November 1992 tornado outbreak
||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (April 2009)|
|All deaths were tornado-related|
The November 1992 tornado outbreak was a three-day tornado outbreak that struck large parts of the eastern and Midwestern U.S. on November 21–23. Also sometimes referred to as the Widespread Outbreak (as was the Super Outbreak initially), this exceptionally long lasting and geographically large outbreak produced over $300 million in damage, along with 26 deaths and 641 injuries in Alabama, Georgia, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Ohio, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia. A number of records were established by this outbreak: it is both the longest-lasting (with 41 continual hours of tornado activity) and largest (in number of tornadoes) fall tornado outbreak in the U.S. Published studies of this outbreak report widely varying numbers of confirmed tornadoes (92, 94, 146 and 143, with the higher numbers reflected in NOAA studies).
The outbreak began on November 21 with a cluster of six tornadoes, ranging from F1 to F4 intensities, that struck parts of the Houston metropolitan area. Later on the same day, the deadliest tornado of the outbreak, a long-tracked F4 tornado, struck Brandon, Mississippi, causing 10 deaths, 98 injuries and over $25 million in damage. Other F4 tornadoes struck Cobb County, GA, in the Atlanta suburbs, and Switzerland County, IN, just southwest of Cincinnati. Of the five tornadoes reported in North Carolina on November 22–23, the last left a damage path over 160 miles (260 km) in length (at consistent F2-F3 intensity), the longest tornado damage track to have ever been recorded in the state, producing damage in Wilson and Elizabeth City. The last tornado of the outbreak, a short-lived F1, touched down in Prince George's County, Maryland.
November 21 event
|F#||Location||County||Time (UTC)||Path length||Damage|
|F1||NE of Glen Flora||Wharton||1930||0.5 miles (0.8 km)||This and the following event damaged or destroyed many barns.|
|F1||NE of Jones Creek||Wharton||1940||1 miles (1.6 km)||Same as the above.|
|F1||W of Wharton||Wharton||2015||1 miles (1.6 km)||One unoccupied home was destroyed.|
|F2||NE of Foster to W of Deco||Harris||2020||25 miles (40 km)||Tornado began in the Cinco Ranch area before moving into Katy, where roofs and walls were removed from homes, garages were destroyed, and some homes under construction collapsed. The tornado crossed I-10 and struck West Houston Lakeside Airport, destroying several metal hangars and 12 planes. The tornado continued through residential areas of northwest Houston, destroying garages and causing roof damage to homes. Several apartment complexes and a Randall's store sustained roof damage as well. The tornado caused substantial roof and wall damage to more than 100 homes. Camera footage revealed that the tornado sometimes exhibited multiple vortices.|
|F1||Pecan Grove area||Fort Bend||2040||1 miles (1.6 km)||Tornado damaged roofs and destroyed garages in Pecan Grove. 78 homes were reported to have received roof damage.|
|F1||E of Thompsons||Fort Bend||2045||1 miles (1.6 km)||A tornado damaged several large trees and destroyed a barn and many outbuildings.|
|F1||Pearland area||Brazoria, Harris||2110||2.5 miles (4 km)||Tornado removed shingles and cladding from homes. Six homes sustained roof damage as the tornado was sighted from Hobby Airport, just 2 miles (3.2 km) away.|
|F3||SE of Huffman to W of Rye||Harris, Liberty||2120||32 miles (51.2 km)||F3 tree damage began near the northeast end of Lake Houston. Less-intense damage occurred to residential buildings in Tarkington and east of Romayor.|
|F2||SW of Riverside Terrace to NW of Jacinto City||Harris||2120||12 miles (19.2 km)||The tornado began near Hermann Park, close to Rice University in Houston, before moving though residential and industrial areas. Many homes lost their roofs and walls were collapsed at masonry buildings. After touching down, the tornado crossed heavily-trafficked U.S. Route 59, Interstate 45, I-10, and I-610, damaging more than 600 buildings, including 500 residences, but only causing six negligible injuries, despite having crossed busy roads.|
|F4||W of Galena Park to N of Dayton||Harris, Liberty||2127||30 miles (48 km)||This tornado developed from the supercell that generated the Hobby Airport tornado and first touched down near the Houston ship channel, snapping trees in a wooded area. The tornado then rapidly intensified and widened to 1 mile (1.6 km) shortly after touching down, reaching F4 intensity as it moved through several subdivisions in the Channelview area, where the most severe damage occurred. 271 homes were heavily damaged or destroyed, and 14 were left with no walls standing. The tornado crossed the San Jacinto River before dissipating near Dayton. Despite having been a large and intense tornado, the storm only produced 15 injuries and no deaths along the entire path. It was one of only two recorded F4 tornadoes in Greater Houston, the other having hit Galveston on September 12, 1961.|
|F2||SE of Schwab City||Polk||2212||2 miles (3.2 km)||A few trees were downed and two barns were destroyed. The tornado injured one person.|
|F1||NE of Crosby||Harris, Liberty||2215||4 miles (6.4 km)||Developed from the Hobby Airport–Channelview supercell. Several homes reported minor damage, but mostly losses were to outbuildings on farms.|
|F0||E of Texas City||Galveston||2245||0.1 miles (0.16 km)||Trees were downed and windows were smashed. A radio antenna was also bent over.|
|F1||S of Buna||Jasper||0000||0.5 miles (0.8 km)||Power lines were downed and trees were prostrated. Some roofs were removed and windows were broken.|
|F2||W of Simpson||Vernon||0112||6 miles (9.6 km)||A mobile home was thrown on top of a van and trees were prostrated.|
|F3||Iowa area||Calcasieu||0130||6 miles (9.6 km)||Six homes were destroyed and 18 damaged. There was $100,000 damage to an outlet mall that had its I-beams deformed and its roof blown away. Two people were injured.|
|F2||Tioga area||Rapides||0250||0.5 miles (0.8 km)||Some homes were damaged and trees uprooted.|
|F2||NE of Lozes to NE of Parks||Iberia, St. Marin||0330||15 miles (24 km)||Six mobile homes were destroyed, and one was overturned with a woman injured inside. The damage swath was discontinuous.|
|F2||N of Monterey||Catahoula||0345||0.5 miles (0.8 km)||The first of two tornadoes in Catahoula Parish destroyed 18 mobile homes, damaged two permanent homes, and downed trees. The tornado also caused $200,000 in timber damage alone.|
|F3||W of Monterey||Concordia||0345||3 miles (4.8 km)||A barn was unroofed and two homes and a mobile home were destroyed. The tornado caused an additional $200,000 in timber damage and injured six people.|
|F3||SW of Foules to SE of Richmond||Catahoula, Tensas, Madison||0355||38 miles (60.8 km)||The second tornado to strike Catahoula Parish first struck Foules, where it destroyed 12 mobile homes and a church. The tornado also damaged three permanent homes in Foules. It then struck Cooter Point, where it partially destroyed eight homes and completely destroyed a mobile home. In Madison Parish, the tornado heavily damaged two permanent homes and destroyed two mobile homes and three barns. It continued intermittently to near Tallulah before dissipating, completely destroying a church and three homes. Five other homes were damaged and eight nearly destroyed.|
|F2||N of Jackson||West Feliciana, East Feliciana||0400||13 miles (20.8 km)||Numerous greenhouses and six residences were destroyed.|
|F2||W of Goldman to S of Newellton||Tensas||0418||16 miles (26.6 km)||A tornado first downed numerous trees near Goldman before destroying three barns and damaging four other buildings near St. Joseph. The tornado destroyed several outbuildings and heavily damaged five homes south of Newellton before dissipating. In all, five homes were severely damaged and many outbuildings destroyed.|
|F1||W of Woodland||East Feliciana||0430||11 miles (17.6 km)||One home was destroyed and some others were damaged nearby.|
|F1||Centreville area||Wilkinson||0330||4 miles (6.4 km)||A mobile home and barns were destroyed.|
|F2||SE of West Lincoln to W of Beauregard||Lincoln, Copiah||0450||16 miles (26.6 km)||A tornado struck the town of Brookhaven. Four homes were destroyed and five others sustained major damage. Extensive tree and power pole damage occurred as well.|
|F1||E of Hazlehurst||Copiah||0515||9 miles (14.4 km)||One house was destroyed and several others were damaged. Numerous trees were downed as well.|
|F3||E of Oak Vale to Mount Olive||Jefferson Davis, Covington||0523||27 miles (43.2 km)||Many well-constructed homes were destroyed, including 14 in Jefferson Davis County and 32 in Mount Olive. In Jefferson Davis County, a total of 14 homes were destroyed and numerous trees were downed. In the town of Mount Olive, 32 homes were destroyed and 55 others were damaged. At least 105 people were injured.|
|F4||N of Hopewell to W of Sherwood||Copiah, Simpson, Rankin, Scott, Leake, Attala, Choctaw||0527||128 miles (204.8 km)||12 deaths — Devastating, long-tracked, violent tornado began near Hopewell and moved northeast across Copiah and Simpson Counties, downing numerous trees as it moved toward the Jackson area. The tornado entered Rankin County and struck the south side of Florence as it moved though a mobile home park at that location. Several homes and mobile homes were destroyed in Florence, and two people were killed. The tornado exited Florence and struck another mobile home park, killing four more people. The tornado then tore directly through the Jackson suburb of Brandon, where numerous homes and 30 mobile homes were destroyed. Large and well-built brick homes were destroyed in the Easthaven Subdivision of Brandon, including a massive, well-constructed, brick mansion that was completely leveled, killing four people. In Rankin County alone, a total of 60 homes were destroyed, over 500 homes were damaged. 10 people died in Rankin County, where the tornado attained its peak intensity. The tornado moved into Scott County, downing numerous trees and power lines. The tornado also damaged several homes in the town of Ludlow. The tornado then crossed into Leake County and struck the community of Pine Tree, where one person was killed in a mobile home. Three homes were destroyed and nine others were damaged in Leake County, and 26 chicken houses and several outbuildings were also destroyed. In neighboring Attala County, 36 homes were severely damaged or destroyed. The tornado then crossed into Choctaw County and struck Weir, where one person was killed in a mobile home. A total of 101 homes were damaged or destroyed in Choctaw County before the tornado dissipated. Extensive tree damage occurred along the entire path length, and 122 people were injured. Eight of the 12 deaths were in mobile homes.|
|F1||NE of Kelso||Sharkey||0530||10 miles (16 km)||A tornado damaged many vehicles and trees, and destroyed one mobile home. One house was damaged as well.|
|F4||NW of Wisner to Newton||Smith, Jasper, Newton||0614||40 miles (65 km)||Large and violent tornado produced a path 1 mi (1.6 km) wide through the Bienville National Forest and sparsely-populated areas. Most of the damage was in Smith County, near Sylvarena. There, a large church was leveled and 90 homes were destroyed. The tornado then moved into Jasper County, where three houses and four mobile homes were destroyed. In the area, 21 houses and two mobile homes were damaged. In Newton County, six homes were damaged, one mobile home was destroyed, and one commercial building was destroyed. Timber loss was well into the millions of dollars, mainly through the Bienville National Forest, where substantial tree damage occurred over a wide, long swath.|
|F1||N of Little Rock||Newton, Neshoba||0722||9 miles (14.4 km)||One church had roof damage and four homes received severe damage. Two mobile homes were destroyed, four houses sustained major damage, and 16 homes had minor damage, mainly in the small community of House. Numerous trees and power lines were also downed.|
November 22 event
|F#||Location||County||Time (CDT)||Path length||Damage|
|F1||W of Clarkson||Webster, Chickasaw||0814||9 miles (14.4 km)||2 deaths — The tornado destroyed a small wood frame home in Clarkson, killing the two occupants. Four additional homes were seriously damaged and numerous trees were downed.|
|F2||E of Bloomfield to E of Dinsmore||Kemper, Noxubee||0815||27 miles (43.2 km)||1 death — One house and several mobile homes were destroyed. Several other mobile homes were also damaged. One person was killed and another was injured in a wood frame home just west of Wahalak.|
|F0||NW of Anchor||Chickasaw||0831||4 miles (6.4 km)||Trees were downed.|
|F1||W of Parkersburg||Chickasaw||0845||7 miles (11.2 km)||Four mobile homes and one barn were destroyed. Airborne debris damaged a few cars.|
|F2||E of Prairie Point||Noxubee||0845||15 miles (25 km)||Major damage to 17 frame homes was reported, along with considerable tree damage. Six mobile homes were destroyed and two mobile homes had major damage.|
|F2||SE of Blackwater to SE of Millington||Kemper||0845||23 miles (36.8 km)||Large trees were torn up from the soil, many mobile homes were destroyed, and several houses sustained major damage.|
|F0||NW of Increase||Lauderdale||0920||2 miles (3.2 km)||Trees and power lines were blown down.|
|F2||SW of Panola||Sumter||0930||6 miles (9.6 km)||A church and five mobile homes were destroyed. Severe roof damage occurred to a school and many homes.|
|F2||NW of Ethelsville||Pickens||0930||2 miles (3.2 km)||A tornado destroyed half a dozen mobile homes, injuring seven people.|
|F1||N of Oakman||Walker||1118||10 miles (16 km)||35 structures were damaged or destroyed.|
|F0||Eva area||Morgan||1220||6 miles (9.6 km)||A narrow, weak tornado unroofed a church and damaged a chicken coop. Other outbuildings were also damaged. Damage was mainly to outbuildings.|
|F2||NE of New Hope||Madison||1255||6 miles (9.6 km)||This was the same storm that produced the Eva tornado in Morgan County. 27 mobile homes were damaged and 11 destroyed. 10 homes received varying amounts of damage. All five injuries occurred in mobile homes.|
|F1||E of Rainsville||DeKalb||1400||6 miles (9.6 km)|
|F2||S of Crossville||DeKalb||1415||5 miles (8 km)|
|F2||NE of Sardis City||Etowah, DeKalb||1415||12 miles (19.2 km)||Numerous trees were downed and structures were damaged. 12 people were injured.|
|F0||E of Lakeview||DeKalb||1420||3 miles (4.8 km)||Trees and utilities were damaged along the path. One woman found herself trapped when her mobile home flipped over. 17 homes were destroyed and a total of 133 damaged.|
|F2||E of Keith to NE of Rising Fawn, GA||DeKalb, GA, Dade, GA||1440||10.5 miles (16.8 km)|
|F1||NW of Zana to SE of Wadley||Tallapoosa, Randolph||1450||17 miles (27.2 km)||Three homes were destroyed and 40 others were damaged. 29 businesses were damaged or destroyed. 10 people were injured, all of which occurred in mobile homes.|
|F1||Belltown area||Cleburne||1530||10 miles (16 km)||Several trees downed and several structures were damaged.|
|F0||NW of Coffee Springs||Geneva||2010||2.2 miles (3.5 km)|
|F1||NE of Bolivar||Hardeman||0950||16 miles (26.6 km)||1 death|
|F1||E of Rock Spring||Walker, Catoosa||1530||2 miles (3.2 km)|
|F4||SW of Pine Mountain to W of Hickory Flat||Cobb, Cherokee||1644||20 miles (32 km)||Destructive tornado touched down north of Powder Springs before moving through the northwest Atlanta suburbs, near Marietta, where it leveled homes and trees. The tornado struck and devastated Kennesaw, damaging or destroying more than 325 homes and businesses in the city. A church in Woodstock was destroyed during service, though everyone inside survived.|
|F3||NE of Dahlonega||Lumpkin||1810||10 miles (16 km)||1 death – This tornado caused major damage near Dahlonega. On a large ranch, the tornado damaged or destroyed 40 structures, including offices, cabins, stables, and the lodge. Many hardwood trees were downed as well. Seven other people were injured.|
|F2||SW of Hampton||Spalding, Henry||1904||10 miles (16 km)|
|F1||W of Box Springs||Muscogee, Talbot||1935||4 miles (6.4 km)|
|F0||E of Smarr||Monroe||2040||0.5 miles (0.8 km)|
|F2||SW of Round Oak||Monroe, Jones||2100||10 miles (16 km)|
|F4||NE of Ethridge to SE of White Plains||Putnam, Greene||2145||32 miles (51.2 km)||5 deaths – Large tornado, up to almost 1 mi (1.6 km) wide in some places. Worst damage occurred in the White Plains area. 68 homes were destroyed in Putnam County and 66 homes were destroyed in Greene County. Over 300 cattle were killed.|
|F1||NW of Cohentown||Wilkes||2240||1 miles (1.6 km)|
|F3||NE of Amity to W of Jenkinsville, SC||Lincoln, GA, McCormick, SC, Edgefield, Saluda, Newberry||2300||67 miles (107.2 km)||1 death – Tornado began near the Georgia/South Carolina border and moved northeast. 14 houses, nine mobile homes, and five businesses were destroyed. A parked car and truck were thrown from a garage into a nearby field, and an A-frame house was moved off its foundation. Many trees were downed and mobile homes were damaged as well.|
|F1||NE of Pimento||Vigo||1906||0.1 miles (0.16 km)|
|F3||N of Elletsville||Monroe||1935||5.3 miles (8.5 km)||This tornado destroyed three houses, seven mobile homes, and three barns, with the worst damage being north of Elletsville. The tornado destroyed 135 acres (55 ha) of corn as well.|
|F3||Fincastle area||Putnam, Montgomery||1950||12 miles (19.2 km)||This tornado struck about 50 farms, though only a few homes were severely damaged or destroyed.|
|F3||NE of Paragon to Five Points||Morgan||1955||15 miles (24 km)|
|F1||NE of Raccoon||Montgomery||2007||2.5 miles (4 km)|
|F3||Indianapolis to Fishers||Marion||2045||9 miles (14.4 km)||Caused severe damage on the east side of Indianapolis, though only a few homes were destroyed. Many trees were downed at Fort Harrison.|
|F3||W of Shelbyville||Shelby||2105||10 miles (16 km)||Major damage near Shelbyville. Three houses, five barns, and many outbuildings were destroyed. A semi-truck was flipped on I-74.|
|F2||N of Hardscrabble||Hamilton, Madison||2120||2 miles (3.2 km)|
|F1||NE of Fishers||Hamilton||2123||1 miles (1.6 km)|
|F2||SW of Waynesburg||Bartholomew, Decatur||2134||5 miles (8 km)|
|F2||N of Gwynneville||Shelby, Hancock, Rush||2145||7.5 miles (12 km)|
|F1||NW of Linwood||Madison||2154||0.2 miles (0.32 km)|
|F2||Liberty area||Union, Wayne||2235||12 miles (19.2 km)|
|F1||Portland||Jay||2300||0.2 miles (0.32 km)|
|F0||SE of Smithfield||Henry||2120||0.5 miles (0.8 km)|
|F0||SE of Campbellsburg||Henry||2140||3 miles (4.8 km)|
|F4||Worthville to NE of Antioch, IN||Carroll, KY, Switzerland, IN, Boone||2152||26.7 miles (42.7 km)||1 death – Tornado crossed the Ohio River twice, reaching maximum intensity in Carroll County. Debris from destroyed structures was found 5 mi (8.0 km) away from where it originated.|
|F1||S of Gratz||Owen||2217||2 miles (3.2 km)|
|F3||SE of Campbellstown to S of Arcanum||Preble, Darke||2300||20 miles (32 km)||Major damage in Arcanum with 100 buildings damaged, and 40 houses destroyed. Many trees and power lines were downed and one person was injured.|
|F1||S of Eastwood||Brown||2315||1 miles (1.6 km)|
|F2||N of Johnston to SE of Stoney Hill||Saluda, Newberry||0000||30 miles (48 km)|
|F0||SW of White Oak||Fairfield||0145||0.6 miles (1 km)||Numerous trees were downed.|
|F0||SE of Simpson||Fairfield||0212||2.7 miles (4.3 km)||Tornado touched down near SC Highway 34 and Interstate 77, blowing cars off I-77 and trees and power lines onto both highways. One house was also damaged. Listed as an F1 on the SCSC website.|
|F1||N of Lawndale||Cleveland||0315||5 miles (8 km)|
|F1||W of Catawba to NE of Turnersburg||Catawba, Iredell||0340||26 miles (41.6 km)|
|F1||N of Courtney to SW of Meadows||Yadkin, Forsyth, Stokes||0420||31 miles (49.6 km)|
|F3||NW of Hillsborough||Orange||0720||5.5 miles (8.8 km)||2 deaths – Tornado moved through a subdivision of Hillsborough, resulting in major damage. 10 people were injured as well.|
|F1||W of Quinque||Greene||0605||3 miles (4.8 km)|
|F0||S of Aylor||Madison||0610||0.5 miles (0.8 km)|
November 23 event
|F#||Location||County||Time (CDT)||Path length||Damage|
|F1||Hillcrest Heights area||Prince George's||0800||1 miles (1.6 km)|
|F1||W of Ruthville||Charlotte||0900||2 miles (3.2 km)|
|F3||N of Barclaysville to N of Elizabeth City||Harnett, Johnston, Wilson, Edgecombe, Martin, Bertie, Chowan, Pasquotank||0910||160 miles (256 km)||This was the longest-tracked tornado ever documented in North Carolina. The tornado caused F2 and F3 damage along the majority of the path, and impacted the Wilson and Elizabeth City areas. A school bus was picked up and carried 75 yd (69 m), injuring 21 students.|
- Grazulis, The Tornado, 247.
- Goodge, G. W., ed. (November 1992). "Storm Data and Unusual Weather Phenomena". Storm Data (Asheville, North Carolina: United States Department of Commerce) 34.
- Marshall, Tim (January–February 1993). "Cluster Tornado Outbreak in Houston, TX". Storm Track (StormTrack.org). Retrieved 31 December 2013.
- Grazulis, Significant Tornadoes, 1038.
- JAN Webmaster (19 November 2012). "November 21-22, 1992 Tornado Outbreak". Jackson, Mississippi: National Weather Service. Retrieved 31 December 2013.
- BMX Webmaster (2013 23 April). "Alabama Tornadoes 1992". Birmingham, Alabama: National Weather Service. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
- "Twisters Kill 24 In South". Inquire Wire Services (unknown: Inquire Wire Services). November 23, 1992. Retrieved December 22, 2013.
- George, Tom (May 22, 2013). "Putnam County Remembers 1992 F4 Tornado". WMAZ (Hancock-Putnam, Georgia: WMAZ). Retrieved December 22, 2013.
- "Significant Tornadoes in South Carolina 1992". South Carolina State Climatology Office. DNR. Retrieved 22 December 2013.
- "November 22, 1992 Tornado Outbreak". NWS Indianapolis. NOAA. July 16, 2008. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
- "Violent Tornadoes in Kentucky". NWS Louisville. NOAA. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
- Hastings, Tara (November 22, 2012). "Tornado Touchdown 20 Years Ago". WDTN (Dayton, Ohio: WDTN). Retrieved December 23, 2013.
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- Grazulis, Thomas P. (1993). Significant Tornadoes 1680-1991: A Chronology and Analysis of Events. Environmental Films. ISBN 1-879362-03-1.
- — (2003). The Tornado: Nature’s Ultimate Windstorm. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0-8061-3538-0.
- November 22, 1992 Tornado Outbreak (NWS Indianapolis, IN)
- Map of the November 1992 tornado outbreak Tornado History Project
- November 22, 1992 North Carolina Tornado Outbreak (NWS Raleigh, NC)
- Cluster Tornado Outbreak in Houston, TX (Timothy P. Marshall, Storm Track)