Norway–Romania relations

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Norwegian-Romanian relations
Map indicating locations of Romania and Norway

Romania

Norway

Norway–Romania relations are foreign relations between Norway and Romania. Both countries established diplomatic relations on April 3, 1917. Norway has an embassy in Bucharest and an honorary consulate in Constanţa.[1] Romania has an embassy in Oslo and 4 honorary consulates (in Bergen, Kristiansand, Stavanger and Trondheim).[2]

Both countries are full members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and of the Council of Europe.

History[edit]

Viking expansion in the 8th-11th centuries. Green denotes areas subjected to frequent Viking raids.

The earliest contact between the Romanian and Norwegian people may have been in the 9th century AD when Varangians began trading with the Byzantine Empire along routes that led through Romania. There are a number of Varangian relics in modern-day Romania.[3]

The Piraeus Lion in Venice. 11th century Runic inscriptions describe Viking raids into Romania.

However, formal relations between the modern states began only in 1917, towards the end of the First World War. Relations were interrupted during the Second World War (1939–1945), but formally resumed in 1946. Relations greatly improved after the Romanian Revolution of 1989. Norway was one of the first countries to recognize the new regime in Romania after the revolution, and the Norwegian embassy in Bucharest was reopened in the summer of 1990.[4]

Agreements[edit]

In 1993 representatives of Norway and Romania meeting in Oslo agreed to modifications to their 1991 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) agreement on trade in textiles.[5] In 2002, the two countries signed an agreement on reducing greenhouse gas emissions consistent with the Kyoto protocol.[6] In September 2004, Romania and Norway signed an agreement on energy and the environment.[7] In August 2007 Norway made an agreement with the EU concerning a Cooperation Programme for Economic Growth and Sustainable Development in Romania.[8] The cost to Norway was almost 100 million euros.[9] In November 2007 Romanian President Traian Băsescu (a former naval captain who studied at the Shipping Academy in Norway) signed an agreement in Oslo on research and educational cooperation between 3 leading maritime universities in Romania and NCE Maritime.[10]

Official meetings and statements[edit]

In September 1999 King Harald V and Queen Sonja of Norway made a state visit to Romania where they met with president Emil Constantinescu and his wife. During the visit, Norway's Foreign Minister Knut Vollebaek expressed Norwegian support for Romania's bid to join NATO.[11] In September 2002, Romanian Prime Minister Adrian Năstase made a formal visit to Oslo where he met Norwegian Prime Minister Kjell Magne Bondevik. Among other subject, Nastase asked for Norway's continued support for Romania's NATO bid.[12]

Romanian Embassy, Oslo, Norway.

In July 2003 Norwegian Defence Minister Kristin Krohn Devold visited Bucharest where she met President Ion Iliescu. They discussed improvements in Romanian-Norwegian defence cooperation, as well as greater bilateral cooperation in other fields.[13] In February 2004, Norway's Foreign Minister Jan Petersen met Romanian Premier Adrian Năstase in Bucharest. They discussed the excellent relations between the countries and further development of the partnership.[14] Romania joined NATO in March 2004. In May 2004, Romanian National Defence Minister Ioan Mircea Pascu said he expected "special" military ties with Norway to improve as a result.[15]

In September 2004, Norwegian Prime Minister Kjell Magne Bondevik visited Romania where he met with President Ion Iliescu and other officials. They discussed strengthened cooperation in strategic fields as NATO partners, as well as improved economic cooperation once Romania joined the European Union.[16] In November 2007, Romanian President Traian Băsescu visited Norway where he met with King Harald V. The two men praised the 90 years of diplomatic relations between the two countries, and solid cooperation in foreign affairs.[17] Also in November 2007, leaders of the two country's police services agreed to further improve bilateral cooperation aiming at preventing and combatting serious crime.[18]

Business[edit]

In 2003, imports from Romania to Norway were about $157 million, mostly ship hulls. Norwegian exports to Romania were about $34 million and included machinery, fish, seafood and electrical machinery.[16] Speaking in May 2005, Norwegian ambassador to Romania Leif Arne Ulland noted that bilateral trade had grown strongly in the last ten years, reaching 141 million Euro in 2004. Norwegian investment in Romania could be around 100 million Euro.[19]

Norwegian companies operating in Romania in 2005 included Aker, employing 6,500 people, IMGB Kvaerner and Orkla Foods.[19] Aker is now STX Europe, owned by the South Korean industrial chaebol STX Corporation. It is the largest shipbuilding group in Europe and the fourth largest in the world. With headquarters in Oslo, Norway, STX Europe operates 15 shipyards in Brazil, Finland, France, Norway, Romania and Vietnam.[20] IMGB Kvaerner is now owned by the Korean giant Doosan Heavy Industries & Construction.[21] The Norwegian firm Jacobsen Electro is a partner with Romelectro in developing the Romanian electricity transmission and distribution network.[22]

By 2006, trade volumes had reached 307 million Euro. Investments by Norwegian businesspeople had grown to 120 million Euro.[23] In February 2007 the European Union put pressure on Norway, a non-EU country, to increase the payments it makes in return for access to the European market to account for the accession of Bulgaria and Romania.[24]

Heavy water incident[edit]

In May 1988 reports were published that said Romania had sold heavy water to Israel that had been purchased from Norway. Heavy water is a key ingredient in making plutonium for nuclear bombs. Romania denied the allegations.[25] Norway had asked Israel in 1987 for confirmation that the heavy water is not being used to make bombs, but as of July 1989 Israel had not agreed to inspections.[26]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Norwegian embassy in Bucharest". Norway Portal. Retrieved July 30, 2009. 
  2. ^ "Romanian embassy in Oslo". Romanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved July 30, 2009. 
  3. ^ Blöndal, Sigfús; Benedikz, Benedict S. (2007). The Varangians of Byzantium. Cambridge University Press. p. 191ff. ISBN 0-521-03552-X. 
  4. ^ "Norway in Romania". Norway Portal. Retrieved July 30, 2009. 
  5. ^ "Arrangement Regarding International Trade In Textiles". World Trade Organization. Retrieved July 30, 2009. 
  6. ^ "Romania, Norway sign bilateral agreement on reducing greenhouse gas emissions". Rompres news agency, Bucharest. January 10, 2002. Retrieved July 30, 2009. 
  7. ^ "Norway tackles opportunities in Romania". Bucharest Business week. September 17, 2004. Retrieved July 30, 2009. 
  8. ^ "Letter from the Kingdom of Norway". European Free Trade Association. Retrieved July 30, 2009. 
  9. ^ "EES expansion brings Romania new funds". Bucharest Business week. April 3, 2007. Retrieved July 30, 2009. 
  10. ^ "Cooperation with Romania". Norwegian Centers of Expertise. Retrieved July 30, 2009. 
  11. ^ "Norway backs Romania's NATO bid – minister". Rompres news agency, Bucharest. September 20, 1999. Retrieved July 30, 2009. 
  12. ^ "Romanian prime minister begins visit in Norway, pleads for country's NATO entry.". Financial Times. September 17, 2002. Retrieved July 30, 2009. 
  13. ^ "Romanian president, Norwegian defence minister discuss reform cooperation". The Centre for SouthEast European Studies. July 7, 2003. Retrieved July 30, 2009. 
  14. ^ "Romanian premier, Norwegian foreign minister praise bilateral relations". Asia Africa Intelligence Wire. February 11, 2004. Retrieved July 30, 2009. 
  15. ^ "Romanian defence minister expects "special" military ties with Norway to improve.". Asia Africa Intelligence Wire. May 17, 2004. Retrieved July 30, 2009. 
  16. ^ a b "Romania, Norway wish to strengthen cooperation in "strategic fields"". Romanian Ministry of External Affairs. September 15, 2004. Retrieved July 30, 2009. 
  17. ^ "Norwegian leaders, Romanian president discuss relations, NATO, regional issues". Rompres news agency, Bucharest. November 9, 2007. Retrieved July 30, 2009. 
  18. ^ "Romania and Norway to enhance police cooperation.". M2 Presswire. November 8, 2007. Retrieved July 30, 2009. 
  19. ^ a b "Sailing away from home". Bucharest Business Week. May 16, 2005. Retrieved July 30, 2009. 
  20. ^ "Annual Report 2008". STX Europe. Retrieved March 13, 2009. 
  21. ^ "Doosan-IMGB Combines Growth and Expansion with". Bucharest Business Week. May 9, 2007. Retrieved March 13, 2009. 
  22. ^ "Discover the business power". Romelectro. Retrieved July 30, 2009. [dead link]
  23. ^ "Advice from outside EU". Bucharest Business Week. February 15, 2007. Retrieved July 30, 2009. 
  24. ^ "EU pushes Norway for more cash to cover Romania and Bulgaria". EU Observer. February 19, 2007. Retrieved July 30, 2009. 
  25. ^ "Romania denies selling heavy water to Israel". St. Petersburg Times. May 26, 1988. Retrieved July 30, 2009. 
  26. ^ "Israel's Reactor in Full Swing – With Norwegian Heavy Water". Wisconsin Project. July 6, 1989. Retrieved July 30, 2009.