Novarupta's lava dome in July 1987.
|Elevation||2,759 ft (841 m)|
|Location||Katmai National Park and Preserve, Alaska, U.S.|
|Topo map||USGS Mount Katmai B-4|
|Type||Caldera with lava dome|
|Volcanic arc/belt||Aleutian Arc|
|Last eruption||June to October 1912|
Novarupta (Russian: Вулкан Новарупта, literally "new eruption") is a new volcano that was created in 1912 and located on the Alaska Peninsula in Katmai National Park and Preserve, about 290 miles (470 km) southwest of Anchorage. Formed during the largest pre-Pinatubo volcanic eruption of the 20th century, Novarupta released 30 times the volume of magma of the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens.
Eruption of 1912
|1912 eruption of Novarupta|
|Date||June 6–8, 1912|
|Location||Aleutian Range, Alaska
The 1912 eruption of Novarupta within the Aleutian Range began on June 6, 1912 and culminated in a series of violent eruptions from the original Novarupta volcano. Rated a 6 on the Volcanic Explosivity Index, the 60 hour long eruption expelled 13 to 15 cubic kilometers (3.1 to 3.6 cu mi) of magma, 30 times as much as the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens. The erupted magma of rhyolitic, dacitic, and andesitic composition resulted in more than 17 cubic kilometers (4.1 cu mi) of air fall tuff and approximately 11 cubic kilometers (2.6 cu mi) of ash-flow tuff. Only the 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines was of a similar magnitude during the 20th century, ejecting 11 cubic kilometers (2.6 cu mi) of tephra. At least two larger eruptions occurred in the 19th century: the 1815 eruption of Tambora (150 km3 (36.0 cu mi) of tephra) and the 1883 eruption of Indonesia's Krakatoa (20 km3 (4.8 cu mi) of tephra).
Eruption of such a large quantity of magma from underneath the Mount Katmai area resulted in the formation of a 2-kilometer (1.2 mi) wide, funnel-shaped vent and the collapse of Mount Katmai's summit, creating a 600-meter (2,000 ft) deep, 3 by 4 km (1.9 by 2.5 mi) caldera.
The eruption ended with the extrusion of a lava dome of rhyolite that plugged the vent. The 295-foot (90 m) high and 1,180-foot (360 m) wide dome and the caldera it created forms what is now referred to as Novarupta.
Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes
Pyroclastic ash flow from the eruption formed what was named the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes by botanist Robert F. Griggs, who explored the volcano's aftermath for the National Geographic Society in 1916.
Katmai National Park
Established as a National Park & Preserve in 1980, Katmai is located on the Alaska Peninsula, across from Kodiak Island, with headquarters in nearby King Salmon, about 290 miles southwest of Anchorage. The area was originally designated a National Monument in 1918 to protect the area around the major 1912 volcanic eruption of Novarupta and the 40-square-mile (104 km2), 100-to-700-foot (30 to 210 m) deep, pyroclastic flow of the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes.
- "Novarupta". Global Volcanism Program, Smithsonian Institution. http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1102-18-. Retrieved 2009-01-01.
- Simkin, Tom; Lee Siebert (1994). Volcanoes of the World. Tucson, Arizona: Geoscience Press, Inc. p. 117. ISBN 0-945005-12-1.
- Brantley, Steven R. (1999-01-04). Volcanoes of the United States. Online Version 1.1. United States Geological Survey. p. 30. ISBN 0-16-045054-3. OCLC 156941033 30835169 44858915. Retrieved 2008-09-12.
- Judy Fierstein; Wes Hildreth, James W. Hendley II, and Peter H. Stauffer (1998). Can Another Great Volcanic Eruption Happen in Alaska? – U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 075-98. Version 1.0. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2008-09-10.
- Fierstein, Judy; Wes Hildreth (2004-12-11). "The plinian eruptions of 1912 at Novarupta, Katmai National Park, Alaska". Bulletin of Volcanology (Springer) 54 (8): 646–684. Bibcode:1992BVol...54..646F. doi:10.1007/BF00430778.
- Wood, C.A. and Kienle, J. (editors) (1990) Volcanoes of North America: United States and Canada, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-36469-8, page 70.
- Judy Fierstein; Wes Hildreth (2001). Preliminary volcano-hazard assessment for the Katmai volcanic cluster, Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report OF 00–0489 (PDF). United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2008-09-09.
- "Pinatubo: Eruptive History". Global Volcanism Program, Smithsonian Institution. http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0703-083%26volpage%3Derupt. Retrieved 2009-01-01.
- "Tambora". Global Volcanism Program, Smithsonian Institution. http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0604-04%3D. Retrieved 2009-01-01.
- "Krakatau: Eruptive History". Global Volcanism Program, Smithsonian Institution. http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0602-00%3D%26volpage%3Derupt. Retrieved 2009-01-01.
- "Katmai". Global Volcanism Program, Smithsonian Institution. http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1102-17-. Retrieved 2009-01-01.
- Rosi, Mauro; Paolo Papale, Luca Lupi, and Marco Stoppato (2003-03-01). Volcanoes. Firefly Books. p. 219. ISBN 978-1-55297-683-8. OCLC 53901499.
- Griggs, Robert F. (1922). The Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes. National Geographic Society. p. 192.
- "Novarupta - Historic eruptions". Alaska Volcano Observatory. 2012-11-06. Retrieved 2012-12-19.
- Clemens, Janet; Frank Norris (1999). Building in an Ashen Land – Historic Resource Study of Katmai National Park and Preserve. Anchorage, Alaska: National Park Service, Alaska Support Office. Chapter 4.
- Hildreth, Wes (October 1983). "The compositionally zoned eruption of 1912 in the Valley of Ten Thousand smokes, Katmai National Park, Alaska". Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research (Elsevier) 18 (1–4): 1–56. Bibcode:1983JVGR...18....1H. doi:10.1016/0377-0273(83)90003-3. Retrieved 2008-09-24.
- "Katmai National Park & Preserve". Katmai National Park & Preserve. National Park Service. 2008-06-29. Retrieved 2008-09-14.
- USGS collection of descriptions of Novarupta
- USGS QuickTime video clip on Novarupta (36 seconds/0.8 MB)
- geology.com, Novarupta – topographic maps, annotated satellite images
- Alaska Volcano Observatory: Novarupta
- USGS Photographic Library – novarupta