City centre and Nouméa Cathedral
Location of the commune (in red)
within New Caledonia
|Sui generis collectivity||New Caledonia|
|• Mayor (1986–present)||Jean Lèques|
|• Urban||1,643 km2 (634 sq mi)|
|• Land1||45.7 km2 (17.6 sq mi)|
|Population (2009 census)|
|• Urban density||100/km2 (260/sq mi)|
|• Population2 density||2,100/km2 (5,500/sq mi)|
|• 1996 census||Europeans 50.9%
|INSEE/Postal code||98818 / 98800|
|Elevation||0–167 m (0–548 ft)
(avg. 20 m or 66 ft)
1 New Caledonia Land Register (DITTT) data, which exclude lakes and ponds larger than 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) as well as the estuaries of rivers.2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.
Nouméa (French pronunciation: [numeˈa]) is the capital city of the French special collectivity of New Caledonia. It is situated on a peninsula in the south of New Caledonia's main island, Grande Terre, and is home to the majority of the island's European, Polynesian (Wallisians, Futunians, Tahitians), Indonesian, and Vietnamese populations, as well as many Melanesians, Ni-Vanuatu and Kanaks that work in one of the South Pacific's most industrialised cities. The city lies on a protected deepwater harbour which serves as the chief port for New Caledonia.
The population of the city (commune) at the 2009 census was 97,579 inhabitants (up from 76,293 inhabitants at the 1996 census). Including the suburbs of Nouméa, the population of the Greater Nouméa metropolitan area (French: agglomération du Grand Nouméa) at the 2009 census was 163,723 inhabitants (up from 118,823 inhabitants in 1996, equating to a 2.4% population increase per year). 66.7% of the population of New Caledonia live in Greater Nouméa, which covers the communes of Nouméa, Le Mont-Dore, Dumbéa and Païta.
The first European to establish a settlement in the vicinity was British trader James Paddon in 1851. Anxious to assert control of the island, the French established a settlement nearby three years later in 1854, moving from Balade in the north of the island. This settlement was initially called Port-de-France and was renamed Nouméa in 1866. The area served first as a penal colony, later as a centre for the exploitation of the nickel and gold that was mined nearby.
During World War II, Nouméa served as the headquarters of the United States military in the South Pacific. The five-sided U.S. military headquarters complex was adopted after the war as the base for a new regional intergovernmental development organisation: the South Pacific Commission, later known as the Secretariat of the Pacific Community.
The city maintains much of New Caledonia's unique mix of French and old Melanesian culture. Even today the U.S. wartime military influence lingers, both with the warmth that many New Caledonian people feel towards the United States after experiencing the relative friendliness of American soldiers and also with the names of several of the quarters in Nouméa. Districts such as "Receiving" and "Robinson", or even "Motor Pool", strike the anglophone ear strangely, until the historical context becomes clear.
Neighbourhoods of Nouméa include:
- 6e km, 7e km, Normandie, and Tina
- Ducos peninsula:
- Ducos, Ducos industriel, Kaméré, Koumourou, Logicoop, Numbo, Tindu
- 4e Km, Aérodrome, Haut Magenta, Magenta, Ouémo, and Portes de fer
- Faubourg Blanchot and Vallée des Colons
- Doniambo, Montagne coupée, Montravel, and Vallée du tir
- Artillerie Nord, Centre Ville, Nouville, Quartier Latin, Vallée du Génie
- Anse Vata, Artillerie Sud, Baie des Citrons, Motor Pool, N'géa, Orphelinat, Receiving, Trianon, and Val Plaisance
The Greater Nouméa urban area is made up of four communes:
- Nouméa (97,579 inh.)
- Le Mont-Dore (25,683 inh.), to the north-east of Nouméa
- Dumbéa (24,103 inh.), to the north-west of Nouméa
- Païta (16,358 inh.), a suburb to the west of Dumbéa and the site of La Tontouta International Airport
|Official figures from population censuses.|
Average population growth of the Greater Nouméa urban area:
- 1956-1963: +2,310 people per year (+7.5% per year)
- 1963-1969: +1,791 people per year (+4.1% per year)
- 1969-1976: +3,349 people per year (+5.6% per year)
- 1976-1983: +1,543 people per year (+2.0% per year)
- 1983-1989: +2,091 people per year (+2.3% per year)
- 1989-1996: +3,020 people per year (+2.8% per year)
- 1996-2009: +3,382 people per year (+2.4% per year)
The places of birth of the 163,723 residents in the Greater Nouméa urban area at the 2009 census were the following:
- 66.9% were born in New Caledonia
- 20.2% in Metropolitan France and its overseas departments
- 7.1% in foreign countries (notably Indonesia, Vanuatu, Vietnam, and Algeria where many of New Caledonia's Pied-Noir residents originated)
- 4.1% in Wallis and Futuna
- 1.7% in French Polynesia
At the 2009 census, 98.7% of the population in the Greater Nouméa urban area whose age was 15 years old and older reported that they could speak French. 97.1% reported that they could also read and write it. Only 1.3% of the population whose age was 15 years old and older had no knowledge of French.
At the same census, 20.8% of the population in the Greater Nouméa urban area whose age was 15 years old and older reported that they could speak at least one of the Kanak languages. 4.3% reported that they could understand a Kanak language but not speak it. 74.9% of the population whose age was 15 years old and older had no knowledge of any Kanak language.
Nouméa features a tropical wet and dry climate with hot summers and warm winters. Temperatures are warmer in the months of January, February and March with average highs hovering around 30 degrees Celsius and cooler during the months of July and August where average high temperatures are around 23 degrees Celsius. The capital’s dry season months are September and October. The rest of the year is noticeably wetter. Nouméa on average receives roughly 1,100 mm (43 in) of precipitation annually.
|Climate data for Noumea, New Caledonia|
|Average high °C (°F)||28.9
|Daily mean °C (°F)||26.0
|Average low °C (°F)||23.0
|Precipitation mm (inches)||112.9
|Avg. precipitation days||14.2||14.2||17.1||15.0||16.8||17.3||15.9||13.1||9.6||9.3||10.3||11.3||164.1|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||232.5||209.0||201.5||198.0||176.7||156.0||182.9||201.5||222.0||251.1||249.0||260.4||2,540.6|
|Source: Hong Kong Observatory,|
Nouméa is the most "westernised" city in the Pacific Islands region and is in stark contrast to the rest of New Caledonia's wide open spaces, bare jagged hills and largely Kanak population (although there also exist important concentrations of Europeans on the north-western coast of New Caledonia's mainland, particularly around Bourail, Pouembout and Koumac).
Although Nouméa has more sunshine days than any other Pacific Island capital and some excellent beaches not far from the city centre, it is not currently a major tourist destination. The cost of living is high and the air travel there is not discounted as much as that to other pacific destinations Pacific Rim.
Nouméa is, as of 2007, one of the most rapidly growing cities in the Pacific and has experienced a major housing construction boom in the preceding decade. The installation of amenities has kept pace and the municipality boasts a public works programme. Much of this construction is fuelled by investment from France and it is hoped that over the lifetime of this multi-decade track towards increased autonomy planned under the Matignon Agreements and now the Nouméa Accord, the local economy will become independently sustainable.
Aircalin, the international airline of New Caledonia, and Air Calédonie (Aircal), the domestic airline, have their headquarters in the city. Aircal's headquarters are on the grounds of Magenta Airport. IBM has an office in Nouméa.
Nouméa Magenta Airport, within the city, serves local routes. Nouméa's international airport is La Tontouta International Airport, 50 kilometres (31 mi) from the city. The Nouméa-Païta railway which was the only railway line that ever existed in New Caledonia was closed in 1940.
The University of New Caledonia (UNC) goes back to 1987 when the Université Française du Pacifique (French University of the Pacific) was created, with two centres, one in French Polynesia and the other in New Caledonia. In 1997 the decision was made to split the two parts into separate universities and so in 1999 the Université de la Nouvelle Calédonie and the Université de la Polynésie Française were formed.
UNC welcomes around 3,000 local and international students and 100 professors and researchers each year.
The Bibliothèque Bernheim (Bernheim Library) is located in Nouméa.
Twin towns – Sister cities
- New Caledonia was the favorite liberty port in the Pacific of the crew of the PT-73 in the American television series, McHale's Navy.
- Sydney-based author Nathan J. Roche set his 2014 novel "The Noumea Neurosis" a satirical prose account of cycling in and around Noumea
- "Tableaux de l'économie calédonienne, Chapitre 1 : TERRITOIRE-ENVIRONNEMENT". ISEE. 2012. Retrieved 2013-10-14.
- "P01 Population totale, selon le sexe et le groupe d’âge décennal, par commune et province de résidence". ISEE. Retrieved 2013-10-14.
- "Les quartiers." Nouméa. Retrieved on 12 February 2011.
- "Population des communes de la Nouvelle-Calédonie de 1956 à 2009". ISEE. Retrieved 2013-10-14.
- "Recensement de la population de 2009 - Provinces ou communes du Grand Nouméa - individus". ISEE. Retrieved 2013-10-14.
- "P19 Population de 15 ans et plus, selon le sexe et la connaissance du français, par commune et province de résidence". ISEE. Retrieved 2013-10-14.
- "P21 Population de 15 ans et plus, selon le sexe et la connaissance d'une langue kanak, par commune et province de résidence". ISEE. Retrieved 2013-10-14.
- "Climatological Information for Noumea, New Caledonia". Hong Kong Observatory.
- "Contact Us." Aircalin. Retrieved on 2 October 2009.
- "AIR CALÉDONIE CONTACTS." Air Calédonie. Retrieved on 2 October 2009.
- "Renouvellement de Carte Résident." Air Calédonie. Retrieved on 8 October 2009.
- "IBM New Caledonia." IBM. Retrieved on 21 October 2009.
- "http://www.univ-nc.nc/propos-de-lunc/presentation Université de la Nouvelle-Calédonie. Retrieved on 5 January 2012.
- "coordonnées & horaires." Bibliothèque Bernheim. Retrieved on 12 February 2011.
- "Villes jumelées avec la Ville de Nice" (in French). Ville de Nice. Retrieved 2013-06-24.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nouméa.|
- Nouméa travel guide from Wikivoyage
- Tourism New Caledonia (South)
- (French) Nouméa's official municipal website
- (French) Nouméa: Commune Française du Bout du Monde – a school project on the geography and history of Nouméa