Norwegian European Union membership referendum, 1994

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A referendum on joining the European Union was held in Norway on 27 and 28 November 1994.[1] After a long period of heated debate, the "no" side won with 52.2 per cent of the vote, on a turnout of 88.6 per cent. Membership of what was then the European Community had previously been rejected in a 1972 referendum, and by French Veto in 1962.

Campaign[edit]

The "No" campaign was led by Anne Enger Lahnstein, leader of the Centre Party.[2] The main themes of the "No" campaign were loss of sovereignty if Norway should join the Union, as well as the fundamental differences in economic structure between Norway and the EU, as Norway has an economy based heavily on natural resources (especially oil and fish), in contrast to the EU's more industrial economy.

Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland led the "Yes" campaign. Her party, the Labour Party, was divided on the question of Norwegian membership of the Union. She refused to threaten to resign if the referendum failed to result in a "Yes" vote, on the grounds that more serious divisions could have arisen in the Labour Party. The main arguments of the "Yes" side were that as a European country, Norway belonged in the European Union, and that Norway's economy would benefit from membership.

Results[edit]

Countrywide[edit]

Norwegian European Union membership referendum, 1994[3][4]
Choice Votes  %
Referendum failed No 1,516,803 52.2%
Yes 1,389,997 47.8%
Valid votes 2,906,750 99.9%
Invalid or blank votes 3,571 0.1%
Total votes 2,910,321 100.00%
Registered voters/turnout 3,266,064 89.0%

By constituency[edit]

Constituency Electorate Spoilt votes Total poll (%) For (%) Against (%)
Østfold 185,441 307 163,338 (88) 87,390 (54) 75,998 (46)
Akershus 322,029 443 293,331 (91) 187,126 (64) 106,205 (36)
Oslo 360,340 497 317,585 (88) 211,550 (67) 106,035 (33)
Hedmark 146,468 215 129,674 (89) 55,367 (43) 74,307 (57)
Oppland 142,911 251 126,245 (88) 55,702 (44) 70,543 (56)
Buskerud 174,271 240 154,345 (89) 88,281 (57) 66,064 (43)
Vestfold 155,338 123 138,099 (89) 78,698 (57) 59,401 (43)
Telemark 125,401 106 110,136 (88) 46,478 (42) 63,658 (58)
Aust-Agder 73,841 68 64,927 (88) 28,805 (44) 36,122 (56)
Vest-Agder 108,226 58 96,318 (89) 43,947 (46) 52,371 (54)
Rogaland 251,790 166 227,485 (90) 103,066 (45) 124,419 (55)
Hordaland 313,511 244 281,543 (90) 122,942 (44) 158,601 (56)
Sogn og Fjordane 80,104 52 71,650 (89) 22,761 (32) 48,889 (68)
Møre og Romsdal 180,426 178 160,713 (89) 61,715 (38) 98,998 (62)
Sør-Trøndelag 194,869 239 171,007 (88) 77,035 (45) 93,972 (55)
Nord-Trøndelag 96,344 50 86,110 (89) 31,018 (36) 55,092 (64)
Nordland 183,703 226 162,474 (88) 46,394 (29) 116,080 (71)
Troms 113,840 57 101,428 (89) 28,860 (28) 72,568 (72)
Finnmark 57,211 51 50,342 (88) 12,862 (26) 37,480 (74)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nohlen, D & Stöver, P (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p1438 ISBN 978-3-8329-5609-7
  2. ^ Biography on Norwegian government's website (Norwegian)
  3. ^ Folkeavstemningene om EU og EF. Fylkesvis Statistics Norway (Norwegian)
  4. ^ Folkeavstemningen om EU Statistics Norway (Norwegian)

External links[edit]