Picea abies

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Picea abies
Kuusk Keila-Paldiski rdt ääres.jpg
Norway spruce in Keila, Estonia
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pinophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Pinales
Family: Pinaceae
Genus: Picea
Species: P. abies
Binomial name
Picea abies
(L.) H.Karst.
Picea abies.PNG
Range
Synonyms

Picea excelsa Link (nom. illeg.)
and see text

The Norway spruce (Picea abies) is a species of spruce native to Europe. It is also commonly referred to as the European spruce.

Description[edit]

Norway spruce shoot.
Cross-section of a Norway spruce needle
Young conifers of Norway spruce (Chornohora, Ukrainian Carpathians)
A pineapple gall 'pseudocone' caused by Adelges abietis on a Norway spruce.
Dissected pineapple 'pseudocone' galls.

It is a large, fast-growing evergreen coniferous tree growing 35–55 m (115–180 ft) tall and with a trunk diameter of 1 to 1.5 m. It can grow fast when young, up to 1 m (3 ft) per year for the first 25 years under good conditions, but becomes slower once over 20 m (66 ft) tall.[1] The shoots are orange-brown and glabrous (hairless). The leaves are needle-like, 12–24 mm long, quadrangular in cross-section (not flattened), and dark green on all four sides with inconspicuous stomatal lines. The cones are 9–17 cm long (the longest of any spruce), and have bluntly to sharply triangular-pointed scale tips. They are green or reddish, maturing brown 5–7 months after pollination. The seeds are black, 4–5 mm long, with a pale brown 15 mm wing.[2][3][4][5][6]

The tallest measured Norway spruce, 63 m (207 ft) tall, is in Perucica Virgin Forest, Sutjeska National Park, Bosnia-Herzegovina.[citation needed]

Variation[edit]

Populations in southeast Europe tend to have on average longer cones with more pointed scales; these are sometimes distinguished as Picea abies var. acuminata (Beck) Dallim. & A.B. Jacks., but there is extensive overlap in variation with trees from other parts of the range.[2][3][4]

Some botanists treat Siberian spruce as a subspecies of Norway spruce, though in their typical forms, they are very distinct, the Siberian spruce having cones only 5–10 cm long, with smoothly rounded scales, and pubescent (hairy) shoots.[2][3][4] Genetically Norway and Siberian spruces have turned out to be extremely similar and may be considered as two closely related subspecies of P. abies.[7]

Another spruce with smoothly rounded cone scales and hairy shoots occurs rarely in the central Alps in eastern Switzerland. It is also distinct in having thicker, blue-green leaves. Many texts treat this as a variant of Norway spruce, but it is as distinct as many other spruces, and appears to be more closely related to Siberian spruce (Picea obovata), Schrenk's spruce (Picea schrenkiana) from central Asia and Morinda spruce (Picea smithiana) in the Himalaya. Treated as a distinct species, it takes the name Alpine spruce (Picea alpestris (Brügger) Stein). As with Siberian spruce, it hybridises extensively with Norway spruce; pure specimens are rare. Hybrids are commonly known as Norwegian spruce, which should not be confused with the pure species Norway spruce.[2][3][4]

Range[edit]

Norway spruce grows throughout Europe from Norway in the northwest and Poland eastward, and also in the mountains of central Europe, southwest to the western end of the Alps, and southeast in the Carpathians and Balkans to the extreme north of Greece. The northern limit is in the arctic, just north of 70°N in Norway. Its eastern limit in Russia is hard to define, due to extensive hybridisation and intergradation with the Siberian spruce, but is usually given as the Ural Mountains. However, trees showing some Siberian spruce characters extend as far west as much of northern Finland, with a few records in northeast Norway. The hybrid is known as Picea × fennica (or P. abies subsp. fennica, if the two taxa are considered subspecies), and can be distinguished by a tendency towards having hairy shoots and cones with smoothly rounded scales.[2][3][4]

Cultivation[edit]

The Norway spruce is one of the most widely planted spruces, both in and outside of its native range, and one of the most economically important coniferous species in Europe.[8] It is used as an ornamental tree in parks and gardens. It is also widely planted for use as a Christmas tree. Every Christmas, the Norwegian capital city, Oslo, provides the cities of New York, London (the Trafalgar Square Christmas tree), Edinburgh and Washington D.C. with a Norway spruce, which is placed at the most central square of each city. This is mainly a sign of gratitude for the aid these countries gave during the Second World War.

In North America, Norway spruce is widely planted, specifically in the northeastern, Pacific Coast, and Rocky Mountain states, as well as in southeastern Canada. It is naturalised in some parts of North America. There are naturalised populations occurring from Connecticut to Michigan, and it is probable that they occur elsewhere.[8] Norway spruces are more tolerant of hot, humid weather than many conifers which do not thrive except in cool-summer areas and they will grow up to USDA Growing Zone 8.

In the northern US and Canada, Norway Spruce is reported as invasive in some locations, however it does not pose a problem in Zones 6 and up as the seeds have a significantly reduced germination rate in areas with hot, humid summers.

The Norway spruce tolerates acidic soils well, but does not do well on dry or deficient soils. From 1928 until the 1960s it was planted on surface mine spoils in Indiana.[8]

Cultivars[edit]

Several cultivars have been selected for garden use; they are occasionally traded under the obsolete scientific name Picea excelsa (an illegitimate name). The following cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:

Other uses[edit]

The Norway spruce is used in forestry for timber and paper production.

The tree is the source of spruce beer, which was once used to prevent and even cure scurvy.[11]

It is esteemed as a source of tonewood by stringed-instrument makers.[12]

Picea abies shoot tips have been used in the traditional Austrian medicine internally (as syrup or tea) and externally (as baths, for inhalation, as ointments, as resin application or as tea) for treatment of disorders of the respiratory tract, skin, locomotor system, gastrointestinal tract and infections.[13]

Ecology[edit]

See also List of Lepidoptera that feed on spruces

Norway spruce cone scales are used as food by the caterpillars of the tortrix moth Cydia illutana, while C. duplicana feeds on the bark around injuries or canker.

Genetics[edit]

The Norway spruce genome was sequenced in 2013, the first gymnosperm genome to be completely sequenced.[14] The genome contains approximately 20 billion base pairs and is about six times the size of the human genome, despite possessing a similar number of genes. A large proportion of the spruce genome consists of repetitive DNA sequences, including long terminal repeat transposable elements. Despite recent advances in massively parallel DNA sequencing, the assembly of such a large and repetitive genome is a particularly challenging task, mainly from a computational perspective.[15]

World's "oldest clone"[edit]

A press release from Umeå University says that a Norway spruce clone named Old Tjikko, carbon dated as 9,550 years old, is the "oldest living tree".[16]

However, Pando, a stand of 47,000 Quaking Aspen clones, is estimated to be between 80,000 and one million years old.[17][18][19]

The stress is on the difference between the singular "oldest tree" and the multiple "oldest trees", and between "oldest clone" and "oldest non-clone". The oldest known individual tree (that has not taken advantage of vegetative cloning) is a Great Basin Bristlecone Pine over 5,000 years old (germination in 3051 BC).[20]

Chemistry[edit]

p-Hydroxybenzoic acid glucoside, picein, piceatannol and its glucoside (astringin), isorhapontin (the isorhapontigenin glucoside), catechin and ferulic acid are phenolic compounds found in mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal roots of Norway spruces.[21] Piceol[22] and astringin[23] are also found in P. abies.

Synonyms[edit]

Picea abies (L.) H. Karst is the accepted name of this species. The infraspecific taxon Picea abies var. acuminata (Beck) Dallim. & A.B. Jacks is also an accepted name. More than 150 synonyms of Picea abies are recognized.[24]

Homotypic synonyms of Picea abies are:[25]

  • Pinus abies L.
  • Abies picea Mill.
  • Pinus pyramidalis Salisb.
  • Pinus abies subsp. vulgaris Voss
  • Abies abies (L.) Druce

Some heterotypic synonyms of Picea abies are:

  • Abies alpestris Brügger
  • Abies carpatica (Loudon) Ravenscr.
  • Abies cinerea Borkh.
  • Abies clambrasiliana Lavallée
  • Abies clanbrassiliana P. Lawson
  • Abies coerulescens K. Koch
  • Abies conica Lavallée
  • Abies elegans Sm. ex J.Knight
  • Abies eremita K.Koch
  • Abies erythrocarpa (Purk.) Nyman
  • Abies excelsa (Lam.) Poir.
  • Abies extrema Th.Fr.
  • Abies finedonensis Gordon
  • Abies gigantea Sm. ex Carrière
  • Abies gregoryana H. Low. ex Gordon
  • Abies inverta R. Sm. ex Gordon
  • Abies lemoniana Booth ex Gordon
  • Abies medioxima C.Lawson
  • Abies minuta Poir.
  • Abies montana Nyman
  • Abies parvula Knight
  • Abies subarctica (Schur) Nyman
  • Abies viminalis Wahlenb.
  • Picea alpestris (Brügger) Stein
  • Picea cranstonii Beissn.
  • Picea elegantissima Beissn.
  • Picea excelsa (Lam.) Link
  • Picea finedonensis Beissn.
  • Picea gregoryana Beissn.
  • Picea integrisquamis (Carrière) Chiov.
  • Picea maxwellii Beissn.
  • Picea montana Schur
  • Picea remontii Beissn.
  • Picea rubra A. Dietr.
  • Picea subarctica Schur
  • Picea velebitica Simonk. ex Kümmerle
  • Picea viminalis (Alstr.) Beissn.
  • Picea vulgaris Link
  • Pinus excelsa Lam.
  • Pinus sativa Lam.
  • Pinus viminalis Alstr.


Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mitchell, A. F. (1974). A Field Guide to the Trees of Britain and Northern Europe. Collins ISBN 0-00-212035-6
  2. ^ a b c d e Farjon, A. (1990). Pinaceae. Drawings and Descriptions of the Genera. Koeltz Scientific Books ISBN 3-87429-298-3.
  3. ^ a b c d e Rushforth, K. (1987). Conifers. Helm ISBN 0-7470-2801-X.
  4. ^ a b c d e Gymnosperm Database: Picea abies
  5. ^ Conifer Specialist Group (1998). Picea abies. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 12 May 2006.
  6. ^ Den Virtuella Floran: Picea abies distribution (in Swedish, with maps)
  7. ^ Krutovskii, KV; Bergmann, F (1995). "Introgressive hybridization and phylogenetic relationships between Norway, Picea abies (L.) Karst., and Siberian, P. obovata Ledeb., spruce species studied by isozyme loci". Heredity 74 (5): 464–480. doi:10.1038/hdy.1995.67. 
  8. ^ a b c Sullivan, Janet (1994). "Picea Abies". Fire Effects Information System. United States Forest Service. Retrieved 18 November 2009. 
  9. ^ "RHS Plant Selector – Picea abies 'Little Gem'". Retrieved 26 May 2013. 
  10. ^ "RHS Plant Selector – Picea abies 'Nidiformis'". Retrieved 26 May 2013. 
  11. ^ Karellp. "New Beer – Spruce Beer". The Black Creek Growler. Retrieved 30 September 2012. 
  12. ^ Here is more than you perhaps ever cared to know about European spruce...
  13. ^ Vogl S; Picker P; Mihaly-Bison J; Fakhrudin N; Atanasov AG; Heiss EH; Wawrosch C; Reznicek G; Dirsch VM; Saukel J; Kopp B. (7 October 2013). "Ethnopharmacological in vitro studies on Austria's folk medicine – an unexplored lore. In vitro anti-inflammatory activities of 71 Austrian traditional herbal drugs". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 149 (3): 750–771. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2013.06.007. PMC 3791396. PMID 23770053. 
  14. ^ Nystedt, B; Street, NR; Wetterbom, A; Zuccolo, A; Lin, YC; Scofield, DG; Vezzi, F; Delhomme, N; Giacomello, S; Alexeyenko, A et al. (30 May 2013). "The Norway spruce genome sequence and conifer genome evolution". Nature 497 (7451): 579–584. doi:10.1038/nature12211. PMID 23698360. 
  15. ^ Birol I; Raymond A; Jackman SD; Pleasance S; Coope R; Taylor GA; Yuen MM; Keeling CI; Brand D; Vandervalk BP et al. (Jun 15, 2013). "Assembling the 20 Gb white spruce (Picea glauca) genome from whole-genome shotgun sequencing data". Bioinformatics 29 (12): 1492–97. doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btt178. PMC 3673215. PMID 23698863. 
  16. ^ "World's oldest living tree discovered in Sweden". Umeå University. April 16, 2008. Retrieved 26 May 2013. 
  17. ^ Quaking Aspen by the Bryce Canyon National Park Service
  18. ^ Mitton, JB; Grant, MC (1996). "Genetic Variation and the Natural History of Quaking Aspen". BioScience 46 (1): 25–31. JSTOR 1312652. 
  19. ^ Swedish Spruce Is World's Oldest Tree: Scientific American Podcast
  20. ^ "Old List". Rocky Mountain Tree-Ring Research. Retrieved 16 August 2013. 
  21. ^ Münzenberger, B; Heilemann, J; Strack, D; Kottke, I; Oberwinkler, F (1990). "Phenolics of mycorrhizas and non-mycorrhizal roots of Norway spruce". Planta 182 (1): 142–148. doi:10.1007/BF00239996. 
  22. ^ Løkke, Hans (June 1990). "Picein and piceol concentrations in Norway spruce". Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 19 (3): 301–309. doi:10.1016/0147-6513(90)90032-Z. PMID 2364913. 
  23. ^ Lindberg, M; Lundgren, L; Gref, R; Johansson, M (1 May 1992). "Stilbenes and resin acids in relation to the penetration of Heterobasidion annosum through the bark of Picea abies". Forest Pathology 22 (2): 95–106. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0329.1992.tb01436.x. 
  24. ^ "Picea abies (L.) H. Karst". The Plant List. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 14 March 2014. 
  25. ^ "Picea abies (L.) H.Karst., Deut. Fl.: 325 (1881). Homotypic Synonyms.". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Retrieved 14 March 2014. 

External links[edit]