|- City -|
Views of Novosibirsk
Location of Novosibirsk Oblast in Russia
|City Day||Last Sunday of June|
|Administrative status (as of 2011)|
|Federal subject||Novosibirsk Oblast|
|Administrative center of||Novosibirsk Oblast, City of Novosibirsk, Novosibirsky District|
|Municipal status (as of December 2011)|
|Urban okrug||Novosibirsk Urban Okrug|
|Administrative center of||City of Novosibirsk, Novosibirsky Municipal District|
|Representative body||Council of Deputies|
|Area (city) (2012)||502.1 km2 (193.9 sq mi)|
|Population (2010 Census)||1,473,754 inhabitants|
|- Rank in 2010||3rd|
|Population (2013 est.)||1,523,801 inhabitants|
|Density||2,935 /km2 (7,600 /sq mi)|
|Time zone||OMST (UTC+07:00)|
|City status since||January 10, 1904 [O.S. December 28, 1903]|
|Previous names||Novonikolayevsk (until February 12, 1926)|
|Postal code(s)||630000–630992, 901073, 901077|
|Dialing code(s)||+7 383|
Novosibirsk (Russian: Новосибирск, IPA: [nəvəsʲɪˈbʲirsk]) is the third most populous city in Russia after Moscow and St. Petersburg and the most populous city in Asian Russia, with a population of 1,523,801 (2013 est.). It is the administrative center of Novosibirsk Oblast as well as of the Siberian Federal District. The city is located in the southwestern part of Siberia on the banks of the Ob River adjacent to the Ob River Valley, near the large water reservoir formed by the dam of the Novosibirsk Hydro Power Plant. and occupies an area of 502.1 square kilometers (193.9 sq mi). The city is informally known as the "Capital of Siberia".
- 1 History
- 2 Administrative and municipal status
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Ecology
- 5 Geography and climate
- 6 Broadcasting
- 7 Transportation
- 8 Economy
- 9 Sports
- 10 Music
- 11 Education
- 12 The Novosibirsk Zoo
- 13 Twin towns and sister cities
- 14 Gallery
- 15 References
- 16 External links
Novosibirsk, founded in 1893 at the future site of a Trans-Siberian Railway bridge crossing the great Siberian river of Ob, first received the name Novonikolayevsk (Новониколаевск), in honor both of Saint Nicholas and of the reigning Tsar Nicholas II in place of Krivoshchekovskaya village, was founded in 1696. The bridge was completed in the spring of 1897, making the new settlement the regional transport hub. The importance of the city further increased with the completion of the Turkestan-Siberia Railway in the early 20th century. The new railway connected Novosibirsk to Central Asia and the Caspian Sea.
At the time of the bridge's opening, Novonikolayevsk hosted a population of 7,800 people. Its first bank opened in 1906, with a total of five banks operating by 1915. In 1907, Novonikolayevsk, now with a population exceeding 47,000, was granted town status with full rights for self-government. The pre-revolutionary period saw the population of Novosibirsk reach 80,000. During this period the city experienced steady and rapid economic growth, becoming one of the largest commercial and industrial centers of Siberia and developing a significant agricultural processing industry, as well as a power station, iron foundry, commodity market, several banks, and commercial and shipping companies. By 1917, Novosibirsk possessed seven Orthodox churches and one Roman Catholic church, several cinemas, forty primary schools, a high school, a teaching seminary, and the Romanov House non-classical secondary school. In 1913, Novonikolayevsk became one of the first places in Russia to institute compulsory primary education.
The Russian Civil War took a toll on the city, with wartime epidemics, especially typhus and cholera, claiming thousands of lives. In the course of the war the Ob River Bridge was destroyed and for the first time in its history the population of Novonikolayevsk began to decline. The Soviet Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies of Novonikolayevsk took control of the city in December 1917. In May 1918, the Czechoslovak Legions rose in opposition to the revolutionary government and, together with the White Guards, captured Novonikolayevsk. The Red Army took the city in 1919, retaining it throughout the rest of the Civil War.
Novonikolayevsk began reconstruction in 1921 at the start of Lenin's New Economic Policy. It was a part of Tomsk Governorate and served as its administrative center from December 23, 1919 to March 14, 1920. Between June 13, 1921 and May 25, 1925, it served as the administrative center of Novonikolayevsk Governorate, which was separated from Tomsk Governorate. The city was given its present name on September 12, 1926.
When governorates were abolished, the city served as the administrative center of Siberian Krai until July 23, 1930 and of Western Siberian Krai until September 28, 1937, when that krai was split into Novosibirsk Oblast and Altai Krai. Since then, it has served as the administrative center of Novosibirsk Oblast.
One of the best examples of the early Soviet history is the Monument to the Heroes of the Revolution. It is located right in the center of the city and was one of the main historic sites (pretty much every child had to visit that place on school field trips during Soviet years). Then it was neglected in the 1990s and as a result somewhat ironically it turned out to be one of the best preserved Soviet-era sites.
During Stalin's industrialization, Novosibirsk secured its place as one of the largest industrial centers of Siberia. Several massive industrial facilities were created in there, including the 'Sibkombain' plant, specializing in the production of heavy mining equipment. Additionally a metal processing plant, a food processing plant and other industrial enterprises and factories were built, as well as a new power station. The Great Soviet Famine saw the influx of more than 170,000 refugees to Novosibirsk. The new arrivals settled in barracks at the outskirts of the city, giving rise to slums such as Bolshaya Nakhalovka, Malaya Nakhalovka, and others.
Rapid growth and industrialization were the reasons behind Novosibirsk's nickname: the "Chicago of Siberia".
Tram rails were laid down in 1934, by which time the population had reached 287,000, making Novosibirsk the largest city in Siberia. The following year the original bridge over the Ob River was replaced by the new Kommunalny bridge.
Between 1940 and 1942 more than 50 substantial factories were crated up and relocated from western Russia to Novosibirsk in order to reduce the risk of their destruction through war, and at this time the city became a major supply base for the Red army. During this period the city also received more than 140,000 refugees.
The rapid growth of the city prompted the construction during the 1950s of a hydroelectric power station with a capacity of 400 megawatts, necessitating the creation of a giant water reservoir, now known as the Ob Sea. As a direct result of the station's construction vast areas of fertile land were flooded as were relic pine woods in the area; additionally, the new open space created by the reservoir's surface caused average wind speeds to double, increasing the rate of soil erosion.
In the 1950s, the Soviet Government directed that a center for scientific research be built in Novosibirsk, and in 1957 the multi-facility scientific research complex of Akademgorodok was constructed about 30 kilometers (19 mi) south of the city center. The Siberian Division of the Academy of Sciences has its headquarters in Akademgorodok, and the town hosts a total of fourteen research institutions and universities. Although it possesses a fully autonomous infrastructure, Akademgorodok is administered by Novosibirsk.
On September 2, 1962, the population of Novosibirsk reached one million. At that time, it was the youngest city in the world with over a million people. Novosibirsk took fewer than seventy years to achieve this milestone.
On August 1, 2008, Novosibirsk was in the center of the path of a solar eclipse, with a duration of 2 minutes and 20 seconds.
Administrative and municipal status
Novosibirsk is the administrative center of the oblast and, within the framework of administrative divisions, it also serves as the administrative center of Novosibirsky District, even though it is not a part of it. As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the City of Novosibirsk—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the City of Novosibirsk is incorporated as Novosibirsk Urban Okrug.
According to the Federal State Statistics Service, in April 2013 the number of residents overstepped the mark of 1.5 million and amounted to 1,523,801 residents. As of the 2010 Census, the population of the city was 1,473,754.
People of over eighty ethnicities reside in Novosibirsk. The largest ethnic groups are Russian, German, Ukrainian, Tatar, Jewish, and Belorusian.
The most well-known trees native to Novosibirsk are birch, pine, and aspen. Some mountain ash, hawthorn, spruce, and fir are also present. European species of apple, ash, elm, linden, and oak have been successfully introduced.
Large mammals native to the Novosibirsk area include the brown bear, reindeer, moose (elk), wolf and fox. Also present are wolverine, ermine, marten, weasel, and polecat. The predators among them are supported by populations of beaver, hare, mouse, hamster, vole, shrew, squirrel, and chipmunk. More than 350 species of birds have been recorded in the area. On the other hand, only a few cold-blooded vertebrate species live on land, but they include the venomous adder and the swift grass snake. Perch and carp are prominent among the fish, of which there are more than thirty species. The carp often host a dangerous parasite, the liver fluke. Ticks in the area are frequent carriers of viral encephalitis.
Geography and climate
The city stands on the banks of the Ob River in the West Siberian Plain. To the south of the city lies the The Priobskoye Plateau.
The climate is humid continental (Köppen Dfb), with warm summers and severely cold winters. Snow is frequent, falling on almost half of all winter days, but individual snowfalls are usually light. On average temperatures range in summer from +15 °C (59 °F) to +26 °C (79 °F), in winter from −20 °C (−4 °F) to −12 °C (10 °F). However, winter temperatures can go as low as −30 °C (−22 °F) to −35 °C (−31 °F), and summer temperatures can go as high as +30 °C (86 °F) to +35 °C (95 °F). The difference between the highest and lowest recorded temperatures is 88 °C (158 °F). Most days the weather is sunny, with an average of 2,880 hours of sunshine per year, but heavy rain is possible in summer.
Travelers coming from countries with mild climates may find Novosibirsk’s winter tough, but it may not be extraordinary for those from northern countries. At times, bitter cold may hold for some days, but temperatures of −40 °C (−40 °F) and lower do not occur every year. In the springtime, streets and roads become dirty as a result of mud and melting snow, while the weather is still cold.
|Climate data for Novosibirsk (1981-2010)|
|Record high °C (°F)||4.1
|Average high °C (°F)||−12.1
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−16.5
|Average low °C (°F)||−20.9
|Record low °C (°F)||−46.2
|Precipitation mm (inches)||26
|Avg. precipitation days||6||5||5||6||8||7||8||9||8||9||8||6||85|
|Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net|
|Source #2: World Meteorological Organization (precipitation days only)|
|Climate data for Novosibirsk (1961-1990)|
|Average high °C (°F)||−12.2
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−16.2
|Average low °C (°F)||−20.1
|Precipitation mm (inches)||19
|Source: "Mean monthly climatic data for the city of Novosibirsk from 1961 to 1990". Roshydromet. Retrieved 2010-10-17.|
Novosibirsk is home to Russia's most powerful shortwave relay station east of the Ural mountains. This relay station can reach most of South Asia, the Middle East, and China. The Magadan and Vladivostok relay stations when operated in conjunction with Novosibirsk can guarantee that the Voice of Russia or any other broadcaster renting time at Novosibirsk is heard in the intended target area.
Novosibirsk is the third-largest city in Russia (after Moscow and St. Petersburg) and the first in Siberia in which a metro system was established (the Novosibirsk Metro, opened in 1985). The city is served by Novosibirsk Tolmachevo Airport with regular flights to Europe and Asia as well as to other Russian cities. Tolmachevo is the hub for S7 Airlines. There is also the auxiliary Yeltsovka Airport. A smaller field for general aviation at Novosibirsk Severny Airport was closed in 2012.
Novosibirsk is a large industrial center. The industrial complex consists of 214 large and average sized industrial enterprises. These produce more than two-thirds of all industrial output of the Novosibirsk region. Leading industries are airspace (Chkalov's Novosibirsk Aircraft Plant), nuclear fuel (Novosibirsk Chemical Concentrates Plant), turbo- and hydroelectric generators (NPO ELSIB), textile machinery (Textilmach), agriculture machinery (NPO "Sibselmash"), electronics components and devices production (Novosibirsk Factory and Design Bureau of Semiconductor Devices, OXID Novosibirsk Plant of Radio components), metallurgy and metal working (Kuzmina's Novosibirsk Metallurgical Plant, Novosibirsk Tin Plant" OJSC, and JSC "Plant of Rare Metals).
According to the television station RBC Novosibirsk took third place in 2008 in the list of the cities of Russia most attractive to business (in 2007 it was placed thirteenth).
- RATM Holding
- The Siberian coast» Food Company (until 2009)
- NETA IT Company (Retail, System Integrator, Software Sales)
- Parallels IT Company (Software for virtualization)
- Inmarko Food Company
- Siberian Food Corporation
- Electro-vacuum plant (the largest glass bottles factory in Asian part of country)
- NPO NIIIP-NZiK
Several professional sports clubs are active in the city:
|Sibir Novosibirsk||Football||1934||National Football League||2nd||Spartak Stadium|
|Sibir Novosibirsk||Ice Hockey||1962||Kontinental Hockey League||1st||Ice Sports Palace Sibir|
|Sibselmash Novosibirsk||Bandy||1937||Russian Bandy Super League||1st||Sibselmash Stadium|
|BC Novosibirsk||Basketball||2011||Basketball Super League||2nd||SKK Sever|
|Dynamo-GUVD Novosibirsk||Basketball||1955||Women's Basketball Premier League||1st||SKK Sever|
|Lokomotiv Novosibirsk||Volleyball||1977||Volleyball Super League||1st||SKK Sever|
|Sibiryak Novosibirsk||Futsal||1988||Futsal Super League||1st||NSAAA Sports Hall|
Novosibirsk is the home town of several former Olympians, including Alexander Karelin, a twelve-time world Greco-Roman wrestling champion who has been voted the greatest Greco-Roman wrestler of the twentieth century by FILA.
The City also hosts a number of National and International Ice Speedway events. Siberia Novosibirsk competed in the Russian Ice Speedway Premier League in 2012/13, and will do so again in 2013/2014.
Several contemporary classical violinists, such as Vadim Repin, the late Alexander Skwortsow, Natalia Lomeiko, and Maxim Vengerov, are natives of Novosibirsk. Also born in the city were punk legend, poet and singer-songwriter Yanka Dyagileva and folk/folk–rock singer Pelageya Khanova and cellist Tatjana Vassiljeva.
The city possesses a Conservatory (named in honor of Mikhail Glinka), Novosibirsk Academic Symphony Orchestra, and several notable music venues.
Novosibirsk is home to the following high educational institutions (masters level degree and PhD):
- Novosibirsk State Conservatoire (1956)
- Novosibirsk State Agricultural University
- Novosibirsk State Architecture and Construction University (1930)
- Novosibirsk State Medical University (1935)
- Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University (1935)
- Novosibirsk State University (1959)
- Novosibirsk State Technical University (1950)
- Siberian State University of Telecommunications and Information Sciences (1953)
- Novosibirsk State Academy of Architecture and Arts (1989)
- Novosibirsk State Academy of Water Transportation Engineering (1951)
- Siberian University of Consumer Cooperatives (1956)
- Novosibirsk State University Of Economics And Management (1929)
- Siberian State Academy of Geodesy (1933)
- Siberian State Transport University (1932)
Akademgorodok is a suburb of Novosibirsk dedicated to science. It houses the Siberian division of the Russian Academy of Sciences and is the location of Novosibirsk State University. (All other higher education institutions are located in the central part of the city.)
The Novosibirsk Zoo
The Novosibirsk Zoo is a world-renowned scientific institution as well as a popular tourist attraction. The zoo has over four thousand animals and is an active participant of thirty-two different captive breeding programmes for endangered species. On average, around 700,000 people visit the zoo each year.
In 2000, the zoo held the closest relative to the cape lion of South Africa. John Spence was always fascinated about the stories of these grand lions scaling the walls of General van Riebeeck's castle in the 17th century. Spence's search took thirty years, which led him to the Novosibirsk Zoo, where he found the closest living resemblance to the cape lion; the zoo called the lion Simon. The lion and his family are kept outdoors in large, natural settings. "It is kept all the year around in the climate conditions of the west Siberia at the temperatures from −49 °C (−56 °F) to 36 °C (97 °F). In forty years, more than sixty cubs were born."
The zoo's current curator is Rostislav Shilo. Simon's cubs were named after him and his wife, Olga.
Twin towns and sister cities
Novosibirsk is twinned with:
- Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 50 240», в ред. изменения №220/2012 от 1 января 2013 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division . Code 50 240, as amended by the Amendment #220/2012 of January 1, 2013. ).
- Charter of Novosibirsk, Article 1.5
- Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 50 401», в ред. изменения №220/2012 от 1 января 2013 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division . Code 50 401, as amended by the Amendment #220/2012 of January 1, 2013. ).
- Charter of Novosibirsk Oblast, Article 5.2
- Law #200-OZ
- Law #246-OZ
- Official website of Novosibirsk. Biography of Vladimir Filippovich Gorodetsky (Russian)
- Charter of Novosibirsk, Article 27.1.2
- Charter of Novosibirsk, Article 27.1.1
- Official website of Novosibirsk. Business Card of the City of Novosibirsk (Russian)
- "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- Novosibstat. Численность населения Новосибирской области по муниципальным районам и городским округам на начало 2013 года
- The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
- Official website of Novosibirsk. History (Russian)
- Charter of Novosibirsk, Article 1.1
- Russian Post. Postal Code Search (Russian)
- Новосибирская ГЭС. Вокруг здания ГЭС, водосливная плотина :: Gelio | Слава Степанов. Gelio.newsib.ru. Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
- "Сельское хозяйство :: Бизнес-журнал, новости Новосибирска и Новосибирской области". Biz.newsib.ru. Retrieved 2013-03-12.
- "From Novosibirsk to Komsomolsk". TIME. Monday, May 4, 1942. Retrieved May 6, 2009.
- "Novosibirsk, Siberia, Russia History & Info". Utopiasprings.com. Retrieved May 6, 2009.
- "Novosibirsk Mayor Office Web Site, City History Page". Novosibirsk Mayor Office. Retrieved February 13, 2008.
- Официальный сайт города Новосибирска:. English.novo-sibirsk.ru. Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
- "Weather and Climate-The Climate of Novosibirsk" (in Russian). Weather and Climate. Retrieved August 16, 2012.
- "World Weather Information Service – Novosibirsk". World Meteorological Organisation (United Nations). Retrieved August 16, 2012.
- "World Airline Directory." Flight International. March 30 - April 5, 2004. 68.
- "Siberian business portal KSONLINE .
- "Государственные вузы Новосибирской области". Sr-nso.nstu.ru. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
- "Лев". Sibzoo.narod.ru. Retrieved January 28, 2010.[dead link]
- "Has Rare Lion of Africa's Cape Eluded Extinction?". National Geographic News. Retrieved January 28, 2010.
- (Japanese) 札幌市 - 国際交流 - 姉妹都市
- (Japanese) Sister Cities | International Community Bureau
- Novosibirsk official site
- Городской Совет Новосибирска. Решение №616 от 27 июня 2007 г. «Устав города Новосибирска», в ред. Решения №1341 от 23 сентября 2009 г. «О внесении изменений в устав города Новосибирска, принятый Решением городского Совета Новосибирска от 27.06.2007 №616». Вступил в силу через 10 дней со дня официального опубликования, за исключением положений, для которых установлены иные сроки и порядок вступления в силу. Опубликован: "Бюллетень органов городского самоуправления Новосибирска", №58, стр. 3, 15 августа 2007 г. (City Council of Novosibirsk. Decision #616 of June 27, 2007 Charter of the City of Novosibirsk, as amended by the Decision #1341 of September 23, 2009 On Amending the Charter of the City of Novosibirsk Adopted by the Decision #616 of the City Council of Novosibirsk of June 27, 2007. Effective as of 10 days after the official publication date, with the exception of the clauses for which different dates and procedures of taking effect are specified.).
- Новосибирский областной Совет депутатов. Постановление №282-ОЗ от 31 марта 2005 г. «Устав Новосибирской области (текст в ред. от 8 июля 2010 г.)», в ред. Закона №513-ОЗ от 15 июля 2010 г «О поправках к Уставу Новосибирской области». Вступил в силу 1 мая 2005 г. Опубликован: "Советская Сибирь", №81, 29 апреля 2005 г. (Novosibirsk Oblast Council of Deputies. Resolution #282-OZ of March 31, 2005 Charter of Novosibirsk Oblast (text of rev. of July 8, 2010), as amended by the Law #513-OZ of July 15, 2010 On Amending the Charter of Novosibirsk Oblast. Effective as of May 1, 2005.).
- Новосибирский областной Совет депутатов. Закон №246-ОЗ от 17 декабря 2004 г. «Об административных центрах муниципальных районов и сельских поселений Новосибирской области», в ред. Закона №69-ОЗ от 5 декабря 2006 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Новосибирской области "Об административных центрах муниципальных районов и сельских поселений Новосибирской области"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Советская Сибирь", №252, 29 декабря 2004 г. (Novosibirsk Oblast Council of Deputies. Law #246-OZ of December 17, 2004 On the Administrative Centers of the Municipal Districts and Rural Settlements of Novosibirsk Oblast, as amended by the Law #69-OZ of December 5, 2006 On Amending the Law of Novosibirsk Oblast "On the Administrative Centers of the Municipal Districts and Rural Settlements of Novosibirsk Oblast". Effective as of the official publication date.).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Novosibirsk.|
- Panoramic views of Novosibirsk
- Novosibirsk journal about life in Siberia "Sib.fm"
- News from Novosibirsk - the main local TV station "Vesti-Novosibirsk" (Russian)
- Novosibirsk skyline photos
- Novosibirsk business news
- Novosibirsk MIRNSK.Ru
- Life of Novosibirsk in photos
- CNN article on Siberian IT industry
- Novosibirsk city views
- Novosibirsk: Global scientific center rises in the midst of Siberia's forests