No nuclear power plant has ever been established in Norway; however, the country has a legal framework for licensing the construction and operation of nuclear installations. Also, four research reactors have been built in Norway, the first was JEEP I which was operative from 1951 to 1966. Two research reactors are currently operative, the Halden Reactor and JEEP II at Kjeller. There has been discussions about the possible usage of nuclear energy, which is supported by some industry leaders.Statkraft together with Vattenfall, Fortum and the energy investment company Scatec announced plans to investigate building of a thorium-fueled power plant in 2007 which was never realized. In late 2012, Norway's privately owned Thor Energy, in collaboration with the government and Westinghouse, announced a four-year trial using thorium in an existing nuclear reactor." In 2013, Aker Solutions purchased patents from Nobel Prize winning physicist Carlo Rubbia for the design of a proton accelerator-based thorium nuclear power plant.