Nuclear transparency

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Nuclear transparency is the ratio of cross-sections for exclusive processes from the nuclei to those of the nucleons.

If the nuclear cross-section is denoted as \sigma_N and free nucleon cross-section as \sigma_0 then nuclear transparency can be defined as
T= \sigma_N/A\sigma_0, where \sigma_N can be parameterized in terms of \sigma_0 as \sigma_N =A^\alpha \sigma_0.

Therefore, transparency can be expressed as T= A^{\alpha -1}.
Here nucleon cross-section can be thought of as hydrogen cross-section and nuclei cross-section can be as for other targets.