The investigation board employs a total of 45 persons, including eight investigators within the aviation sector, six within the railway sector, six within the road sector and eleven within the maritime sector.
The board's history goes back to 1989. Prior to 1989 ad hoc investigation commissions were set up to investigate fatal civilian air accidents, The Aviation Accident Commission (Norwegian: Flyhavarikommisjonen), had a permanent chairman, but was manned ad hoc with experts, such as from the Norwegian Air Traffic and Airport Management (Norwegian: Luftfartsverket), the predecessor of today's Avinor, airlines and the military. The police was also a permanent member of the commission. In 1989 the Accident Investigation Board for Civil Aviation (Norwegian: Havarikommisjonen for sivil luftfart (HSL)) was established, modeled on ICAO's standards and with a permanent staff based at Fornebu. The agency had the English name Aircraft Accident Investigation Board/Norway (AAIB/N).
In 2001 the board moved to new, tailored facilities in Lillestrøm close to Kjeller Airport, this following two years in temporary offices at Kjeller since Fornebu Airport had closed in 1998. The board's mandate was expanded in 2002 to also investigate accidents and serious incidents in the railway sector, and the name was changed to the Accident Investigation Board for Civil Aviation and Railways (Norwegian: Havarikommisjonen for sivil luftfart og jernbane (HSLB)). Yet another expansion of its mandate took place in 2005, now also including road traffic and the name became what it is today. In 2008 also sea transport accidents became the focus of the board. At the same time the Institute of Maritime Enquiry (Norwegian: Sjøforklaringsinstituttet) and the Permanent Investigation Board for Special Accidents in the Fisheries Fleet were both abolished.