 500 miles closer to Russia, but was ruled out because the United States feared it was too vulnerable to Japanese attack. One route originated at Great Falls Army Air Base, Montana, where aircraft bound for Russia were ferried from their manufacturing plants in Southern California.

The other route originated at Minneapolis, Minnesota, where Wold-Chamberlain Airport was used as an aircraft staging point for aircraft manufactured in the Midwest and northeastern United States.[1] The Minneapolis-Edmonton route, however was turned into a transport route only by the end of 1943, with aircraft ferrying operations being shifted to Great Falls.[3] In addition to the Lend-Lease aircraft, Alaskan Eleventh Air Force aircraft were also ferried up the NSR, with the aircraft being flown to Elmendorf Field, near Anchorage from RCAF Station Whitehorse upon their arrival.[1]

Aircraft[edit]

Bell P-63A-10-BE Kingcobra 42-70610 in Red Air Force markings, 1944 at Ladd Field, Fairbanks Alaska prior to its flight to the Russian front as a Lend-Lease aircraft.

Three main types of combat aircraft were ferried to the Soviet Union under Lend-Lease. Fighter aircraft were Bell P-39 Airacobras, and later its successor, the Bell P-63 Kingcobra, which were favored by the Red Air Force who used the two types with great success. The majority of the P-39s shipped to the Soviet Union were the definitive Q-models. Bombers included the Douglas A-20 Havoc light attack bomber and North American B-25 Mitchell medium bombers that were also sent to the Red Air Force. Transport aircraft were made up of predominantly, the Douglas C-47 Skytrain, also supplied in great numbers.

The Bell fighters and the B-25 Mitchells were flown up to Ladd via Minneapolis; the C-47s and A-20s came up via Great Falls. A handful of other aircraft types, North American AT-6 Texan trainers, some North American Curtiss P-40 Warhawk fighters, three Republic P-47 Thunderbolts and one Curtiss C-46 Commando transport were also ferried to Russia. The aircraft were supplied with Russian language operations and maintenance manuals, as well as painted in Red Air Force camouflage colors and national markings.[3][4]

The Russians set up a command at Ladd Field and Nome where their pilots were trained to take over the aircraft and fly them to Novosibirsk in Siberia and on to various fronts in western Russia. The first group of Russian pilots arrived at Nome on 14 August 1942 on their way to Ladd Field. Along with the pilots were civilians from the Soviet Purchasing Commission and a group of Red Air Force mechanics. Most were located at Ladd, with a secondary group at Marks Field. The first Lend-Lease aircraft, a group of 12 A-20 Havocs, arrived at Ladd on 3 September 1942. The first Russian pilots, after five days of training on the aircraft, took off for Nome and the long trip to the Eastern Front.

Initially the USAAF provided the initial training on how to operate and maintain the Lend-Lease aircraft. Later, after an experienced cadre was developed, the Russians assumed the responsibility. The Russians also meticulously inspected each aircraft, and would reject any aircraft that presented the slightest problem. The USAAF was then left with the chore of correcting them. It was sometimes quite exasperating, as the USAAF would work long hours of overtime to get the aircraft into first-class condition so that all the Russians had to do was fly them from Fairbanks to the Eastern Front.[3]

Other uses[edit]

The ALSIB and Northwest Staging Route also provided a diplomatic route between Washington, D.C. and Moscow. Diplomats, high political figures and countless other government officials shuttled back and forth along it in transports during the war. Wendell Willkie, Vice-President Henry A. Wallace, Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov, and Andrei Gromyko were but a few who used the route. President Roosevelt considered holding a summit in Fairbanks in 1944 to meet with Stalin, however the location was subsequently changed to Yalta in the Soviet Union. Also the route provided a means over which the Russians moved intelligence agents and classified information obtained illegally in the United States. The Soviets, claiming diplomatic immunity routinely moved large numbers of suitcases in batches of 50 or more, their contents diplomatically sealed.[3]

The Russians who arrived in Alaska also frequently visited shopping areas in Fairbanks and Nome, and contingents visited the aircraft manufacturing plants in the United States. They maintained a strict decorum and politely paid for their purchases, sometimes in old US gold certificates. Many luxury items were bought and shipped back to the Soviet Union on the Lend-Lease aircraft with the hope that they would reach their final destinations in Russia. Most of the Russian pilots were experienced combat veterans who saw the ferrying mission as a respite from their combat missions. They were generally reserved and political officers were sent to Alaska to ensure their loyalty.[3]

Termination[edit]

As the Pacific War wound down, the wartime marriage between the capitalistic and communist countries was coming to an end. In 1945, the United States and Soviet Union were about to embark on a Cold War and the Russians departed Fairbanks shortly after the Japanese Capitulation in September 1945.[3]

Possibly because of their strict inspection standards, and also in spite of the Russian methods of flying them, there were remarkably few aircraft accidents. During the 21 months of the program, 7,983 aircraft were delivered to the Russians with only 133 lost to weather or pilot error.[5] Thirteen Red Air Force pilots were buried in the Fort Richardson cemetery.[3]

Airfields[edit]

Primary airfields in BOLD[1][6]
Name Location Coordinates Notes
Gambell Army Airfield AK 63°46′04″N 171°43′59″W / 63.76778°N 171.73306°W / 63.76778; -171.73306 (Gambell Army Airfield) Final refueling stop prior to aircraft being flown into Soviet airspace
Marks Army Airfield AK 64°30′44″N 165°26′43″W / 64.51222°N 165.44528°W / 64.51222; -165.44528 (Marks Army Airfield) Final servicing point for aircraft; 1469th AAFBU ATC Alaskan Division.
Galena Airport AK 64°44′10″N 156°56′04″W / 64.73611°N 156.93444°W / 64.73611; -156.93444 (Galena Airport) Refueling/servicing airfield; 1468th AAFBU ATC Alaskan Division.
Ladd Army Airfield AK 64°50′15″N 147°36′51″W / 64.83750°N 147.61417°W / 64.83750; -147.61417 (Ladd Army Airfield) Was main transfer point for Lend-Lease aircraft from United States ATC pilots to Soviet Red Air Force pilots; aircraft then flown to Siberia after transfer.
Mile 26 Field AK 64°39′55″N 147°06′02″W / 64.66528°N 147.10056°W / 64.66528; -147.10056 (Mile 26 Field) Axillary for Ladd AAB
Big Delta Army Airfield AK 63°59′42″N 145°43′12″W / 63.99500°N 145.72000°W / 63.99500; -145.72000 (Big Delta Army Airfield) Refueling/servicing airfield; 1464th AAFBU ATC Alaskan Division.
Tanacross Air Base AK 63°22′25″N 143°20′00″W / 63.37361°N 143.33333°W / 63.37361; -143.33333 (Tanacross Airport) Refueling/servicing airfield; 1464th AAFBU ATC Alaskan Division.
Northway Army Airfield AK 62°57′40″N 141°55′50″W / 62.96111°N 141.93056°W / 62.96111; -141.93056 (Northway Army Airfield) Refueling/servicing airfield; 1463d AAFBU ATC Alaskan Division.
Snag YT 62°21′12″N 140°24′15″W / 62.35333°N 140.40417°W / 62.35333; -140.40417 (Snag Airstrip) Abandoned. Emergency landing strip, constructed 1941 by Canadian government
Burwash Landing YT 61°22′13″N 139°02′22″W / 61.37028°N 139.03944°W / 61.37028; -139.03944 (Burwash Landing Airport) Emergency landing strip, constructed 1941 by Canadian government
Silver City YT 61°01′49″N 138°24′17″W / 61.03028°N 138.40472°W / 61.03028; -138.40472 (Silver City Airport) Emergency landing strip, constructed 1941 by Canadian government
Aishihik YT 61°38′56″N 137°29′18″W / 61.64889°N 137.48833°W / 61.64889; -137.48833 (Aishihik Airfield) Abandoned, Emergency airstrip, constructed 1941 by Canadian government
Pine Lake YT 60°47′22″N 137°32′33″W / 60.78944°N 137.54250°W / 60.78944; -137.54250 (Pine Lake Airfield) Auxiliary refueling/servicing airfield, constructed 1941 by Canadian government
Champagne YT 60°47′17″N 136°28′33″W / 60.78806°N 136.47583°W / 60.78806; -136.47583 (Champagne Landingstrip) Emergency landing strip, constructed 1941 by Canadian government
Cousins YT 60°48′43″N 135°10′57″W / 60.81194°N 135.18250°W / 60.81194; -135.18250 (Cousins Landingstrip) Emergency landing strip
RCAF Station Whitehorse YT 60°42′45″N 135°04′09″W / 60.71250°N 135.06917°W / 60.71250; -135.06917 (Whitehorse Airport) Refueling/servicing airfield; 1462d AAFBU ATC Alaskan Division; also known as Whitehorse Army Air Base. Remained as joint RCAF/USAF base until about 1949; hosted Det.3, 1701st Air Transport Wing (MATS)[7]
Squanga Lake YT 60°29′10″N 133°27′25″W / 60.48611°N 133.45694°W / 60.48611; -133.45694 (Squanga Lake Airport) Emergency landing strip
Teslin Lake YT 60°10′22″N 132°44′26″W / 60.17278°N 132.74056°W / 60.17278; -132.74056 (Teslin Lake Landingstrip) Emergency landing strip
Pine Lake YT 60°06′11″N 130°56′00″W / 60.10306°N 130.93333°W / 60.10306; -130.93333 (Pine Lake Landingstrip) Emergency landing strip
Watson Lake/Liard River YT 60°06′31″N 128°50′51″W / 60.10861°N 128.84750°W / 60.10861; -128.84750 (Watson Lake Airport) Refueling/servicing airfield; 1461st AAFBU ATC Alaskan Division.
Smith River BC 59°53′30″N 126°25′46″W / 59.89167°N 126.42944°W / 59.89167; -126.42944 (Smith River Airport) Emergency landing strip
Fort Nelson BC 58°50′17″N 122°35′48″W / 58.83806°N 122.59667°W / 58.83806; -122.59667 (Fort Nelson Airport) Was main refueling/servicing point on route; 1460th AAFBU ATC Alaskan Division.[8] Remained as joint RCAF/USAF base until about 1949; hosted Det.2, 1701st Air Transport Wing (MATS)[9]
Prophet River BC 57°57′47″N 122°47′18″W / 57.96306°N 122.78833°W / 57.96306; -122.78833 (Prophet River Airport) Emergency landing strip
Beatton River BC 57°22′48″N 121°24′41″W / 57.38000°N 121.41139°W / 57.38000; -121.41139 (Beatton River Airport) Emergency landing strip
Sikanni Chief BC 57°05′21″N 122°36′18″W / 57.08917°N 122.60500°W / 57.08917; -122.60500 (Sikanni Chief Airport) Emergency landing strip
Fort St. John BC 56°14′14″N 120°44′24″W / 56.23722°N 120.74000°W / 56.23722; -120.74000 (Fort St. John Airport) Refueling/servicing airfield; 1459th AAFBU ATC Alaskan Division.
RCAF Station Dawson Creek BC 55°44′31″N 120°11′06″W / 55.74194°N 120.18500°W / 55.74194; -120.18500 (Dawson Creek Airport) Auxiliary refueling/servicing airfield
Beaverlodge AB 55°11′04″N 119°26′52″W / 55.18444°N 119.44778°W / 55.18444; -119.44778 (Beaverlodge Airport) Emergency landing strip
Grande Prairie AB 55°10′55″N 118°52′55″W / 55.18194°N 118.88194°W / 55.18194; -118.88194 (Grande Prairie Airport) Refueling/servicing airfield; 1457th AAFBU ATC Alaskan Division.
DeBolt AB 55°14′06″N 118°02′19″W / 55.23500°N 118.03861°W / 55.23500; -118.03861 (DeBolt Airport) Emergency landing strip
Valleyview AB 55°01′58″N 117°17′42″W / 55.03278°N 117.29500°W / 55.03278; -117.29500 (Valleyview Airport) Emergency landing strip
Fox Creek AB 54°22′48″N 116°46′00″W / 54.38000°N 116.76667°W / 54.38000; -116.76667 (Fox Creek Airport) Emergency landing strip
Whitecourt AB 54°08′37″N 115°47′16″W / 54.14361°N 115.78778°W / 54.14361; -115.78778 (Whitecourt Airport) Emergency landing strip
Mayerthorpe AB 53°56′13″N 115°10′41″W / 53.93694°N 115.17806°W / 53.93694; -115.17806 (Mayerthorpe Airport) Emergency landing strip
Birch Lake AB 53°46′16″N 114°33′43″W / 53.77111°N 114.56194°W / 53.77111; -114.56194 (Birch Lake Airport) Auxiliary airfield; now abandoned and obliterated
RCAF Station Namao AB 53°40′27″N 113°28′29″W / 53.67417°N 113.47472°W / 53.67417; -113.47472 (CFB Edmonton) Opened 1 November 1944. Additional Hub/refueling/servicing airfield in Edmonton. Remained as joint RCAF/USAF base until about 1949; hosted Det.1, 1701st Air Transport Wing (MATS)[10]
RCAF Station Edmonton AB 53°34′26″N 113°31′30″W / 53.57389°N 113.52500°W / 53.57389; -113.52500 (Blatchford Airport) Activated 17 October 1942. Was HQ, Alaskan Wing, ATC; Hub/refueling/servicing airfield; 1450th/1451st/1452d AAFBU.[11]
Great Falls-Edmonton
Ponoka AB 52°39′07″N 113°36′15″W / 52.65194°N 113.60417°W / 52.65194; -113.60417 (Ponoka Airport) Emergency landing strip
Lacombe AB 52°29′17″N 113°42′42″W / 52.48806°N 113.71167°W / 52.48806; -113.71167 (Lacombe Airport) Emergency landing strip
RCAF Station Penhold AB 52°10′42″N 113°53′21″W / 52.17833°N 113.88917°W / 52.17833; -113.88917 (Red Deer Airport) Auxiliary refueling/servicing airfield (now Red Deer Regional Airport)
Innisfail AB 51°58′42″N 114°00′34″W / 51.97833°N 114.00944°W / 51.97833; -114.00944 (Innisfail Aerodrome) Emergency landing strip
Olds AB 51°42′39″N 114°06′20″W / 51.71083°N 114.10556°W / 51.71083; -114.10556 (Olds Airport) Auxiliary refueling/servicing airfield
Carstairs AB 51°34′50″N 114°03′08″W / 51.58056°N 114.05222°W / 51.58056; -114.05222 (Carstairs Airport) Emergency landing strip
Airdrie AB 51°15′52″N 113°56′10″W / 51.26444°N 113.93611°W / 51.26444; -113.93611 (Airdrie Airport) Auxiliary refueling/servicing airfield
Calgary AB 51°07′15″N 114°01′17″W / 51.12083°N 114.02139°W / 51.12083; -114.02139 (Calgary Airport) Refueling/servicing airfield; 1457th AAFBU ATC Alaskan Division.
Okotoks AB 50°44′06″N 113°56′04″W / 50.73500°N 113.93444°W / 50.73500; -113.93444 (Okotoks Airport) Emergency airstrip
High River AB 50°32′02″N 113°50′36″W / 50.53389°N 113.84333°W / 50.53389; -113.84333 (High River Airport) Auxiliary refueling/servicing airfield
Nanton AB 50°22′19″N 113°39′42″W / 50.37194°N 113.66167°W / 50.37194; -113.66167 (Nanton Airport) 2 x 2,000 ft (610 m) runway auxiliary refueling/servicing airfield, now abandoned and obliterated as farmland
RCAF Station Claresholm AB 50°00′10″N 113°37′38″W / 50.00278°N 113.62722°W / 50.00278; -113.62722 (Claresholm Airport) Axillary refueling/servicing airfield (now Claresholm Industrial Airport)
RCAF Station Lethbridge AB 49°37′47″N 112°47′23″W / 49.62972°N 112.78972°W / 49.62972; -112.78972 (Lethbridge Airport) Axillary refueling/servicing airfield (now Lethbridge County Airport)
Shelby MT 48°32′27″N 111°52′12″W / 48.54083°N 111.87000°W / 48.54083; -111.87000 (Shelby Airport) Auxiliary refueling/servicing airfield
Conrad MT 48°10′06″N 111°58′33″W / 48.16833°N 111.97583°W / 48.16833; -111.97583 (Conrad Airport) Auxiliary refueling/servicing airfield
Gore Army Airfield MT 47°29′02″N 111°22′21″W / 47.48389°N 111.37250°W / 47.48389; -111.37250 (Great Falls International Airport) 557th AAFBU, Ferrying Division, ATC; Group assembly and dispatch airfield for Lend-lease aircraft (now Great Falls International Airport)
Great Falls Army Air Base MT 47°30′28″N 111°11′03″W / 47.50778°N 111.18417°W / 47.50778; -111.18417 (Malmstrom Air Force Base) HQ, Northwest Sector, Domestic Wing, ATC; Group assembly and servicing airfield for Lend-lease aircraft; passenger point of Embarkation (now Malmstrom Air Force Base)[12]
Minneapolis-Edmonton
Vegreville AB 53°30′45″N 112°01′36″W / 53.51250°N 112.02667°W / 53.51250; -112.02667 (Vegreville Airport) Emergency landing airfield
Vermillion AB 53°21′23″N 110°49′40″W / 53.35639°N 110.82778°W / 53.35639; -110.82778 (Vermillion Airport) Emergency landing airfield
Lloydminster SK 53°17′49″N 110°00′00″W / 53.29694°N 110.00000°W / 53.29694; -110.00000 (Lloydminster Airport (OLD)) Emergency landing airfield (closed about 1981 now abandoned, replaced by new airport on Alberta side of border)
RCAF Station North Battleford SK 52°46′09″N 108°14′40″W / 52.76917°N 108.24444°W / 52.76917; -108.24444 (North Battleford Airport) Refueling/servicing airfield (now North Battleford Airport)
RCAF Station Saskatoon SK 52°10′15″N 106°41′59″W / 52.17083°N 106.69972°W / 52.17083; -106.69972 (Saskatoon Airport) Refueling/servicing airfield (now Saskatoon John G. Diefenbaker International Airport)
Humboldt SK 52°10′31″N 105°08′01″W / 52.17528°N 105.13361°W / 52.17528; -105.13361 (Humboldt Airport) Emergency landing airfield
Yorkton SK 51°15′54″N 102°27′42″W / 51.26500°N 102.46167°W / 51.26500; -102.46167 (Yorkton Airport) Refueling/servicing airfield
Russell MB 50°45′55″N 101°17′39″W / 50.76528°N 101.29417°W / 50.76528; -101.29417 (Russell Airport) Emergency landing airfield
Shoal Lake MB 50°27′25″N 100°36′34″W / 50.45694°N 100.60944°W / 50.45694; -100.60944 (Shoal Lake Airport) Emergency landing airfield
Minnedosa MB 50°16′21″N 099°45′50″W / 50.27250°N 99.76389°W / 50.27250; -99.76389 (Minnedosa Airport) Emergency landing airfield
Neepawa MB 50°13′56″N 099°30′38″W / 50.23222°N 99.51056°W / 50.23222; -99.51056 (Neepawa Airport) Refueling/servicing airfield
RCAF Station Portage La Prairie MB 49°54′11″N 098°16′26″W / 49.90306°N 98.27389°W / 49.90306; -98.27389 (Portage la Prairie/Southport Airport) Refueling/servicing airfield (now Portage la Prairie/Southport Airport)
RCAF Station Winnipeg MB 49°53′20″N 97°14′05″W / 49.88889°N 97.23472°W / 49.88889; -97.23472 (CFB Winnipeg) Refueling/servicing airfield (now CFB Winnipeg)
Grand Forks ND 47°55′44″N 097°06′02″W / 47.92889°N 97.10056°W / 47.92889; -97.10056 (Grand Forks Airport (OLD)) Refueling/servicing airfield (note: NOT the current Grand Forks International Airport or Grand Forks AFB. This facility was closed after the war, and the land redeveloped)
Fargo ND 46°55′14″N 096°48′57″W / 46.92056°N 96.81583°W / 46.92056; -96.81583 (Hector International Airport) Refueling/servicing airfield; 575th AAFBU
Alexandria MN 45°51′56″N 095°23′40″W / 45.86556°N 95.39444°W / 45.86556; -95.39444 (Alexandria Airport) Refueling/servicing airfield
St. Cloud MN 45°32′48″N 094°03′37″W / 45.54667°N 94.06028°W / 45.54667; -94.06028 (St. Cloud Airport) Refueling/servicing airfield
Wold/Chamberlain Field MN 44°52′54″N 093°14′01″W / 44.88167°N 93.23361°W / 44.88167; -93.23361 (Minneapolis-Saint Paul Airport) 1454th AAFBU, Alaskan Division, ATC (Station 11). Initially group assembly and dispatch airfield for Lend-lease aircraft; after 1943 controlled by Northwest Airlines under contract, coordinated passenger and cargo travelling on Northwest Staging Route. (now Minneapolis-Saint Paul International Airport)[13][14]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ a b c d e f g Carter 1983, pp. 42, 44–45.
  2. ^ Conn and Fairchild 1989, p. 390.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Chloe 1984[page needed]
  4. ^ Sherman, Stephen. "WWII U.S. Aircraft Manufacturers: Factories in Production in Early 1944." acepilots.com. Retrieved: 26 December 2011.
  5. ^ Cohen 1981, pp. 44–46.
  6. ^ "List of Army Air Force Base Units, 1 May 1945." armyairforces.com. Retrieved: 26 December 2011.
  7. ^ "AFHRA document 00182235." airforcehistoryindex.org. Retrieved: 26 December 2011.
  8. ^ "AFHRA Document 00172681." airforcehistoryindex.org. Retrieved: 26 December 2011.
  9. ^ "AFHRA document 00182227." airforcehistoryindex.org. Retrieved: 26 December 2011.
  10. ^ "AFHRA document 00182244." airforcehistoryindex.org. Retrieved: 26 December 2011.
  11. ^ "AFHRA Document 00007726." airforcehistoryindex.org. Retrieved: 26 December 2011.
  12. ^ Mueller 1989[page needed]
  13. ^ "AFHRA Document 00175615." airforcehistoryindex.org. Retrieved: 26 December 2011.
  14. ^ "AFHRA Document 00175619." airforcehistoryindex.org. Retrieved: 26 December 2011.
Bibliography
  • Carter, John D. "The Air Transport Command, The Army Air Forces in World War II, vol. 7" in Craven, Wesley Frank and James Lea Cate, eds. Services Around the World. Washington, D.C.: Office of Air Force History, 1983.
  • Chloe, John Hale. Top Cover for America: The Air Force in Alaska, 1920-1983. Missoula, Montana: Pictorial Histories Publishing Company, 1984. ISBN 0-933126-47-6.
  • Cohen, Stan B. The Forgotten War: A Pictorial History of World War II in Alaska and Northwestern Canada, Volume 1. Missoula, Montana: Pictorial Histories Publishing Co., Inc., 1981. ISBN 0-933126-13-1.
  • Cohen, Stan B. The Forgotten War: A Pictorial History of World War II in Alaska and Northwestern Canada, Volume 2. Missoula, Montana: Pictorial Histories Publishing Co., Inc., 1989. ISBN 978-0-933126-70-1.
  • Cohen, Stan B. The Forgotten War: A Pictorial History of World War II in Alaska and Northwestern Canada, Volume 3. Missoula, Montana: Pictorial Histories Publishing Co., Inc., 1992. ISBN 978-0-929521-30-5.
  • Conn, Stetson and Byron Fairchild. "The United States and Canada: Elements of Wartime Collaboration, The Western Hemisphere - The Framework of Hemisphere Defense, Chapter XV." United States Army in World War II. Washington, D.C.: United States Army Center of Military History, 1989.
  • Hays, Otis Jr. The Alaska-Siberia Connection: The World War II Air Route (Williams-Ford Texas A&M University Military History Series). College Station, Texas: Tamu Press, 1996. ISBN 0-89096-711-3.
  • Mueller, Robert. Air Force Bases Volume I, Active Air Force Bases Within the United States of America on 17 September 1982. Washington, D.C.: Office of Air Force History, 1989.
  • Smith, Blake. Warplanes to Alaska. Surrey, British Columbia: Hancock House Pub Ltd., 1998. ISBN 978-0-88839-401-9.
  • Smith, Blake. Wings Over the Wilderness: They Flew the Trail of '42. Surrey, British Columbia: Hancock House Pub Ltd., 2008. ISBN 978-0-88839-595-5.

External links[edit]

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Air Force Historical Research Agency.