Norwin School District
|Norwin School District|
Moving Forward from Great to Extraordinary
|281 Mcmahon Drive
North Huntingdon, Pennsylvania, Westmoreland County, United States
|Superintendent||Dr. William H. Kerr contract through 6/30/2015|
|Number of students||5,197 (2011) |
|Color(s)||Blue and gold|
|Athletics conference||Western Pennsylvania Interscholastic Athletic League|
|Budget||$61.2 million 2013-14|
|per pupil spending||$10,007 (2008) ranking 477th 2008|
|pre pupil spending||$10,713.04 ranked 489th 2010|
The Norwin School District is a large, suburban public school district. It is located in the southwest corner of Westmoreland County. Norwin School District serves North Huntingdon, Irwin, and North Irwin, which are Pittsburgh suburbs. The District covers twenty 28 square miles (73 km2) while serving as home to approximately 34,000 residents in 2000. By 2010, the district's population increased to 35,514 people. In 2009, the Districts residents' per capita income was $20,393, while the median family income was $50,728. Per District officials, in school year 2007-08 the Norwin School District provided basic educational services to 5,289 pupils. In 2008, Norwin School District employed 325 teachers, 225 full-time and part-time support personnel, and 27 administrators.
In 2007 the Pennsylvania Legislature commissioned a Costing Out Study to identify the cost of public education. Norwin School District was recognized as achieving high percentages of students scoring either advanced or proficient on PSSA math and reading tests; and having relatively low per-pupil expenditures. Norwin School District was one of only 87 schools districts that were identified as high performing in student achievement of the Pennsylvania Academic Standards. Efficiency was gauged by administrative spending, number of teachers per pupil and maintenance/operation spending per pupil.
- 1 Intermediate school
- 2 Middle school
- 3 High school
- 4 Academic achievement
- 5 Kindergarten
- 6 Special education
- 7 Bullying and school safety
- 8 Budget
- 9 Extracurriculars
- 10 References
- 11 External links
- Hillcrest Intermediate School, Grades 5-6 (enrollment 800 pupils in 2012) 
- 11091 Mockingbird Drive North Huntingdon, PA 15642
- Phone: (724)-953-2688
- Norwin Middle School, Grades: 7-8 (enrollment 832 pupils in 2010)
- 10870 Mockingbird Drive North Huntingdon, PA 15642
- Phone: (724) 861-3010
In 2009, the 8th grade was ranked 3rd out of 141 local middle schools based on three years of student academic achievement in PSSAs in: reading, math writing and one year of science. (Includes schools in: Allegheny County, Beaver County, Butler County, Fayette County, Westmoreland County, and Washington County
- Norwin High School Grades: 9-12 (enrollment 1690 pupils in 2010)
- 251 McMahon Drive North Huntingdon, PA 15642
- Phone: (724) 861-3005
Vocational Technical Services
Norwin School District was ranked 49th out of 498 Pennsylvania school districts in 2013 by the Pittsburgh Business Times. The ranking was based on the last 3 years of student academic performance on the PSSAs for: math, reading, writing and science. The PSSAs are given to all children in grades 3rd through 8th and the 11th grade in high school. Adapted examinations are given to children in the special education programs.
- Western Pennsylvania local ranking
Norwin School District was ranked 14th out of 104 western Pennsylvania school districts, in 2013, by the Pittsburgh Business Times. The ranking was based on the last three years of student academic performance on the PSSAs on: math, reading, writing and science. The region includes 105 districts in: Allegheny County, Armstrong County, Beaver County, Butler County, Fayette County, Washington County and Westmoreland County, but excludes Duquesne City School District & Midland Borough School District due to them operating no high school.
In 2009, the academic achievement of students in the Norwin School District was in the top 91st percentile of 500 Pennsylvania school districts. Scale - (0-99; 100 is state best)
District AYP history
In both 2011 and 2012, Norwin School District achieved Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) status. In 2011, 94 percent of the 500 Pennsylvania public school districts achieved the No Child Left Behind Act progress level of 72% of students reading on grade level and 67% of students demonstrating on grade level math. In 2011, 46.9 percent of Pennsylvania school districts achieved Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) based on student performance. An additional 37.8 percent of Pennsylvania public school districts made AYP based on a calculated method called safe harbor, 8.2 percent on the growth model and 0.8 percent on a two-year average performance. Norwin School District achieved AYP each year 2006 through 2010.
- 2006 - Making Progress School improvement level I
- 2005 - Declined to School Improvement Status level I due to lagging student achievement.
- 2003 - Warning AYP status
In 2012, The District’s graduation rate rose to 95.9%. In 2011, the graduation rate was 94%. In 2010, the Pennsylvania Department of Education issued a new, 4-year cohort graduation rate. Norwin School District's rate was 92% for 2010.
According to traditional graduation rate calculations:
Senior high school
In 2010 the high school improved to achieving AYP. In 2009 the high school was in Making Progress: in School Improvement I due to low student achievement of special education pupils and low-income students.
11th Grade Reading
- 2010 - 81% on grade level (9% below basic). In Pennsylvania, 66% of 11th graders are on grade level.
- 2009 - 73% (14% below basic), State - 65% 
- 2008 - 77% (10% below basic), State - 65% 
- 2007 - 80% (6% below basic), State - 65% 
11th Grade Math:
- 2010 - 73%, on grade level (12% below basic). In Pennsylvania, 59% of 11th graders are on grade level.
- 2009 - 69% (14% below basic). State - 56% 
- 2008 - 71% (16% below basic), State - 56%
- 2007 - 82% (13% below basic), State - 53%
11th Grade Science:
- 2010 - 56% on grade level (6% below basic). State - 39% of 11th graders were on grade level.
- 2009 - 55% (9% below basic). State - 40% 
- 2008 - 52%, State - 39%
College Remediation: According to a Pennsylvania Department of Education study released in January 2009, 19% of Norwin School District graduates required remediation in mathematics and or reading before they were prepared to take college level courses in the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education or community colleges. Less than 66% of Pennsylvania high school graduates, who enroll in a four-year college in Pennsylvania, will earn a bachelor's degree within six years. Among Pennsylvania high school graduates pursuing an associate degree, only one in three graduate in three years. Per the Pennsylvania Department of Education, one in three recent high school graduates who attend Pennsylvania's public universities and community colleges takes at least one remedial course in math, reading or English.
The Norwin School Board requires a minimum of 25.5 credits for a student to graduate, including: English 4.5 credits, Social Students 4 credits, Science 3 credits, Mathematics 3 credits, Arts/Humanities 2 credits, Health 0.5 credit, Physical Education 2 and Electives 5 credits. Norwin Senior High School awards one credit upon the completion of the 11th grade PSSA Tests, in writing, reading, and mathematics. A student must have a four-year average of ninety (94) percent or higher to graduate with honors.
By law, all Pennsylvania secondary school students must complete a project as a part of their eligibility to graduate from high school. The type of project, its rigor and its expectations are set by the individual school district. At Norwin Senior High School the project includes three components: proposal research, product, and presentation. A one component is to be completed each year.
By Pennsylvania School Board regulations, for the graduating class 2016, students must demonstrate successful completion of secondary level course work in Algebra I, Biology, English Composition, and Literature for which the Keystone Exams serve as the final course exams. Students’ Keystone Exam scores shall count for at least one-third of the final course grade.
The high school offers a dual enrollment program. This state program permits high school students to take courses, at local higher education institutions, to earn college credits. Students remain enrolled at their high school. The courses count towards high school graduation requirements and towards earning a college degree. The students continue to have full access to activities and programs at their high school. The college credits are offered at a deeply discounted rate. The state offers a small grant to assist students in costs for tuition, fees and books. Norwin has Dual Enrollment agreements with Clarion University, Penn State University: Greater Allegheny, Seton Hill University, The University of Pittsburgh: Greensburg, and Westmoreland County Community College. The College in High School Program is sponsored by the University of Pittsburgh and Seton Hill University. This program allows students to earn college credits and a transcript from the University of Pittsburgh and/or Seton Hill University while taking classes in the Norwin High School. Under the Pennsylvania Transfer and Articulation Agreement, many Pennsylvania colleges and universities accept these credits for students who transfer to their institutions. The Pennsylvania College Credit Transfer System reported in 2009, that students saved nearly $35.4 million by having their transferred credits count towards a degree under the new system.
For the 2009-10 funding year, the school district received a state grant of $6,488 for the program. In 2010-11 the district received $7,586.
Kindergarten instruction is provided on a full-day or half-day basis to those students who have reached the age of 5. Children are assigned to the full-day class based on developmental need as indicated by the Brigance Early Screen and by lottery for any remaining roster openings.
The District engages in identification procedures to ensure that eligible students receive an appropriate educational program consisting of special education and related services, individualized to meet student needs. At no cost to the parents, these services are provided in compliance with state and federal law; and are reasonably calculated to yield meaningful educational benefit and student progress. To identify students who may be eligible for special education, various screening activities are conducted on an ongoing basis. These screening activities include: review of group-based data (cumulative records, enrollment records, health records, report cards, ability and achievement test scores); hearing, vision, motor, and speech/language screening; and review by the Norwin Special Education administrators. When screening results suggest that the student may be eligible, the District seeks parental consent to conduct a multidisciplinary evaluation. Parents who suspect their child is eligible may verbally request a multidisciplinary evaluation from a professional employee of the District or contact the Director of Pupil Services and Special Programs.
In 2010, the state of Pennsylvania provided $1,026,815,000 for special education services. The funds were distributed to districts based on a state policy which estimates that 16% of the district's pupils are receiving special education services. This funding is in addition to the state's basic education per pupil funding, as well as, all other state and federal funding.
Norwin School District received a $2,511,094 supplement for special education services in 2010.
For the 2011-12 school year, all Pennsylvania public school districts received the same level of funding for special education that they received in 2010. This level funding is provided regardless of changes in the number of pupils who need special education services and regardless of the level of services the respective students required.
The District Administration reported that 264 or 6.04% of its students were gifted in 2009. By law, the district must provide mentally gifted programs at all grade levels. The primary emphasis is on enrichment and acceleration of the regular education curriculum through a push in model with the gifted instructor in the classroom with the regular instructor. This approach permits such specialized instructional strategies as tiered assignments, curriculum compacting, flexible grouping, learning stations, independent projects and independent contracts. Students identified as gifted attending the High School have access to honors and advanced placement courses, and dual enrollment with local colleges. The referral process for a gifted evaluation can be initiated by teachers or parents by contacting the student’s building principal and requesting an evaluation. All requests must be made in writing. To be eligible for mentally gifted programs in Pennsylvania, a student must have a cognitive ability of at least 130 as measured on a standardized ability test by a certified school psychologist. Other factors that indicate giftedness will also be considered for eligibility.For grades k-6 it's noted as SEAL and for grades 7-12 as SOAR.
Bullying and school safety
The Norwin School Board prohibits bullying by district students and faculty. The policy defines bullying and cyber bullying. The Board directs that complaints of bullying shall be investigated promptly, and corrective action shall be taken when allegations are verified. No reprisals or retaliation shall occur as a result of good faith reports of bullying. The board expects staff members to be responsible to maintain an educational environment free from all forms of bullying. A student who violates this policy shall be subject to appropriate disciplinary action, consistent with the student discipline code. All Pennsylvania schools are required to have an anti-bullying policy incorporated into their Code of Student Conduct. The policy must identify disciplinary actions for bullying and designate a school staff person to receive complaints of bullying. The policy must be available on the school's website and posted in every classroom. All Pennsylvania public schools must provide a copy of its anti-bullying policy to the Office for Safe Schools every year, and shall review their policy every three years. Additionally, the district must conduct an annual review of that policy with students. The Center for Schools and Communities works in partnership with the Pennsylvania Commission on Crime & Delinquency and the Pennsylvania Department of Education to assist schools and communities as they research, select and implement bullying prevention programs and initiatives.
The Board prohibits any member of the district staff from harassing a student through conduct or communications of a sexual nature. The Board also prohibits employees from harassing another employee.
Education standards relating to student safety and antiharassment programs are described in the 10.3. Safety and Injury Prevention in the Pennsylvania Academic Standards for Health, Safety and Physical Education.
Norwin School District received $198,147 in a settlement against Bank of America in 2011. The bank acknowledged engaging in illegal bid rigging which over charged the district for bonds sold in 2001.
In 2009, the district reports employing over 341 teachers with a starting salary of $31,650 for 188 days (180 days for pupil instruction). The average teacher salary was $57,622 while the maximum salary is $131,353. The teachers work 8 hours, including a prep period and a paid lunch period. As of 2007, Pennsylvania ranked in the top 10 states in average teacher salaries. When adjusted for cost of living Pennsylvania ranked fourth in the nation for teacher compensation. Additionally, Norwin School District teachers receive a defined benefit pension, health insurance (with a small employee premium contribution), professional development reimbursement, 3 paid personal days, 10 sick days which accumulate, 5 paid bereavement days and other benefits. Teachers receive a supplemental bonus at the end of each school year based on their years at Norwin from $250 –$500 per year. Teachers receive a terminal leave payment which includes payment for unused sick days. The district provides the president of the local teachers' union with 1 paid day per week to perform union business, including travel outside the district. Additionally, the union receives 25 paid days for union business. The union pays for a substitute teacher. According to State Rep. Glen Grell, a trustee of the Pennsylvania Public School Employees’ Retirement System Board, a 40-year educator can retire with a pension equal to 100 percent of their final salary.
In 2007, the district employed 282 teachers with the average teacher salary in the district was $51,349 for 180 days worked.
In 2008, Norwin School District reported spending $10,007 per pupil. This ranked 477th in the commonwealth out of 500 school districts.
In 2009, the district had over $4.1 million in its undesignated reserves fund, according to an annual audit.
In January 2011, the Pennsylvania Auditor General conducted a performance audit of the district. Findings were reported to the administration and school board.
For the 2011-12 school year the district experienced 11 professional retirements and 2 resignations with 6.5 professional positions not replaced and 4 instructional aide positions eliminated. For the school year the district will spend $28.6 million on salaries and $10.8 million for employee benefits. The athletic and activity budget exceeds $1.1 million
Norwin administrative costs in 2008 were $616.53 per pupil. The district ranks 420th of 500 school districts for administrative spending. The lowest administrative cost per pupil in Pennsylvania was $398, in 2008. Additionally, the district provides an extensive benefit package to all administrators.
The district is funded by a combination of: a local earned income tax, a property tax, a real estate transfer tax - 0.5%, coupled with substantial funding from the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the federal government. Grants can provide an opportunity to supplement school funding without raising local taxes. In the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, pension income and Social Security income are exempted from state personal income tax and local earned income tax, regardless the of level of wealth.
State basic education funding
In 2011-12, the district will receive $15,056,767 in state Basic Education Funding. Additionally, the district will receive $222,585 in Accountability Block Grant funding for all-day kindergarten.
According to the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 945 students received free or reduced-price lunches due to low family income in the 2009-2010 school year.
For the 2010-11 budget year the Norwin School District received a 4.72% increase in state basic education funding for a total of $16,525,003. In Westmoreland County, the highest increase went to Yough School District which received an 7.40% increase in state funding. Two districts in Westmoreland County received a base 2% increase while one hundred fifty school districts in Pennsylvania received the 2% base increase for budget year 2010-11. The highest increase in the state was given to Kennett Consolidated School District of Chester County which was given a 23.65% increase in state funding.
In the 2009-2010 budget year the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania provided a 4.80% increase in Basic Education Funding to Norwin School District, for a total of $15,779,709. Ninety school districts in Pennsylvania received the minimum 2% increase in 2009. Three county school districts received increases of over 6% in Basic Education Funding the highest being 6.44% to Southmoreland School District. Additionally, Governor Edward Rendell gave 15 Pennsylvania school districts education funding increases of over 10% in 2009. The highest funding increase went to Muhlenberg School District in Berks County which received a 22.31% increase in 2009-10. The state Basic Education Funding to Norwin School District in 2008-09 was $15,056,767.51. The amount of increase each school district receives is determined by the Governor and the Secretary of Education through the allocation set in the state budget proposal made in February each year.
According to the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 893 students received free or reduced-price lunches due to low family income in the 2007-2008 school year.
Accountability Block Grant
The state provides supplemental funding in the form of accountability block grants. The use of these funds is strictly focused on specific state approved uses. Norwin School District uses its $604,154 to fund targeted all-day kindergarten 7th year, to develop new curriculum, to pay for more pupil instructional time, and to provide more teacher training. These annual funds are in addition to the state's basic education funding. The 2008-09 school year was the fifth year the district offered all-day kindergarten to its pupils. Schools Districts apply each year for Accountability Block Grants. In 2009-10 the state provided $271.4 million in Accountability Block grants $199.5 million went to providing all-day kindergartens.
Classrooms for the Future Grants
Norwin School District did not apply for a Classrooms for the Future grant. The grants were awarded over 3 years, providing additional state funding for purchasing computer, white boards printers, for upgrading the high school's network and for a technology coach to instruct teachers in using the equipment to improve instruction. Norwin was one of fifty districts out of 500 that did not participate in the state's program. Since 2006, Pennsylvania's Classrooms for the Future program has distributed more than $150 million for laptops, interactive boards and other high-tech tools in 543 high schools. In 2009 the state funding program was terminated due to a deep state budget shortfall.
Federal Stimulus grant
The district received an extra $3 million in ARRA - Federal Stimulus money to be used in specific programs like special education and meeting the academic needs of low-income students. The funding is for 2009–2010 and 2010-2011 school years.
Race to the Top grant
School district officials did not apply for the Race to the Top federal grant. When approved for the grant, the district would have received over one million in additional federal dollars for improving student academic achievement. Participation required the administration, the school board and the local teachers' union to sign an agreement to prioritize improving student academic success. In Pennsylvania, 120 public school districts and 56 charter schools agreed to participate. Pennsylvania was not approved in the first round of the grant. The failure of districts to agree to participate was cited as one reason that Pennsylvania was not approved. A second round of state RTTT application judging will occur in June 2010.
Real estate taxes
For the 2011-12 school year, the Norwin School Board set the real estate tax rate at: 13.2400 mills for Allegheny County and 65.800 mills Westmoreland County. The district collects another 1.2 mills for the Norwin Public Library. A mill is $1 of tax for every $1,000 of a property's assessed value. Irregular property reassessments have become a serious issue in the commonwealth as it creates a significant disparity in taxation within a community and across a region. On the local level, Pennsylvania district revenues are dominated by two main sources: 1) Property tax collections, which account for the vast majority (between 75-85%) of local revenues; and 2) Act 511 tax collections, which are around 15% of revenues for school districts.
- 2010-11 - 13.3700 mills for Allegheny County, 65.800 mills Westmoreland County.
- 2009-10 - 13.8600 mills Allegheny County - 65.1500 mills Westmoreland County.
- 2008-09 - 14.6600 mills Allegheny County - 65.1500 mills Westmoreland County.
- 2007-08 - 16.0100 mills Allegheny County - 65.1500 mills Westmoreland County.
Act 1 Adjusted index
The Act 1 of 2006 Index regulates the rates at which each school district can raise property taxes in Pennsylvania. Districts are not allowed to raise taxes above that index unless they allow voters to vote by referendum, or they seek an exception from the state Department of Education. The base index for the 2011-2012 school year is 1.4 percent, but the Act 1 Index can be adjusted higher, depending on a number of factors, such as property values and the personal income of district residents. Act 1 included 10 exceptions, including: increasing pension costs, increases in special education costs, a catastrophe like a fire or flood, increase in health insurance costs for contracts in effect in 2006 or dwindling tax bases. The base index is the average of the percentage increase in the statewide average weekly wage, as determined by the PA Department of Labor and Industry, for the preceding calendar year and the percentage increase in the Employment Cost Index for Elementary and Secondary Schools, as determined by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in the U.S. Department of Labor, for the previous 12-month period ending June 30. For a school district with a market value/personal income aid ratio (MV/PI AR) greater than 0.4000, its index equals the base index multiplied by the sum of .75 and its MV/PI AR for the current year.
The School District Adjusted Index for the Norwin School District 2006-2007 through 2011-2012.
- 2006-07 - 5.0%, Base 3.9%
- 2007-08 - 4.4%, Base 3.4%
- 2008-09 - 5.7%, Base 4.4%
- 2009-10 - 5.3%, Base 4.1%
- 2010-11 - 3.8%, Base 2.9%
- 2011-12 - 1.8%, Base 1.4%
For the 2011-12 school year the Norwin School Board did not apply for exceptions to exceed the Act 1 Index. Each year, the Norwin School Board has the option of adopting either 1) a resolution in January certifying they will not increase taxes above their index or 2) a preliminary budget in February. A school district adopting the resolution may not apply for referendum exceptions or ask voters for a tax increase above the inflation index. A specific timeline for these decisions is publisher each year by the Pennsylvania Department of Education.
According to a state report, for the 2011-2012 school year budgets, 247 school districts adopted a resolution certifying that tax rates would not be increased above their index; 250 school districts adopted a preliminary budget. Of the 250 school districts that adopted a preliminary budget, 231 adopted real estate tax rates that exceeded their index. Tax rate increases in the other 19 school districts that adopted a preliminary budget did not exceed the school district’s index. Of the districts who sought exceptions 221 used the pension costs exemption and 171 sought a Special Education costs exemption. Only 1 school district sought an exemption for Nonacademic School Construction Project, while 1 sought an exception for Electoral debt for school construction.
Norwin School Board applied for exceptions to exceed the Act 1 index for the budgets for special education costs in 2010-11. The board did not apply for exceptions for 2009-10. In the Spring of 2010, 135 Pennsylvania school boards asked to exceed their adjusted index. Approval was granted to 133 of them and 128 sought an exception for pension costs increases.
Property tax relief
In 2011, property tax relief for 10,556 approved residents of Norwin School District was set at $90. In 2009, the Homestead/Farmstead Property Tax Relief from gambling for the Norwin School District was $91 per approved permanent primary residence. In the district, 10,413 property owners applied for the tax relief. The highest relief in Westmoreland County, was awarded was $302 to New Kensington–Arnold School District. The relief was subtracted from the total annual school property tax bill. Property owners apply for the relief through the county Treasurer's office. Farmers can qualify for a farmstead exemption on building used for agricultural purposes. The farm must be at least 10 contiguous acres and must be the primary residence of the owner. Farmers can qualify for both the homestead exemption and the farmstead exemption. According to a 2010 state report, only 68% of property owners in Westmoreland County applied for property tax relief. Pennsylvania awarded the highest property tax relief to residents of the Chester-Upland School District in Delaware County at $632 per homestead and farmstead in 2010. This was the second year Chester Upland School District has consistently been the top recipient since the program's inception.
Additionally, the Pennsylvania Property Tax/Rent Rebate program is provided for low income Pennsylvanians aged 65 and older; widows and widowers aged 50 and older; and people with disabilities age 18 and older. The income limit is $35,000 for homeowners. The maximum rebate for both homeowners and renters is $650. Applicants can exclude one-half (1/2) of their Social Security income, consequently individuals who have income substantially more than $35,000, may still qualify for a rebate. Individuals must apply annually for the rebate. This can be taken in addition to Homestead/Farmstead Property Tax Relief.
Property taxes in Pennsylvania are relatively high on a national scale. According to the Tax Foundation, Pennsylvania ranked 11th in the U.S. in 2008 in terms of property taxes paid as a percentage of home value (1.34%) and 12th in the country in terms of property taxes as a percentage of income (3.55%).
The secondary schools in the Norwin School District offer a wide variety of extracurricular activities. Eligibility to participate is determined by school board policy. Loss of student privileges for some disciplinary reasons (including attendance, tardiness and behavior) include the privilege to participate in athletic activities. Any student suspended four times in a school year forfeits the privilege to participate in athletic activities for the rest of that school year.
Nineteen varsity level sports are provided, including baseball, softball, lacrosse (boys), basketball (boys and girls), soccer (boys and girls), cross country (boys and girls), swimming (boys and girls), track (boys and girls), golf (boys and girls), volleyball (boys and girls), tennis (boys and girls), field hockey, football and wrestling. Bowling and ice hockey are club sports.
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- Pennsylvania Department of Education (Revised December 1, 2009 Child Count (Collected July 2010)). "Gifted Students as Percentage of Total Enrollment by School District/Charter School". Check date values in:
- Pennsylvania Department of Education and Pennsylvania School Board. "CHAPTER 16. Special Education For Gifted Students". Retrieved February 4, 2011.
- Pennsylvania Department of Education (2010). "Norwin SD School Safety Annual Report 2009 - 2010".
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- "Legislature must act on educators' pension hole.". The Patriot News. February 21, 2010.
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- William H. Kerr, Superintendent (2011). "Norwin School District budget presentation 2011-12".
- Fenton, Jacob. (February 2009). "Pennsylvania School District Data: Will School Consolidation Save Money?,". The Morning Call,.
- Pennsylvania Department of Revenue (October 2010). "Personal Income Tax Information".
- PA Senate Appropriations Committee (June 28, 2011). "School District 2011-12 funding Report".
- Pennsylvania Department of Education Funding Report by Local Education Agency. June 2011.
- Pennsylvania House Appropriations Committee (June 2010). "PA Basic Education Funding-Printout2 2010-2011".
- Pennsylvania Department of Education Basic Education Funding by School District October 2009
- Pennsylvania Budget Proposal 2010, Office of Budget. February 2010
- Pennsylvania Department of Education Funding Report by Local Education Agency. October 2009.
- Pennsylvania Department ofEducation (2010). "ACCOUNTABILITY BLOCK GRANT Awards".
- Pennsylvania Department of Education. "PA-PACT Information".
- Pennsylvania Department of Education (2010). "2009–2010 Accountability block Grant Mid-year report".
- Pennsylvania Auditor General (December 22, 2008). "Classrooms For the Future grants audit".
- Governor Rendell Signs Education Budget Preserving Pennsylvania's Academic Progress, Keeping Property Taxes Down, Governor's Press Office release, October 9, 2009
- Brad Pedersen YourNorwin (February 4, 2010). "School district, various projects get their share of federal stimulus money".
- Governor Edward Rendell press office (2010). "Pennsylvania's 'Race to the Top' Fueled by Effective Reforms, Strong Local Support".
- Pennsylvania Department of Education Secretary Gerald Zahorchek (December 2009). "Pennsylvania Race to the Top Letter to Superintendents".
- Pennsylvania's 'Race to the Top' Fueled by Effective Reforms, Strong Local Support
- U.S. Department of Education, (March 29, 2010). "Race to the Top Fund,".
- Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. "Final version of Norwin's budget holds tax rate steady". Retrieved June 21, 2011.
- Pennsylvania Department of Education, (2004). "Act 511 Tax Report,".
- Pennsylvania Department of Revenue. (2010). "Real Estate Tax Millage by School District,".
- Pennsylvania Department of Revenue. (2009). "Real Estate Tax Millage by School District,".
- Pennsylvania Department ofEducation (2008). "Pennsylvania School District Real Estate Tax Rates 2008-09".
- Pennsylvania Department of Revenue (2008). "Real Estate Tax Millage by School District,".
- Pennsylvania Department of Education 2010-11 Act 1 of 2006 Referendum Exception Guidelines.
- Pennsylvania Department of Education (May 2010). "Special Session Act 1 of 2006 School District Adjusted Index for 2006-2007 through 2011-2012,".
- Pennsylvania Department of Education (2011). "Special Session Act 1 of 2006 the Taxpayer Relief Act information".
- Pennsylvania Department of Education (April 2011). "Report on Exceptions".
- Pennsylvania Department of Education (April 2010). "Pennsylvania SSAct1_Act1 Exceptions Report 2010-2011 April 2010".
- Pennsylvania Department of Education (April 2009). "Pennsylvania SSAct1 Exception requests Report_2009-2010_May 2009".
- Scarcella, Frank and Pursell, Tricia, (May 25, 2010). "Local school tax assessments exceed state averages". The Daily Item.
- Pennsylvania Department of Education (May 3, 2010). "Tax Relief per Homestead".
- Pennsylvania Department of Education (May 1, 2009). "Estimated Tax Relief Per Homestead and Farmstead 2009".
- Pennsylvania Auditor General Office (February 23, 2010). "Special Report Pennsylvania Property Tax Relief,".
- Pennsylvania Department of Education, (May 2010). "Tax Relief per Homestead 5-1-10. Report".
- Pennsylvania Department of Education. "Property Tax/Rent Rebate Program".
- Tax Foundation, (September 22, 2009). "New Census Data on Property Taxes on Homeowners,".
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