Nuclear power in Taiwan
Nuclear power in Taiwan accounts for 5,028 MWe of capacity by means of 3 active plants and 6 reactors, which makes up around 8.1% of its national energy consumption. The technology chosen for the reactors has been General Electric BWR technology for 2 plants and Westinghouse PWR technology for the Maanshan Nuclear Power Plant. The Lungmen Nuclear Power Plant is under construction, but has encountered public opposition and a host of delays.
Active seismic faults run across the island, and some environmentalists argue Taiwan is unsuited for nuclear plants. A 2011 Natural Resources Defense Council report that evaluated the seismic hazard to reactors worldwide, as determined by the Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program data, placed all of Taiwan's reactors within the highest risk group of 12 reactors within very high seismic hazard areas, along with some of Japan's reactors.
All plants are run by Taipower. The Atomic Energy Council (AEC) of the Republic of China is effectively the regulatory body, but plants are also subject to International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards. There are one additional two-unit plant under construction equipped with GE latest BWR technology in Gongliao District, New Taipei. They will each deliver 1,350 MWe of power at peak.
Currently there are four nuclear research centers in Taiwan ranging up to 2.8 MW.
Nuclear waste disposal
The Lanyu nuclear waste storage facility was built on Lanyu Island in 1982. The storage plant is at the southern tip of the 45-square-kilometer island, which is located off the southeastern coast of Taiwan proper. The plant receives nuclear waste from Taiwan's three nuclear power plants operated by state utility Taipower. Islanders did not have a say in the decision to locate the facility on the island.
In 2002, almost 2,000 protesters, including many Aboriginal residents of Taiwan's Orchid Island staged a sit-in in front of the storage plant, calling on Taipower to remove nuclear waste from the island. They were also protesting against the government's failure to keep its pledge to withdraw 100,000 barrels of low-level nuclear waste from their isle by the end of 2002. In a bid to allay safety concerns, Taipower has pledged to repackage the waste since many of the iron barrels used for storage have become rusty from the island's salty and humid air. Taipower has for years been exploring ways to ship the nuclear waste overseas for final storage, but plans to store the waste in an abandoned North Korean coal mine have met with strong protests from neighboring South Korea and Japan due to safety and environmental concerns, while storage in Russia or Mainland China is complicated by political factors. Taipower is "trying to convince the islanders to extend the storage arrangement for another nine years in exchange for payment of NT$200 million (about $5.7 million)".
About 100,000 barrels of nuclear waste from the nation’s three operational nuclear power plants have been stored at the Lanyu complex. A report released in November 2011 said a radioactive leak had been detected outside the facility and this has added to residents’ concerns. In February 2012, hundreds of Tao Aborigines living on Lanyu held a protest outside the Lanyu nuclear waste storage facility, calling on Taiwan Power Co. to remove nuclear waste from the island as soon as possible.
Following the Fukushima I nuclear accidents in Japan, nuclear energy has emerged as a contentious issue. In March 2011, around 2,000 anti-nuclear protesters demonstrated in Taiwan for an immediate halt to the construction of the island's fourth nuclear power plant. The protesters were also opposed to plans to extend the lifespan of three existing nuclear plants.
On the eve of World Environment Day in June 2011, environmental groups demonstrated against Taiwan's nuclear power policy. The Taiwan Environmental Protection Union, together with 13 environmental groups and legislators, gathered in Taipei with banners that read: "I love Taiwan, not nuclear disasters". They protested against the nation’s three operating nuclear power plants and the construction of a fourth plant. They also called for "all nuclear power plants to be thoroughly re-evaluated and shut down immediately if they fail to pass safety inspections".
According to Wang To-far, economics professor at National Taipei University, "if a level-seven nuclear crisis were to happen in Taiwan, it would destroy the nation". George Hsu, a professor of applied economics at National Chung Hsing University in central Taiwan, said nuclear power plants in quake-prone areas need to be redesigned to make them more resistant, an investment that would reduce their original cost advantage.
Longmen Nuclear Power Plant
In 2011, many nuclear experts - also nuclear power supporters - begin to say that "Longmen nuclear power plant will be the most dangerous nuclear power plant in the world, due to its complex design and unreliable contractors. In 2000, many insiders felt relief when the construction was halted. The old nuclear power plants in Taiwan are much safer and more reliable than Longmen."
Since 2011, much more Taiwanese begin to support halting the construction. Taiwan Power Company said it will make electricity price increase 40%; many people said that Taiwan Power Co. seriously underestimate the price tag of nuclear power, and some nuclear experts said that extending the lifetime of the old reactors is a cheaper and safer way than continuing to invest Longmen.
List of nuclear power stations in Taiwan
|Jinshan Nuclear Power Plant||金山核能發電廠 (核一)||1,208||Shimen, New Taipei||Operational|
|Kuosheng Nuclear Power Plant||國聖核能發電廠 (核二)||1,896||Wanli, New Taipei||Operational|
|Maanshan Nuclear Power Plant||馬鞍山核能發電廠 (核三)||1,780||Hengchun, Pingtung||Operational|
|Lungmen Nuclear Power Plant||龍門核能發電廠 (核四)||2,700||Gongliao, New Taipei||Under construction|
In March 2011, around 2,000 anti-nuclear protesters demonstrated in Taiwan for an immediate end to the construction of the island's fourth nuclear power plant. The protesters were also opposed to lifespan extensions for three existing nuclear plants.
In April 2011, 5,000 people joined an anti-nuclear protest in Taipei City, which had a carnival-like atmosphere, with protesters holding yellow banners and waving sunflowers. This was part of a nationwide “No Nuke Action” protest, against construction of a Fourth Nuclear Plant and in favour of a more renewable energy policy.
On World Environment Day in June 2011, environmental groups demonstrated against Taiwan's nuclear power policy. The Taiwan Environmental Protection Union, together with 13 environmental groups and legislators, gathered in Taipei and protested against the nation’s three operating nuclear power plants and the construction of a fourth plant.
In March 2012, about 2,000 people staged an anti-nuclear protest in Taiwan's capital following the massive earthquake and tsunami that hit Japan one year ago. The protesters rallied in Taipei to renew calls for a nuclear-free island by taking lessons from Japan's disaster on March 11, 2011. They "want the government to scrap a plan to operate a newly constructed nuclear power plant - the fourth in densely populated Taiwan". Scores of aboriginal protesters "demanded the removal of 100,000 barrels of nuclear waste stored on their Orchid Island, off south-eastern Taiwan. Authorities have failed to find a substitute storage site amid increased awareness of nuclear danger over the past decade".
In March 2013, 68,000 Taiwanese protested across major cities against the island’s fourth nuclear power plant, which is under construction. Taiwan’s three existing nuclear plants are near the ocean, and prone to earthquakes caused by geological fractures under the island.
On 19 May 2013, 10,000 Taiwanese protested in Taipei against the further development of nuclear power in Taiwan. The protest was launched by an environmental protection organization to protest the construction of the fourth nuclear power plant. Protesters held banners and flags with writings such as No Nuclear Power or We Don't Want Another Fukushima.
On 26 May 2013, hundreds of Taiwanese protested in Taipei calling to vote down the nuclear power referendum bill and to stop the construction of Taiwan's fourth nuclear power plant. Protesters form a big yellow words displaying STOP in front of Legislative Yuan. The protest came a few days before the plan by Kuomintang to push through a bill to hold a referendum in Taiwan and decide the fate of the fourth nuclear power plant.
On 2 August 2013, nearly 100 activists from Taiwan Anti-Nuclear Action League protested against the fourth nuclear power plant in front of Legislative Yuan. They urged the government to immediately stop the project. The league composed of members from Taiwan Environmental Protection Union, Humanistic Education Foundation and Green Citizens' Action Alliance.
On 16 August 2013, Taiwanese held a press conference in Taipei to demand Taipower to stop further electricity price hike, stop construction of the fourth nuclear power plant and stop lying to the public.
On 24 August 2013, over 1,000 Taiwanese gathered at Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall to demand the government to stop constructing the fourth nuclear power plant. The event was organized by Moms Love Taiwan. The organization made three request during the demonstration, which were for the government to come up with energy policies, promote education on environmental and energy matters and publish the timetable for a nuclear-free Taiwan.
In March 2014, around 130,000 Taiwanese marched for an anti-nuclear protest around Taiwan. They demanded that the government remove nuclear power plants in Taiwan. The march came ahead of the 3rd anniversary of Fukushima disaster. Around 50,000 people marched in Taipei while another three separates event were held around other Taiwanese cities attended by around 30,000 people. Among the participants are the organizations from Green Citizen Action's Alliance, Homemakers United Foundation, Taiwan Association for Human Rights and Taiwan Environmental Protection Union.
- Atomic Energy Council
- List of power stations in Taiwan
- Economy of Taiwan
- Lanyu storage site
- Nuclear power
- Nuclear energy policy
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- Lee Teng-hui says nuclear power plants still needed
- Referendum on Taiwan's Fourth Nuclear Plant Suspended
- Taiwan's top scientist critical of 4th nuclear plant
- NCKU Nears Step in Nuclear Fusion Power