Novorossiysk

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Novorossiysk (disambiguation).
Novorossiysk (English)
Новороссийск (Russian)
-  City[1]  -
Novoross-title.PNG
Clockwise from the top: Novorossiysk TV Tower, Lenina Square, City Harbor, Shore Promenade, Turkish War Monument
Map of Russia - Krasnodar Krai (2008-03).svg
Location of Krasnodar Krai in Russia
Novorossiysk is located in Krasnodar Krai
Novorossiysk
Novorossiysk
Magnify-clip.png
Location of Novorossiysk in Krasnodar Krai
Coordinates: 44°43′N 37°45′E / 44.717°N 37.750°E / 44.717; 37.750Coordinates: 44°43′N 37°45′E / 44.717°N 37.750°E / 44.717; 37.750
Coat of Arms of Novorossiysk (Krasnodar kray) (2006).png
Flag of Novorossiysk.gif
Coat of arms
Flag
City Day September 12[citation needed]
Administrative status (as of May 2013)
Country Russia
Federal subject Krasnodar Krai[1]
Administratively subordinated to City of Novorossiysk[1]
Administrative center of City of Novorossiysk[1]
Municipal status (as of June 2009)
Urban okrug Novorossiysk Urban Okrug[2]
Administrative center of Novorossiysk Urban Okrug[2]
Mayor[citation needed] Vladimir Sinyagovsky[citation needed]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census) 241,952 inhabitants[3]
Rank in 2010 76th
Time zone MSK (UTC+04:00)[4]
Founded 1838[citation needed]
Postal code(s)[5] 353900–353903, 353905–353907, 353909–353913, 353915–353925, 353960, 353999
Dialing code(s) +7 8617[citation needed]
Official website
Novorossiysk on WikiCommons

Novorossiysk (Russian: Новороссийск; IPA: [nəvərɐˈsʲijsk]) is a city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia. It is the country's main port on the Black Sea (excluding the disputed ports of the Crimean Peninsula) and the leading Russian port for exporting grain. It is one of the few cities honored with the title of the Hero City. Population: 241,952 (2010 Census);[3] 232,079 (2002 Census);[6] 185,938 (1989 Census).[7]

History[edit]

Overview of Novorossiysk, August 2010

In antiquity, the shores of the Tsemess Bay were the site of Bata, an ancient Greek colony that specialized in the grain trade. It is mentioned in the works of Strabo and Ptolemy, among others. Genoese merchants from the Ghisolfi family maintained a trade outpost there in the Middle Ages. Archaeological investigation of the area is in its infancy, but some interesting items have already been uncovered.[1]

From 1722, the bay was commanded by the Ottoman fortress of Sujuk-Qale or Soğucak. After the coastline was ceded to Russia in 1829 as a result of the Russo-Turkish War, admirals Mikhail Lazarev and Nikolay Raevsky founded an eastern base for the Black Sea Fleet on the shore in 1838. Named after the province of Novorossiya, the port formed a vital link in the chain of forts known as the Black Sea Coastal Line, which stretched south to Sochi.

"A Map of The Caucasian Isthmus". Entworfen und gezeichnet von J. Grassl, 1856.

During the rest of the 19th century, Novorossiysk developed rapidly. It was granted city status in 1866 and became the capital of the Black Sea Governorate, the smallest in the Russian Empire, in 1896. In December 1905, the city was the seat of the short-lived Novorossiysk Republic. From August 26, 1918 until March 27, 1920, Novorossiysk was the principal center of Denikin's White Army. Denikin's South Russian Government was moved to Crimea and many Whites escaped from Novorossiysk to Constantinople.

Most of the town was occupied by the German Army on September 10, 1942. A small unit of Soviet sailors defended one part of the town, known as Malaya Zemlya, for 225 days beginning on February 4, 1943, and the town was liberated by the Red Army on September 16, 1943. The heroic defense of the port by the sailors allowed the Soviets to retain possession of the city's bay, which prevented the Germans from using the port for supply shipments. Novorossiysk was awarded the title Hero City in 1973.

In 1960, the town was commemorated in Dmitri Shostakovich's work Novorossiysk Chimes, the Flame of Eternal Glory (Opus 111b).

In 2003, President Vladimir Putin signed a decree setting up a naval base for the Black Sea Fleet in Novorossiysk. Russia has allocated 12.3 billion rubles (about $480 million) for the construction of the new base between 2007 and 2012. The construction of other facilities and infrastructure at the base, including units for coastal troops, aviation and logistics, will continue beyond 2012.[citation needed]

The Russian lease on port facilities in Sevastopol, which, though the main base of Russia's Black Sea Fleet, is part of Ukraine, was set to expire in 2017.[8] Ukraine was reported to be planning to not renew the lease; however, in April 2010 the Russian and Ukrainian presidents signed an agreement to extend the lease by twenty-five years, with an option of further extension of five years after the new term expires.[9] However in 2014, Crimea joined the Russian Federation and as such the question of renewing the lease does not arise as per the current scenario.

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with twenty-four rural localities, incorporated as the City of Novorossiysk—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the City of Novorossiysk is incorporated as Novorossiysk Urban Okrug.[2]

Climate[edit]

Novorossiysk has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa).

Climate data for Novorossiysk (1936-1987)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 22.8
(73)
21.0
(69.8)
25.0
(77)
28.0
(82.4)
31.8
(89.2)
38.0
(100.4)
39.0
(102.2)
36.1
(97)
34.0
(93.2)
30.0
(86)
28.0
(82.4)
25.0
(77)
39.0
(102.2)
Average high °C (°F) 6.4
(43.5)
6.7
(44.1)
10.0
(50)
15.1
(59.2)
19.7
(67.5)
24.1
(75.4)
27.6
(81.7)
27.7
(81.9)
23.1
(73.6)
17.3
(63.1)
12.9
(55.2)
9.3
(48.7)
16.9
(62.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 3.2
(37.8)
3.8
(38.8)
6.6
(43.9)
11.6
(52.9)
16.2
(61.2)
20.5
(68.9)
23.9
(75)
23.5
(74.3)
19.0
(66.2)
13.5
(56.3)
9.6
(49.3)
6.3
(43.3)
13.4
(56.1)
Average low °C (°F) 0.0
(32)
0.8
(33.4)
3.4
(38.1)
8.4
(47.1)
12.9
(55.2)
17.0
(62.6)
20.1
(68.2)
19.7
(67.5)
15.2
(59.4)
10.0
(50)
6.5
(43.7)
3.2
(37.8)
10.0
(50)
Record low °C (°F) −18.0
(−0.4)
−17.0
(1.4)
−12.2
(10)
−5.0
(23)
1.1
(34)
2.0
(35.6)
8.0
(46.4)
10.0
(50)
4.7
(40.5)
−2.0
(28.4)
−6.1
(21)
−12.0
(10.4)
−18.0
(−0.4)
Precipitation mm (inches) 125.6
(4.945)
76.4
(3.008)
71.4
(2.811)
46.8
(1.843)
40.8
(1.606)
37.2
(1.465)
41.1
(1.618)
48.3
(1.902)
56.2
(2.213)
65.6
(2.583)
73.9
(2.909)
149.5
(5.886)
833.1
(32.799)
Source: climatebase.ru[10]

Economy[edit]

The city sprawls along the shore of the non-freezing Tsemess Bay, which has been recognized since antiquity as one of the superior bays of the Black Sea.

The Novorossiysk Commercial Sea Port–with the market capitalization of $1,110,000,000 and shares listed at Moscow Exchange and London Stock Exchange–serves Russian sea trade with regions of Asia, Middle East, Africa] Mediterranean, and South America. It is the busiest oil port in the Black Sea and the terminus of the pipeline from the Tengiz Field, developed by the Caspian Pipeline Consortium.

Novorossiysk is also an industrial city, dependent on steel, food processing, and the production of metal goods and other manufactures. Extensive limestone quarries supply important cement factories in and around the city. The town is home to the Maritime State Academy and Novorossiysk Polytechnic Institute.

Transportation[edit]

Novorossiysk is connected by rail and highways to the main industrial and population centres of Russia, Transcaucasia, and Central Asia. The public transportation within the city boundaries consists of city buses, trolleybuses, and marshrutkas (routed taxis). However, with time, more and more people rely on automobiles as primary means of transportation.

The closest airports (Gelendzhik Airport, Anapa Airport and Krasnodar Airport, situated 33 kilometres (21 mi), 53 kilometres (33 mi)and 172 kilometres (107 mi) away from the city, respectively, offers flights to many cities in Russia.

A panoramic view of the port

Sports[edit]

The city association football team, FC Chernomorets Novorossiysk, plays in the Russian first Division.

Environs[edit]

Novorossiysk is not a resort town, but Anapa to the north and Gelendzhik to the south are. There are several urban settlements under the jurisdiction of Novorossiysk. The most famous is Abrau-Dyurso, which consists of a townlet on the shore of Lake Abrau and a village on the coast of the Black Sea, connected by a winding mountain road.

The area of Novorossiysk is one of Russia's main wine-growing regions. The wineries of Abrau-Dyurso, established by Tsar Alexander III in 1870, produce table and sparkling wines for domestic consumption.

Buildings and structures[edit]

The port of Novorossiysk
A panoramic view of the Tsemess Bay

Notable residents[edit]

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Novorossiysk is twinned with:[11]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Reference Information #34.01-707/13-03
  2. ^ a b c Law #686-KZ
  3. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  4. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  5. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (Russian)
  6. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  7. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  8. ^ Michael J. Strauss (January 9, 2009). "And when the lease on Sevastopol expires?". International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 2009-01-09. 
  9. ^ The Great Power (mis)Management by Alexander Astrov, Ashgate Publishing, 2011, ISBN 1409424677 (page 82)
  10. ^ "Novorossijsk Climate Data". Climatebase. Retrieved March 29, 2013. 
  11. ^ "Международные Связи - Администрация муниципального образования город-герой Новороссийск" (in Russian). Retrieved December 21, 2011. 
  12. ^ "Plymouth - Town Twinning". Plymouth City Council. Retrieved 2013-07-14. 
  13. ^ "Međunarodna suradnja Grada Pule". Grad Pula (in Croatian, Italian). Archived from the original on 2012-05-05. Retrieved 2013-07-28. 

Sources[edit]

  • Управление по взаимодействию с органами местного самоуправления Администрации Краснодарского края. Справочная информация №34.01-707/13-03 от 23 мая 2013 г. «Реестр административно-территориальных единиц Краснодарского края». (Department of Cooperation with the Organs of the Local Self-Government of the Administration of Krasnodar Krai. Reference Information #34.01-707/13-03 of May 23, 2013 Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units of Krasnodar Krai. ).
  • Законодательное Собрание Краснодарского края. Закон №686-КЗ от 1 апреля 2004 г. «Об установлении границ муниципального образования город Новороссийск и наделении его статусом городского округа», в ред. Закона №1756-КЗ от 3 июня 2009 г «О внесении изменений в некоторые законодательные акты Краснодарского края об установлении границ муниципальных образований». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Кубанские новости", №64–65, 17 апреля 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of Krasnodar Krai. Law #686-KZ of April 1, 2004 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formation of the City of Novorossiysk and on Granting It Urban Okrug Status, as amended by the Law #1756-KZ of June 3, 2009 On Amending Various Legislative Acts of Krasnodar Krai on Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).

External links[edit]