|Nickname(s): Chuparrosa (Hummingbird)
Puerta a México (Door to Mexico)
|Motto: Siempre con la Patria (Always with the Motherland)
Ciudad con Valor (City with Courage)
|Municipality||Nuevo Laredo Municipality|
|• Presidente Municipal||Benjamín Galván Gómez|
|• City||1,334.02 km2 (515.07 sq mi)|
|Population (2010 census)|
|metro area includes Laredo, Texas, Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas, Colombia, Nuevo León, & Villa Hidalgo, Coahuila|
|Time zone||CST (UTC-6)|
|• Summer (DST)||CST (UTC-5)|
|Website||Municipio de Nuevo Laredo|
|Airport: Quetzalcoatl International Airport MMNL|
Nuevo Laredo is a city located in the Municipality of Nuevo Laredo in the Mexican state of Tamaulipas. The city lies on the banks of the Rio Grande, across from the United States city of Laredo, Texas. The 2010 census population of the city was 373,725. Nuevo Laredo is part of the Laredo-Nuevo Laredo Metropolitan Area with a total population of 636,516. The municipality has an area of 1,334.02 km² (515.07 sq mi). Both the city and the municipality rank as the third largest in the state.
The city is connected to Laredo, Texas, across the Rio Grande (Rio Bravo) river by three international bridges and a rail bridge. The city is larger than its U.S. counterpart, but is younger, having been established after the Republic of Texas broke away from Mexico. It is the largest inland port in Mexico, just as its counterpart across the border is the busiest inland port(bridge crossing) in the United States. As an indication of its economic importance, one of Mexico's Banderas monumentales is located in the city (these flags have been established in state capitals and cities of significance).
Nuevo Laredo was part of the territory of the original settlement of Laredo (now in Texas) which was founded in 1755 by the Spaniard Don Tomás Sánchez in the northern part of the Rio Grande. The settlement's territory was granted to José de Escandón by the King of Spain, and the settlement's territory and population remained unified for 100 years, until the war of 1847, the Mexican–American War. In 1847, the Guadalupe Hidalgo Treaty divided the territory attached to Laredo between Texas and Mexico. New Laredo was founded on May 15, 1848, by seventeen Laredo families who wished to remain Mexican and therefore moved to the Mexican side of the Rio Grande. They identified with Mexico, its history and cultural customs, and decided to keep their Mexican citizenship. The founders of New Laredo even took with them the bones of their ancestors so they continued to rest in Mexican ground.
Nuevo Laredo is located in the northern tip of Tamaulipas on the west end of the Rio Grande Plains. Rio Grande is the only source that supplies its citizens with water. El Coyote Creek supplies Nuevo Laredo's only natural lake El Laguito (The Small Lake). The area consists of a few hills and flat land covered with grass, oak, and mesquite.
Nuevo Laredo features a semiarid climate. Nuevo Laredo's weather is influenced by its proximity to the Chihuahuan Desert to the west, by the Sierra Madre Oriental mountains to the south and west, and by the Gulf of Mexico to the east. Much of the moisture from the Pacific is blocked by the Sierra Madre Oriental. Therefore most of the moisture derives from the Gulf of Mexico. Its geographic location causes Nuevo Laredo's weather to range from long periods of heat to sudden violent storms in a short period of time. Nuevo Laredo is cold for Tamaulipas standards during winter, the average daytime highs are around 66 °F (19 C) and overnight lows around 43 °F (6 C); although it is rare for snow to fall in Nuevo Laredo, there was actually snow on the ground for a few hours on the morning of Christmas Day 2004.
Nuevo Laredo experiences an average high temperature of about 99 °F (37 C), and an average low of about 75 °F (24 C) during summer, and 20 inches (510 mm) of rain per year. As Laredo sometimes undergoes drought, a water conservation ordinance was implemented in 2003.
|Climate data for Nuevo Laredo|
|Record high °C (°F)||38.5
|Average high °C (°F)||17.9
|Daily mean °C (°F)||12.2
|Average low °C (°F)||6.4
|Record low °C (°F)||−7.9
|Precipitation mm (inches)||20.1
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||4.7||4.2||2.5||3.3||4.5||3.7||3.0||3.6||5.5||3.6||3.1||3.7||45.4|
|Source: Servicio Meteorologico Nacional|
Nuevo Laredo is governed by an elected Cabildo, which is composed of the Presidente Municipal (Municipal President or Mayor), two Síndicos, and twenty Regidores. The PRI (Institutional Revolutionary Party) is in control of the city government. The Mayor is in charge of the municipal administration. The Síndicos supervise the municipal budget and expenditures, and the Regidores are elected by the party.
Public safety is provided by three municipal departments: (1) municipal police (Dirección de Seguridad Ciudadana), (2) traffic control (Dirección de Seguridad Vial), and (3) the emergency services department (Dirección de Protección Civil, Bomberos y Desastres).
Nuevo Laredo (along with Laredo, Texas) is the most important trade border crossing of Latin America (approximately 8500 trucks cross the border each day). Its geographical position has enabled this city to grow and specialize in the international trade business. Nuevo Laredo has a very developed logistics and transportation industry, complemented with a variety of hotel chains, restaurants and a cultural center where events such as the Tamaulipas International Festival take place.
Nuevo Laredo is located on the primary trade route connecting Canada, the United States and Mexico. Both Nuevo Laredo and Laredo, Texas are now the gateway to Mexico's burgeoning industrial complex, offering diverse markets, business opportunities and profit potential, which both business and industry cannot not find anywhere else. Nuevo Laredo is the only Mexico/U.S. border city strategically positioned at the convergence of all land transportation systems. The main highway and railroad leading from Central Mexico through Mexico City, San Luis Potosí, Saltillo and Monterrey join with two major U.S. rail lines at Nuevo Laredo and major American highway Interstate 35, thus offering fast access to the most important metropolitan areas and seaports of Texas, as well as northern states and Canada. For more than a decade, Mexico's economic policies have greatly increased Mexico/U.S. trade and cross-border production in the Nuevo Laredo area.
Seventy percent of all Mexican exports to the United States are exported through Nuevo Laredo. Nuevo Laredo is considered to be the largest inland port in Latin America. There are three bridges in the Nuevo Laredo area: International Bridge #1 (the oldest); International Bridge #2 (also known as Juarez-Lincoln; no pedestrians); International Bridge #3 (also known as the Free Trade or Libre Comercio Bridge; inaugurated in 1999; cargo only). Also the Colombia-Solidarity (Solidaridad) Bridge (located about 20 miles (32 km) NW of the city in Colombia, Nuevo León). There are no urban areas on either side of this bridge.
The educational infrastructure amounted to 288 school sites which are 71 kindergartens, 148 elementary schools, 34 junior high schools, 14 high schools, 13 vocational schools and 12 universities.
There are twelve universities in Nuevo Laredo. Undergraduate studies normally last at least 3 years, divided into semesters or quarters, depending on the college or university.
Every graduate gets a bachelor's degree (Licenciatura or Ingenieria). Some of these universities also offer postgraduate studies. A "maestría" is a 2-year degree after a bachelor's degree, which awards the title of Master (Maestro).
- Universidad Autónoma de Tamaulipas (UAT) It has 2 faculties. The faculty of commerce, administration and social sciences offers bachelor's degrees in: International trade, Computing, Business administration, Law, and Accountancy. The faculty of nursing offers bachelor's degrees in: Nursing, and Health, safety and environment
- Instituto Tecnologico de Nuevo Laredo (ITNL) offers bachelor's degrees in: Architecture, Civil engineering, Electrical engineering, Computer systems engineering, Industrial engineering, Mechanical engineering, Business administration, Accountancy, Electronic engineering, Mechatronics engineering, Enterprise management engineering.
- Universidad Valle del Bravo-Valle de Mexico (UVB-UVM) offers bachelor's degrees in: Law, Psychology, Graphic design, International trade, International marketing, Business administration, Tourism, International relations, Communications, Accountancy, Political sciences, Industrial administration engineering, Computer systems engineering, Electronic systems engineering, Civil engineering, Environmental engineering, Mechanical electrician engineering, Security and industrial hygiene engineering, Dentistry.
- Universidad Tecnologica de Nuevo Laredo (UT) offers bachelor's degrees in: Enterprise development engineering, Global commercial logistics engineering, Industrial maintenance engineering, Mechatronics engineering, Renewable energy engineering. Also offers associate's degrees in: Logistic and Autotransport administration, tariff classification and customs clearance, Electronics and automated, Industrial maintenance, Sales and Distribution.
- Centro de Estudios Superiores Royal (CES-R, Royal University) offers bachelor's degrees in: International trade, Marketing and publicity, Business administration, Computer systems engineering, Organizational psychology, Accountancy.
- Instituto de Ciencias y Estudios Superiores de Tamaulipas (ICEST) offers bachelor's degrees in: Communications, Nutrition, Criminology, Psychology, Languages, International trade, Dramatic literature and theater, Chemical pharmacist biologist, Nursing, Library science, Tourism, Computer systems engineering, Chemical engineering.
- Universidad TecMilenio (UTM) offers bachelor's degrees in: Business administration, Intelligence of markets, International trade, Graphic design and animation, Industrial engineering, Logistics systems engineering, Development of software engineering, International businesses engineering.
- Universidad Del Norte De Tamaulipas (UNT) offers bachelor's degrees in: Political sciences and administration, Administration and marketing, International trade and customs, Computer systems engineering, Accountancy.
- Universidad Panamericana (UP) offers bachelor's degrees in: Business administration, Accountancy, Law, Junior high education, Kindergarten education, Civic and ethical, Psychology, Surgeon (obstetrician), Surgeon (zootechnician), Industrial engineering, Computer systems engineering.
Nuevo Laredo has three teachers' schools:
- Normal Básica Cuauhtemoc offers bachelor's degrees in: Elementary education, and Kindergarten education
- Normal Superior De Tamaulipas opened its doors on August 2005 and offers bachelor's degrees in: Physical education, and Juior high education. Also offers specialities in Spanish, mathematics, and English instruction.
- Universidad Pedagógica Nacional (UPN) offers bachelor's degrees in: Education, Educational intervention.
Nuevo Laredo is served by the Quetzalcóatl International Airport with daily flights to Mexico City. The neighboring Laredo International Airport in Laredo, Texas has daily flights to Houston (George Bush Intercontinental Airport) and to Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport and Tri-weekly flights to Las Vegas, Nevada and bi-weekly seasonal (May–August) flights to Orlando, Florida.
Transporte Urbano de Nuevo Laredo (TUNL) is the mass transit system that operates in Nuevo Laredo with fixed routes with millions of passengers per year. TUNL works with a fleet of fixed route buses. TUNL hub is located in downtown Nuevo Laredo.
- Gateway to the Americas International Bridge
- Juárez-Lincoln International Bridge
- World Trade International Bridge (commercial traffic only)
- Texas-Mexican Railway International Bridge
Major highways in Nuevo Laredo and their starting and ending points:
- Mexican Federal Highway 85 Nuevo Laredo-Mexico City
- Mexican Federal Highway 2 Matamoros-Nuevo Laredo-Colombia-Ciudad Acuña
- Tamaulipas State Highway 1 Nuevo Laredo-Monterrey
- Nuevo León State Highway Spur 1 Colombia-Anáhuac
|Laredo, Texas||236,091||0 mi (0 km)|
|Monclova, Coahuila||294,191||124 mi (199 km)|
|Monterrey, Nuevo León||3,664,334||125 mi (201 km)|
|Reynosa, Tamaulipas||526,888||130 mi (209 km)|
|Corpus Christi, Texas||409,741||131 mi (211 km)|
|San Antonio, Texas||1,942,217||154 mi (248 km)|
|Heroica Matamoros, Tamaulipas||462,157||167 mi (268 km)|
|Saltillo, Coahuila||648,929||181 mi (291 km)|
People and culture
Parks and zoos
Parque Viveros (en:Viveros Park) is a 124-acre (0.50 km2) forest park that overlooks the Rio Grande on the eastern side of Nuevo Laredo. The park features a zoo, 2 large swimming pools, walking trails, picnic areas with bar-b-que pits and playgrounds.
Nuevo Laredo has three main theaters the "Centro Cultural", "Teatro de la Ciudad", and "Casa de Cultura". The Centro Cultural (en:Cultural Center), is Nuevo Laredo's main theater with a sitting capacity of 1,200 guests. The theater has presented high level shows high level, plays, concerts and dance recitals. The theater has a museum, library, and a cafeteria. The Teatro de la Ciudad (en:City Theater) is a theater which presents plays, dance recitals, concerts and musical shows and special events. The Casa de Cultura (en:House of Culture) houses music, painting, dance and literature workshops and also presents major artistic and cultural events such as art exhibitions, concerts, film samples, dance recitals and plays, among others.
The Tecolotes de Nuevo Laredo (Owls of Nuevo Laredo) formally known as the Tecolotes de los Dos Laredos (Owls of the Two Laredos) is a Mexican Baseball League team that plays in the Zona Norte (Northern Division) of the Mexican League. The Ciudad Deportiva is their home Baseball park which has a capacity of 12,000 fans. The Tecolotes returned to Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas for the 2008 season after a 4 years absence in the city when the team was transferred to Tijuana and renamed Potros de Tijuana (Tijuana Colts). The Rieleros from Aguascalientes were transferred to Nuevo Laredo as the Tecolotes de Nuevo Laredo. The Tecolotes were the Mexican League Champions in 1953, 1954, 1958, 1977, and 1989 and were subchampions in 1945, 1955, 1959, 1985, 1987, 1992, 1993.
Parque la Junta (La Junta Park) is baseball field built in 1947 in Nuevo Laredo. The ball park has a capacity of 6,000 people. The stadium was the home to the five-time champion Mexican Baseball League team Tecolotes de los Dos Laredos (The Owls of the Two Laredos) from 1947 to 2003.
The Bravos de Nuevo Laredo is a football club in the Mexican Football League Second Division in Nuevo Laredo. The Unidad Deportiva Benito Juárez (Benito Juárez Sport Complex) is their home stadium. The Bravos are an institution formed in 2004 by a groups of business people in Nuevo Laredo, whose objective is to organize a football team in the city with aspirations it will become a professional football club. This has been the first team to have all of their games transmitted live via internet through www.arcanasa.com up to the end of the 2010 tournament.
The Ciudad Deportiva (Sports City) is a sports complex built in 2007 which main feature is a baseball park in Nuevo Laredo, Mexico. It is home to the Tecolotes de Nuevo Laredo Mexican Baseball League team. The Ciudad Deportiva can seat up to 12,000 fans at a baseball game. Phase one of this project has ben completed which only included the Baseball Park. Phase II of this project will include a new soccer stadium within Mexican Primera Division standards for a possible expansion of one of its teams to Nuevo Laredo. Phase II also includes a gym that will seat 1,500 fans to enjoy basketball, volleyball, and gymnastics among other sports.
The Toros de Nuevo Laredo is a basketball team in Nuevo Laredo, playing in the Mexican professional league Liga Nacional de Baloncesto Profesional (LNBP). The Toros de Nuevo Laredo play in the Ciudad Deportiva Indoor Stadium. They entered the league in 2009 to join the North Conference. Prior to the Toros de Nuevo Laredo, Nuevo Laredo had the Venados de Nuevo Laredo which played on the LNBP for the 2007–2008 season.
The city has a variety of tourist attractions such as:
- Cultural Cultural Center. Opened in 2004, the cultural center has a main theater, experimental theater, natural history museum, Reyes Meza museum, gourmet restaurant, cafeteria, temporary exhibition area, library, book shop, media library, and Uxmal walk where there are pre-Columbian works of art with colossal sculptures of gods and idols of the Mesoamerican cultures.
- Natural history museum. It was opened in 2007, in its permanent museum exposes human skeletons, dinosaur bones and fossils in general that allows to make a chronological history travel of the region, fauna, flora and geography, from the jurassic to our era..
- Jose Reyes Meza Museum. Opened in June 2008 It has the name of a remarkable painter, designer and muralist from Tamaulipas, the museum exposes various plastic works.
- Regional Zoo. It has a wide range of animal species from different ecosystems and from the region, it is located next to the Ecological Park "Viveros" and receives hundreds of visitors daily.
- Word Station Gabriel García Márquez. Dedicated to the writer Gabriel García Márquez, Nobel laureate in literature, this cultural space opened in September 2008 and has an auditorium, exhibition gallery, library, reading rooms, children's room, literary coffee and a book shop.
- The House of Culture. It has the theater "Lucio Blanco", in the house of culture occur cultural events, also there are classes of music, painting, dance and literature.
- Old Customs Building. The building was restored and adapted to serve as a cultural space, with the concert hall "Sergio Pena," the great forum and an exhibitions gallery .
- Longoria bank museum. It was built in 1929 by Don Octavio Longoria, now its lobby is used to exhibit plastic arts and photography.
- Historical Archive. In it lies the documentary and graphic memory of the city, also has temporary exhibitions, consultation area, audiovisual area and the site museum which displays railroad artifacts, photographs and documents of time alluding to the history of the Railroad in Nuevo Laredo.
- Viveros Park. The park has playgrounds, a driver education park, Camécuaro pool, green areas, the regional zoo.
- City Theatre Adolfo Lopez Mateos.
- Market Maclovio Herrera.
- Recreational park El Laguito
There is a fairly large array of night-time entertainment venues. Most establishments (clubs, bars, and restaurants) are located in the historical district. Other restaurants (including chains such as Carl's Jr., Pizza Hut, KFC, and McDonald's) are located along Avenida Vicente Guerrero and Avenida Reforma. Nuevo Laredo has a red light district called Boy's Town, (or "La Zona").
The city has some malls like Paseo Reforma, it was opened in May 2008, this mall has many commercial establishment, like Wal-Mart Super Center, The Home Depot, and Cinépolis. Other shopping centers are, plaza Real, plaza 2 Laredos, plaza commercial La fe.
Online newspapers and media
|El Diario de Nuevo Laredo||Daily||Spanish||Nuevo Laredo||diario.net|
|El Mañana (Nuevo Laredo)||Daily||Spanish||Nuevo Laredo||elmanana.com.mx|
|Laredo Morning Times||Daily||English||Laredo||lmtonline.com|
|Laredo Sun||Online Newspaper||English||Laredo||laredosun.us|
|Primera Hora||Daily||Spanish||Nuevo Laredo||primerahora.com|
|Última Hora||Daily||Spanish||Nuevo Laredo||ultimahora.com|
|Frequency||Callsign||Brand||City of License||Website||Webcast|
|790||XEFE||La Mera Ley||Nuevo Laredo||•||listen live|
|960||XEK||La Grande||Nuevo Laredo||xek.com||listen live|
|1000||XENLT||Radio Formula||Nuevo Laredo||radioformula.com||•|
|1090||XEWL||W-Radio||Nuevo Laredo||wradio.com.mx||listen live|
|1300||KLAR||Radio Poder||Laredo||feypoder.com||listen live|
|1340||XEBK||exa FM||Nuevo Laredo||exafm.com.mx||•|
|1370||XEGNK||Radio Mexicana||Nuevo Laredo||•||listen live|
|1410||XEAS||Ke Buena||Nuevo Laredo||kebuena.com||listen live|
|1550||XENU||La Rancherita||Nuevo Laredo||•||listen live|
Long range AM stations
The following Clear Channel AM stations can be heard in Laredo:
|Frequency||Callsign||Brand||City of License||Website||Webcast|
|680||KKYX||Country Legends 680||San Antonio||kkyx.com||listen live|
|720||KSAH||Norteño 720||San Antonio||•||•|
|740||KTRH||Newsradio 740 KTRH||Houston||ktrh.com||listen live|
|760||KTKR||Ticket 760 AM||San Antonio||ticket760.com||listen live|
|990||XET||La T Grande||Monterrey||•||listen live|
|1030||KCTA||KCTA 1030 AM||Corpus Christi||kctaradio.com||listen live|
|1050||XEG||Ranchera de Monterrey||Monterrey||rancherademonterrey.com||listen live|
|1200||WOAI||News Radio 1200||San Antonio||radio.woai.com||listen live|
|1210||KUBR||Radio Cristiana||San Juan||•||listen live|
|1530||KGBT||La Tremenda 1530||Harlingen||latremenda1530.com||•|
|Frequency||Callsign||Brand||Format||City of License||Website||Webcast|
|88.1||KHOY||Catholic Radio||Religious||Laredo||khoy.org||listen live|
|88.9||XHLDO||Radio Tamaulipas||Public Radio||Nuevo Laredo||tamaulipas.gob||listen live|
|89.9||KBNL||Radio Manantial||Spanish Religious||Laredo||kbnl.com||•|
|91.3||XHNOE||Stereo 91.3 FM||Spanish Contemporary||Nuevo Laredo||xhnoe.com||listen live|
|94.1||XHTLN||Imagen / RMX Laredo||Talk / Contemporary||Nuevo Laredo||rmx.com.mx||listen live|
|94.9||KQUR||The Works||Mainstream Rock||Laredo||949theworks.com||listen live|
|95.7||XHBK||Exa FM||Spanish Contemporary||Nuevo Laredo||•||•|
|96.5||XHTWO||Radio TWO||Norteño/Contemporary||Nuevo Laredo||•||•|
|97.1||XHNLO||Multimedios Radio||Spanish Contemporary||Nuevo Laredo||mmradio.com||listen live|
|98.1||KRRG||Big Buck Country||Country||Laredo||bigbuck98.com||•|
|99.3||XHNK||Digital Ecstasy||Classic Hits||Nuevo Laredo||radiorama.com||listen live|
|100.5||KBDR||La Ley||Tejano||Laredo||laley1005.com||listen live|
|101.5||XHAS||Ke Buena||Norteño||Nuevo Laredo||kebuena.com||listen live|
|102.3||XHMW||Los 40 Principales||Spanish Pop||Nuevo Laredo||radiorama.com||listen live|
|103.3||XHAHU||Radio Nuevo León||Spanish Pop||Anáhuac||•||listen live|
|104.5||NEW||La Más Pesada||Norteño||Nuevo Laredo||•||•|
|104.9||XHNLR||Radio UAT||University Radio||Nuevo Laredo||uat.mx||•|
|106.1||KNEX||Hot 106.1||Urban / Rhythmic Top 40||Laredo||hot1061.com||listen live|
|106.5||NEW||La Tremenda||Norteño||Nuevo Laredo||tremenda.com.mx||•|
|107.3||XHGTS||Digital 107.3||Spanish Pop||Nuevo Laredo||digital1073.com||listen live|
|162.55||WXK26||NOAA Weather Radio||Weather||Laredo||noaa.gov||•|
|Power Hits HD||Classic Rock||powerhitshd.net||listen live||Laredo|
As a border town, Nuevo Laredo is known for its turf war in which drug cartels compete for control of the drug trade into United States. Nuevo Laredo is a lucrative drug corridor because of the large volume of trucks that pass through the area, and the multiple (exploitable) ports of entry.
Nuevo Laredo is the base of Los Zetas, originally the armed wing of the Gulf Cartel; the two organizations separated in early 2010 and have been fighting for the control of the smuggling routes to the United States. As of 2012, Los Zetas are thought to be Mexico's largest criminal organization. Drug violence involving the Sinaloa and Gulf Cartels escalated in 2003, when the city was controlled by the Gulf Cartel. 2012 has seen an unprecedented series of mass murder attacks in the city between the Sinaloa Cartel and Gulf Cartel on one side and Los Zetas on the other.
Notable people from Nuevo Laredo
- Norma Elia Cantú - Postmodernist writer and professor of English
- Mauricio González de la Garza - Journalist, writer and music composer
- Laredo Kid - Masked Professional Wrestler
- Arturo Santos Reyes - Boxer
- Miguel Treviño Morales - current leader of Los Zetas
- Erica Andrews - Actress, and drag performer.
Map of the Laredo-Nuevo Laredo Metropolitan Area
- Link to tables of population data from Census of 2010. INEGI: Instituto Nacional de Estadística Geografía e Informática
- NORMALES CLIMATOLÓGICAS 1951-2010 (in Spanish). National Meteorological Service of Mexico. Retrieved August 30, 2012.
- [dead link]
- teamnafta.com;Nuevo Laredo Industrial Profile
- "Transportation". Ldfonline.org. Retrieved 2012-10-10.
- history of Parque Viveros
- Nuevo Laredo Culture
- El Mañana Article of the Tecolotes de Nuevo Laredo and the newly built Ciudad Deportiva
- World Stadiums
- Bravos de Nuevo Laredo Official Website "La Pagina Brava" (Spanish)
- Tecolotes de Nuevo Laredo Official Website
- Longmire, Sylvia (5 May 2012). "Nuevo Laredo heats up as Sinaloa-Zetas conflict leaves 23 dead.". Mexico's drug war. Retrieved 12 May 2012.
- "Dissecting a Mexican Cartel Bombing in Monterrey". Stratfor. Retrieved 8 December 2011.
- "Zetas are Mexico's 'largest drug gang', study says". BBC News. 25 January 2012. Retrieved 14 May 2012.