November 1912

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November 5, 1912: New Jersey Governor Woodrow Wilson wins U.S. presidential election
November 28, 1912: Albania declares independence from Ottoman Empire

The following events occurred in November 1912:

November 1, 1912 (Friday)[edit]

November 2, 1912 (Saturday)[edit]

November 3, 1912 (Sunday)[edit]

  • At Urga (now Ulan Bator), the Russian Empire concluded a treaty with Mongolia, with the Russian Minister to China, Ivan Korostovets negotiated a pact with Mongolia's Foreign Minister, Mijiddorjin Khanddorj. In return for Russia's recognition of "Outer Mongolia" as an autonomous state to be protected from China, the Mongolian government would give Russia "most favored nation" status for trade and mining and timber rights.[8]
  • The Turkish government appealed to the Great Powers (Britain, France and Germany) to intervene in the Balkan War, a claim which was rejected the next day by France.[9]
  • The Greek Army captured Prevesa.[2]
  • Born: Alfredo Stroessner, President of Paraguay from 1954 to 1989, in Encarnación (d. 2006)

November 4, 1912 (Monday)[edit]

November 5, 1912 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • Woodrow Wilson was elected President of the United States, with former Presidents Roosevelt and incumbent President Taft finishing in second and third place, respectively.[2][11]
  • Arizona, Kansas, Michigan and Oregon became the latest states to approve women's suffrage in state and local elections, but Wisconsin's men rejected the right of women to vote.[12]
  • In the Battle of Monastir, Serbian forces under the command of General Radomir Putnik army inflicted heavy casualties on Turkish forces, with the Turks losing more than half of their battle force, having 25,000 killed and wounded, and 2,000 taken prisoner.[13][14]
  • Wheeler County, Georgia was created from the western section of Montgomery County by approval of voters for an amendment to the state constitution. On November 14, the town of Alamo would become the county seat.[15]

November 6, 1912 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • Turkish Grand Vizier Kiamil Pasha summoned the Council of Ministers and Generals for a meeting at Istanbul to decide whether to continue the war with the Balkan League or seek peace. The Council elected to continue the war.[2]
  • Born: Vashti McCollum, American atheist and advocate for separation of church and state, and the plaintiff in McCollum v. Board of Education, which struck down religious instruction in American public schools; in Lyons, New York (d. 2006)

November 7, 1912 (Thursday)[edit]

  • Jack Johnson, the reigning world heavyweight boxing champion and controversial African-American athlete, was indicted by a federal grand jury in Chicago for violation of the Mann Act. Belle Schreiber, a white prostitute, had testified that Johnson had arranged for her railroad trip from Chicago to Pittsburgh for immoral purposes. Johnson would be convicted six months later, and flee to France; he would eventually serve a one year sentence in 1920 at the federal penetentiary in Leavenworth, Kansas.[16]
  • The largest French battleship, France, was launched from the shipyard at St. Nazaire.[2]
  • Born: Henry James Evans, New Zealand geologist, in Greymouth (d. 1990)

November 8, 1912 (Friday)[edit]

  • First Balkan War: The Army of Greece reached the Aegean Sea port city of Salonika, hours ahead of the Army of Bulgaria, and, at 8:00 pm local time, arranged terms of surrender with the Turkish Ottoman Empire forces without firing a shot. Although Salonika was prepared for an attack from the sea, it had no fortification to defend against an assault from the surrounding land.[17] Both Bulgaria and Greece had historical claims to the port city, which had been Thessalonica in ancient Greece, and Solun in the Bulgarian Empire in medieval times; "the Bulgarians were outraged at having been deprived of their prize", which would have given Bulgaria a port on the Aegean and access to the Mediterranean Sea, and the loss of Salonika would lead to the Second Balkan War, with Bulgaria fighting Greece and Serbia.[18]
  • Born: June Havoc, Canadian-American film and television actress, as Ellen Evangeline Hovick, in Vancouver (d. 2010)

November 9, 1912 (Saturday)[edit]

November 10, 1912 (Sunday)[edit]

November 11, 1912 (Monday)[edit]

November 12, 1912 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • José Canalejas, the Prime Minister of Spain, was assassinated in Madrid by anarchist Manuel Pardiñas, who then shot himself. Canalejas was stopped in front of a bookstore when Pardiñas fired three shots at close range from a Browning pistol.[23]
  • Terra Nova Expedition: The fate of Captain Robert Falcon Scott, and his four fellow Antarctic explorers, was confirmed when a search party found by a search party led by Edward L. Atkinson. A bamboo pole was spotted in the snow by party member C. S. Wright; the frozen bodies of Scott, "Birdie" Bowers and Edward Wilson were found in a tent buried beneath the snow, along with their journals, undeveloped film and supplies.[24] The news would not reach the rest of the world until February 11.
  • Two American cruisers, the Montana and the Tennessee, were sent to the Mediterranean to protect American citizens during the Balkan War.[25]
  • The first news story about the Piltdown Man was published. The Manchester Guardian reported the discovery by Charles Dawson of the earliest known ancestor of man under the headline, "The Earliest Man? A Skull Millions of Years Old- One of the Most Important of Our Time". The discovery would be exposed as a hoax in 1953.[26]

November 13, 1912 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • China's Foreign Minister Liang Men Ting resigned in protest over the government's handling of Mongolia's treaty with Russia.[27]
  • Fifteen people were killed and 20 injured in a railway accident at Irvington, Indiana, a suburb of Indianapolis. Train No. 36 of the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton Railway was speeding from Cincinnati to Chicago when it collided with a freight train.[28]
  • Born: Claude Pompidou, wife of French President Georges Pompidou, as Claude Jacqueline Cahour in Château-Gontier (d. 2007)

November 14, 1912 (Thursday)[edit]

November 15, 1912 (Friday)[edit]

  • Turkish Vizier Kiamil Pasha proposed to Bulgaria's King Ferdinand I to negotiate a ceasefire and peace between the two nations, while Greece, Serbia and Montenegro continued to advance on all fronts.[2]
  • Vincent Astor reached his 21st birthday and inherited the fortune of his father, John Jacob Astor IV, who had died exactly seven months earlier in the sinking of the Titanic. The $150,000,000 bequest under Astor's will would be the equivalent of 3.4 billion dollars in 2012.[30]
  • Born: Jacob DeShazer, American pilot who participated in the 1942 Doolittle Raid on Tokyo, was captured and made a priosner of war, and later became a Christian missionary in Japan; in West Stayton, Oregon (d. 2008); and Albert Baez, Mexican-born American physicist, father of singers Joan Baez and Mimi Fariña; in Puebla (d. 2007)

November 16, 1912 (Saturday)[edit]

  • The Napoleonic Code was amended in France to provide for recognition of paternity of illegitimate children.[31]
  • The Bober River dam was inaugurated at Silesia by Kaiser Wilhelm II.[2]

November 17, 1912 (Sunday)[edit]

November 18, 1912 (Monday)[edit]

  • Hong Kong Governor Francis Henry May directed the British colony's two streetcar companies and the Star Ferry company to stop accepting Chinese coins for payment of its fares, and to accept only Hong Kong coins. Since there were relatively few Hong Kong coins in circulation, many passengers were unable to pay their fares and the response was a public boycott of mass transportation. Ultimately, Governor May would succeed in ridding the colony of foreign coinage and currency.[35]
  • Personnel from various foreign navies landed at Istanbul to protect their citizens residing in Turkey.[2]
  • Cotton County, Oklahoma was created from the southern portion of Comanche County.[36]
  • Born: Hilda Nickson, née Hilda Pressley, British romance novelist (d. 1977)

November 19, 1912 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • An earthquake killed more than 70 people in and around Acambay in Mexico. Most died in the collapse of a church, where the victims were women attending mass, and the male priests.[37]
  • The Balkan nations telegraphed to the Ottoman Empire their terms for a peace treaty.[2]
  • Eighteen people were killed in a railway accident at Gull Lake in Canada.[2]
  • Born: George Emil Palade, Romanian-born microbiologist and 1974 Nobel Prize laureate, in Iaşi (d. 2008)

November 20, 1912 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • Lt. Becker and three other persons were found guilty of the murder of Herman Rosenthal.[2]
  • First Balkan War: A ceasefire on the Chatalja line took place between Bulgaria and Turkey while peace terms were discussed.[38]
  • Born: Otto von Habsburg, last Crown Prince of Austria-Hungary (d. 2011)

November 21, 1912 (Thursday)[edit]

  • The Turkish government rejected, as unacceptable, the Balkan nations' terms for peace, and war resumed on all fronts.[2]
  • In what one historian described as "the greatest victory in the history of the Bulgarian navy",[39] four torpedo boats attacked the Ottoman Empire cruiser Hamidiye on the Black Sea "and scored at least one hit", causing some casualties and some damage to the bow.
  • Pietro Bertolini was appointed as the first Minister of the Colonies for Italy, which had not previously had colonies until the recent acquisition of Tripolitania, Cyrenaica, and the Dodecanese Islands.[2]
  • The Japanese Imperial Navy batteship Hiei was launched. On November 13, 1942, in the Battle of Guadalcanal, it would become the first Japanese battleship to face American ships in war, and the first ever to be sunk in war.[40]
  • Born: Eleanor Powell, American film actress and tap dancer, in Springfield, Massachusetts (d. 1982); and Abd-al-Aziz ibn Abd-Allah ibn Baaz, Muslim scholar and Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia; in Riyadh (d. 1999)

November 22, 1912 (Friday)[edit]

  • The Nigerian Protectorate Order was signed by King George V at Windsor Castle, unifying the protectorate of Northern Nigeria and the colony of Southern Nigeria, effective January 1, 1914. Sir Frederick Lugard became Governor of both entities prior to the merger.[41]
  • Native chiefs were arrested by British colonial authorities in Sierra Leone to halt the cannibalistic "Human Leopard" practice.[2]
  • John Schrank, who had shot and wounded former President Theodore Roosevelt on October 14, was found to be insane by a board of five physicians in Milwaukee, who wrote that Schrank was "suffering from insane delusions, grandiose in character and of a systematized variety... we are of the opinion he is unable to converse intelligently with counsel on the conduct of his defense."[42]
  • The Entente cordiale, military alliance between the United Kingdom and France, was strengthened by an exchange of notes between French Ambassador Paul Cambon and the British Foreign Secretary, Sir Edward Grey, providing for joint action in the event of war.[43]

November 23, 1912 (Saturday)[edit]

  • At New Haven, Connecticut, unbeaten and untied Harvard University (8-0-0) visited unbeaten Yale University (7-0-1) for what would prove to be the championship of the 1912 college football season[44] Wisconsin and Penn State would also finish the season with perfect records.
  • Eugene V. Debs, who had recently run for President of the United States on the Socialist Party ticket, was indicted by a federal grand jury in Fort Scott, Kansas, on charges of obstruction of justice. Charged also were Fred D. Warren, editor of the Girard, Kansas, newspaper The Appeal to Reason, and Warren's lawyer, J. I. Sheppard. All three were accused of having paid $200 to a federal witness, to induce him to avoid testifying in their trial for misuse of the postal system.[45]
  • The freighter Rouse Simmons, carrying a cargo of Christmas trees, sank in a violent ice storm on Lake Michigan, taking all 13 of its crew with it. Its wreckage would be discovered in 1971.[46]
  • Born: Tyree Glenn, American trombone player, in Corsicana, Texas (d. 1974)
  • Died: Charles Bourseul, 83, French inventor who, in 1854 conceived the principle of using electrical current to transmit the human voice, but was unable to create a practical telephone

November 24, 1912 (Sunday)[edit]

November 25, 1912 (Monday)[edit]

  • William Merlaud-Ponty, the colonial Governor-General of French West Africa, ruled that the drafting of Africans into forced labor (prestations) would be allowed in order to build the colony's infrastructure.[48]
  • An explosion at a starch factory in Waukegan, Illinois, killed 8 people and injured 27, while four other employees of the Corn Products Company were missing.[49]
  • Three delegates each from Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire met at the town of Bahçeköy, near Çatalca, to discuss peace. Nazim Pasha, the commander of the Turkish forces, shook hands with his counterpart, General Savoff of Bulgaria.[50]
  • A cyclone destroyed the Philippine city of Tacloban, the capital of the Leyte island, and killed 310 people on the islands of Samar, Leyte and North Fanay.[51]
  • The first trade union ever founded in China was created by the nation's goldsmiths.[2]
  • Died: U.S. Senator Isidor Rayner, 62, Jewish American politician who represented Maryland in Congress between 1887 and 1912

November 26, 1912 (Tuesday)[edit]

November 27, 1912 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • France and Spain signed a treaty dividing Morocco into two separate protectorates, with a 350 square mile zone around Tangier being an "international zone". Spain's holdings would be administered from Tétouan and consist of 20,000 square km in the north and 23,000 in the south.[55]
  • Sir Edward Henry, the Police Commissioner for London, was wounded by a man who shot him three times as the chief was returning from Scotland Yard to his residence in Kensington. The attacker, identified as a Mr. Bowes, had been denied a license to operate a taxicab and was angered that Chief Henry would not reconsider the ruling.[56]

November 28, 1912 (Thursday)[edit]

November 29, 1912 (Friday)[edit]

  • In College Park, Maryland, what would become the University of Maryland was destroyed by fire, with all of the dormitories and administration buildings, and most of the classrooms of Maryland Agricultural College being devastated. The college would rebuild, become a coeducational institution with the admission of women students, and grow to become one of the leading public universities in the United States.[60]
  • Born: Sir John Templeton, U.S. native who became a billionaire investor and philanthropist in the United Kingdom, and obtained British citizenship in 1964; in Winchester, Tennessee (d. 2008)
  • Died: Lorentsos Mavilis, 52, Greek poet who had volunteered for the Greek Army to fight in the First Balkan War, was killed in battle at Driskos. Reportedly, his last words were, "I expected many honors from this war, but not the added honor that I offer my life for my Greece."[61]
  • Died: William Waugh Smith, 67, American educator who founded Randolph College for Virginia women in 1891

November 30, 1912 (Saturday)[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Cuban Conservatives Win", New York Times, November 2, 1912
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae The Britannica Year-Book 1913: A Survey of the World's Progress Since the Completion in 1910 of the Encyclopaedia Britannica] (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1913) pp xxxix - xli
  3. ^ "King Peter in Uskub", New York Times, November 4, 1912
  4. ^ "Powers Rushing Warships to East", New York Times, November 3, 1912
  5. ^ "Nicaragua Holds Elections", New York Times, November 3, 1912
  6. ^ Peggy S. Brennan and Frank J. Brennan, Jr, Images of America: Hightstown and East Windsor (Arcadia Publishing, 1996) p44
  7. ^ "Gov. Wilson's Head Cut in Auto Shake-up", New York Times, November 4, 1912
  8. ^ "Mongolian-Russian Treaty (1912)", in Historical Dictionary of Mongolia, Alan J. K. Sanders, ed. (Scarecrow Press, 2010) p500; Alexandre Andreyev, Soviet Russia and Tibet: The Debacle of Secret Diplomacy, 1918-1930s (BRILL, 2003) p55
  9. ^ "France's Reply Unfavorable", New York Times, November 5, 1912
  10. ^ New York Times 5 November 1915, p. 8.
  11. ^ "WILSON WINS— He Gets 409 Electoral Votes; Roosevelt, 107, and Taft, 15", New York Times, November 6, 1912, p1
  12. ^ "Suffragists Gain Four More States", New York Times, November 7, 1912, p1
  13. ^ Alan Axelrod, Little-Known Wars of Great and Lasting Impact: The Turning Points in Our History We Should Know More About (Fair Winds, 2009) p213
  14. ^ "Fall of Monastir Reported", New York Times, November 7, 1912
  15. ^ Lucian Lamar Knight, Georgia's Landmarks, Memorials, and Legends (Volume 2) (Pelican Publishing, 2006) pp1029-1030
  16. ^ Athan G. Theoharis, The FBI: A Comprehensive Reference Guide (Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999) p46
  17. ^ Edward J. Erickson, Defeat in Detail: The Ottoman Army in the Balkans, 1912-1913 (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2003) pp224-225
  18. ^ Eugene N. Borza, In the Shadow of Olympus: The Emergence of Macedon (Princeton University Press, Sep 8, 1992) p10
  19. ^ Lars Anderson, Carlisle vs. Army: Jim Thorpe, Dwight Eisenhower, Pop Warner, and the Forgotten Story of Football's Greatest Battle (Random House Digital, 2008) pp280, 291
  20. ^ a b Angela Ballara, Te Kingitanga: The People of the Māori King Movement (Auckland University Press, 1996) p104
  21. ^ Tom Griffiths, Slicing the Silence: Voyaging to Antarctica (Harvard University Press, 2007) pp25-27
  22. ^ "Nineteen Are Dead in Railway Wreck near New Orleans", Milwaukee Sentinel, November 11, 1912, p1
  23. ^ "Anarchist Kills Spain's Premier", New York Times, November 13, 1912, p1
  24. ^ Robert Fox, We Were There: An Eyewitness History of the Twentieth Century (Penguin, 2010)
  25. ^ "American Warships Sail for Turkey", New York Times, November 13, 1912
  26. ^ Dan Agin, Junk Science: An Overdue Indictment of Government, Industry, and Faith Groups That Twist Science for Their Own Gain (Macmillan, 2007) p24
  27. ^ "Chinese Diplomat Quits", Milwaukee Sentinel, November 13, 1912, p1
  28. ^ "Fifteen Killed in Wreck", New York Times, November 14, 1912
  29. ^ Tina L. Quick and Jonathan D. Quick, Rhinos in the Rough: A Golfer's Guide to Kenya (East African Publishers, 1993) p267
  30. ^ Andrew Wilson, Shadow of the Titanic: The Extraordinary Stories of Those Who Survived (Simon and Schuster, 2012) p91
  31. ^ Rachel G. Fuchs, Contested Paternity: Constructing Families in Modern France (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2010)
  32. ^ Reiner Stach, Kafka: The Decisive Years (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2005) p198
  33. ^ Sjeng Scheijen, Diaghilev: A Life (Profile Books, 2010) p264
  34. ^ Jeremy Black, Warfare in the Western World, 1882-1975 (Indiana University Press, 2002) p40
  35. ^ Ming K. Chan and John D. Young, Precarious Balance: Hong Kong Between China and Britain, 1842-1992 (M.E. Sharpe, 1994) pp31-32
  36. ^ LaDonna Harris, LaDonna Harris: A Comanche Life ((University of Nebraska Press, 2006) p131
  37. ^ "59 Dead in Church Ruins", New York Times, November 22, 1912
  38. ^ "Fighting Stops for Peace Talk", New York Times, November 21, 1912
  39. ^ Richard C. Hall, The Balkan Wars 1912-1913: Prelude to the First World War (Routledge, 2000) p66
  40. ^ Eric M. Hammel, Guadalcanal: Decision at Sea : The Naval Battle of Guadalcanal, Nov. 13-15, 1942 (Pacifica Military History, 1988) p342
  41. ^ Augustine A. Ikein, et al., Oil, Democracy, and the Promise of True Federalism in Nigeria (University Press of America, 2008) p325
  42. ^ "Schrank to Asylum, Declares He Is Sane", New York Times, November 23, 1912
  43. ^ "Entente Cordiale", in Encyclopedia of the United Nations and International Agreements (A to F), Edmund Jan Osmańczyk and Anthony Mango, eds. (Taylor & Francis, 2003) p631
  44. ^ "Harvard Downs Proud Yale Team", New York Times, November 25, 1912, pS1
  45. ^ "Debs Is Indicted", New York Times, November 24, 1912 (move to November 23)
  46. ^ Mary Beth Crain, Haunted Christmas: Yuletide Ghosts and Other Spooky Holiday Happenings (Globe Pequot, 2009) pp26-27
  47. ^ "Firedamp Kills 24 Miners", New York Times, November 25, 1912
  48. ^ Karl Ittmann, et al., The Demographics of Empire: The Colonial Order and the Creation of Knowledge (Ohio University Press, 2010) p99
  49. ^ "Killed by Exploding Starch", New York Times, November 26, 1912
  50. ^ "Delegates Begin Armistice Talk", New York Times, November 25, 1912
  51. ^ "300 Killed by Typhoon", New York Times, November 30, 1912
  52. ^ "Russian Mutineers Shot", New York Times, November 27, 1912
  53. ^ a b Richard Rathbone, Murder and Politics in Colonial Ghana (Yale University Press, 1993) p27
  54. ^ "10,000 Hail Ettor and Comrades Free", New York Times, November 27, 1912
  55. ^ C.R. Pennell, Morocco since 1830: A History (New York University Press, 2001) p166
  56. ^ "London Police Head Shot for Revenge", New York Times, November 28, 1912
  57. ^ Robert Elsie, Historical Dictionary of Albania (Scarecrow Press, 2010) pp liv-lix
  58. ^ Edwin E. Jacques, The Albanians: An Ethnic History from Prehistoric Times to the Present (McFarland, 1995) pp320-321; Ahmet Ersoy, et al, Modernism: The Creation of Nation-States (Central European University Press, 2010) p234
  59. ^ "Bulgars Capture Army of 9,000 Turks", New York Times, November 30, 1912, p3
  60. ^ "University of Maryland timeline"; "The Great Fire: Maryland Agricultural College, 1912", University of Maryland Library.
  61. ^ Bruce Merry, Encyclopedia of Modern Greek Literature (Greenwood Publishing, 2004) p265
  62. ^ G. Pope Atkins and Larman C. Wilson, The Dominican Republic and the United States: From Imperialism to Transnationalism (University of Georgia Press, 1998) p45