nth root algorithm

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The principal nth root \sqrt[n]{A} of a positive real number A, is the positive real solution of the equation

x^n = A

(for integer n there are n distinct complex solutions to this equation if A > 0, but only one is positive and real).

There is a very fast-converging nth root algorithm for finding \sqrt[n]{A}:

  1. Make an initial guess x_0
  2. Set x_{k+1} = \frac{1}{n} \left[{(n-1)x_k +\frac{A}{x_k^{n-1}}}\right]. In practice we do \Delta x_k = \frac{1}{n} \left[{\frac{A}{x_k^{n-1}}} - x_k\right]; x_{k+1} = x_{k} + \Delta x_k .
  3. Repeat step 2 until the desired precision is reached, i.e.  | \Delta x_k | < \epsilon .

A special case is the familiar square-root algorithm. By setting n = 2, the iteration rule in step 2 becomes the square root iteration rule:

x_{k+1} = \frac{1}{2}\left(x_k + \frac{A}{x_k}\right)

Several different derivations of this algorithm are possible. One derivation shows it is a special case of Newton's method (also called the Newton-Raphson method) for finding zeros of a function f(x) beginning with an initial guess. Although Newton's method is iterative, meaning it approaches the solution through a series of increasingly accurate guesses, it converges very quickly. The rate of convergence is quadratic, meaning roughly that the number of bits of accuracy doubles on each iteration (so improving a guess from 1 bit to 64 bits of precision requires only 6 iterations). For this reason, this algorithm is often used in computers as a very fast method to calculate square roots.

For large n, the nth root algorithm is somewhat less efficient since it requires the computation of x_k^{n-1} at each step, but can be efficiently implemented with a good exponentiation algorithm.

Derivation from Newton's method[edit]

Newton's method is a method for finding a zero of a function f(x). The general iteration scheme is:

  1. Make an initial guess x_0
  2. Set x_{k+1} = x_k - \frac{f(x_k)}{f'(x_k)}
  3. Repeat step 2 until the desired precision is reached.

The nth root problem can be viewed as searching for a zero of the function

f(x) = x^n - A

So the derivative is

f^\prime(x) = n x^{n-1}

and the iteration rule is

x_{k+1} = x_k - \frac{f(x_k)}{f'(x_k)}
 = x_k - \frac{x_k^n - A}{n x_k^{n-1}}
 = x_k - \frac{x_k}{n}+\frac{A}{n x_k^{n-1}}
 = \frac{1}{n} \left[{(n-1)x_k +\frac{A}{x_k^{n-1}}}\right]

leading to the general nth root algorithm.


  • Atkinson, Kendall E. (1989), An introduction to numerical analysis (2nd ed.), New York: Wiley, ISBN 0-471-62489-6 .