November 9 in German history
9 November has been the date of several important events in German history. The term Schicksalstag (Fateful day) has been occasionally used by historians and journalists since shortly after World War II, but its current widespread use started with the events of 1989 when virtually all German media picked up the term.
There are five major events in German history that are connected to 9 November:
- 1848: After being arrested in the Vienna revolts, liberal leader Robert Blum is executed. The execution is often seen as a symbolic event for the ultimate failure of the Revolutions of 1848 in the German states.
- 1918: Monarchy in Germany ends when Kaiser Wilhelm II is dethroned in the November Revolution. Philipp Scheidemann proclaims the Weimar Republic from a window of the Reichstag. Two hours later Karl Liebknecht proclaims a "Free Socialist Republic" from a balcony of the Berliner Stadtschloss. Der 9. November (The Ninth of November) is the title of a novel by Bernhard Kellermann published in Germany that told the story of the German insurrection of 1918.
- 1923: The Beer Hall Putsch, from 8 to 9 November, marks the emergence of the Nazi Party as an important player on Germany's political landscape.
- 1938: In the Kristallnacht, from 9 to 10 November, synagogues and Jewish property are burned and destroyed on a large scale. More than 1,300 Jews are killed.
- 1989: The fall of the Berlin Wall ends German separation and starts a series of events that ultimately lead to the German reunification and the Fall of Communism in eastern Europe. November 9 was considered as the date for German Unity Day, but as it was also the anniversary of Kristallnacht, this date was considered inappropriate as a national holiday. The date of the formal reunification of Germany, 3 October 1990, therefore, was chosen as the date for the holiday instead.
- Max von Eelking (1875). "Blum, Robert", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB) 2. Duncker & Humblot, pp. 739–741
- Kosmidou, Eleftheria Rania (2012). European Civil War Films: Memory, Conflict, and Nostalgia. pp. 9-10. ISBN 1136250646
- Deutsche Welle: Schicksalstag der Deutschen
- Netzeitung: 9. November als "deutscher Schicksalstag"
- Was ist Was: Schicksalstag
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