Uridine phosphorylase adds ribose-1-phosphate to the free base uracil, forming uridine monophosphate. Uridine kinase then phosphorylates this nucleoside into its diphosphate and triphosphate forms. Deoxythymidine phosphorylase adds deoxyribose-1-phosphate to thymine, forming deoxythymidine monophosphate. Thymidine kinase can then phosphorylate this compound to deoxythymidine diphosphate and triphosphate.
Phosphoribosyltransferases add activated ribose-5-phosphate (called phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate or PRPP) to bases, creating nucleotide monophosphates. There are two types of phosphoribosyltransferases: adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) and hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT). Lesch-Nyhan syndrome is associated with a deficiency of HGPRT.