Nuku Muhammad Amiruddin

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Nuku Muhammad Amiruddin
Reign 1797–1805
Predecessor Sultan Kamaluddin
Father Sultan Jamaluddin
Born 1738
Soa Siu, Tidore
Died 1805 (aged 66–67)
Ternate

Nuku Muhammad Amiruddin (1738–1805), also known as Prince Nuku or Sultan Nuku,[1] was a sultan of Tidore. He is also a National Hero of Indonesia.

Early life[edit]

Amiruddin was born in Soa Siu, Tidore, in 1738.[2] His father was Sultan Jamaluddin, a ruler of the Sultanate of Tidore, who was arrested and exiled to Batavia by the Dutch colonials in 1776.[3] His younger brother was Kamaluddin.[4][5]

Fighting against the Dutch[edit]

After the exile of his father, the Dutch appointed Kaicil Gay Jira as sultan, who was later replaced by his son, Patra Alam; Amiruddin and Kamaluddin opposed this replacement. Amiruddin then built a kora-kora armada around Seram Island and Papua, indicating Kamaluddin as the true sultan.[4][5]

In 1781, Amiruddin declared that he bore the title "Sri Maha Tuan Sultan Amir Muhammad Saifuddin Syah" ("The Great Overlord Sultan Amir Muhammad Saifuddin, the Shah"). Responding to this, the Dutch attacked and defeated Amiruddin's army; however, Amiruddin was not caught. In 1783, the Dutch attacked Amiruddin's army again. The Dutch commander and most of his men were killed, and the survivors were captured.[6]

In October 1783, the Dutch post on Tidore was attacked by Amiruddin's force, and all the Europeans were killed. This was heating up the rivalry between the kingdom of Ternate and Tidore. In November of the same year, Ternate helped the Dutch attack Tidore. The Dutch then, in December, enforced an agreement and appointed Sultan Hairul Alam Kamaluddin Kaicili Asgar, a prince exiled to Ceylon, as the new puppet sultan.[6]

In 1787, Amiruddin's base in eastern Seram was attacked and seized by the Dutch forces; however, Amiruddin managed to escape. Amiruddin then built a new base in Gorong island. He also entered a friendly relationship with Britain.[5] After receiving some armaments from Britain, Amiruddin's army attacked the Dutch and won the battle.[7] The Dutch then offered Amiruddin a position, if he would negotiate with Sultan Kamaluddin; however, Amiruddin refused the proposition. Instead, he increased the frequency of his attacks against the Dutch, with help from Sultan Kamaluddin's forces.[8] In 1794, Jamaluddin, who had returned, supported Amiruddin's effort. Several rulers of Papua also sided with him. In February 1795, Abdulgafur, Amiruddin's son, led a force to Tidore.[9] In 1796, Amiruddin's forces seized Banda Island. They also took control of Tidore Island on 12 April 1797, after surrounding the island with 79 of Amiruddin's ships and one British ship.[8][9] Sultan Kamaluddin escaped to Ternate Island, and Amiruddin was unanimously elected as the new sultan of Tidore. In 1801, Amiruddin freed Ternate from the Dutch. Amiruddin died in 1805.[8]

Legacy[edit]

Amiruddin was awarded the title National Hero of Indonesia 1995 through Presidential Decree number 071/TK/1995.[10][11]

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ Satrio Widjojo, Muridan (2009). The revolt of Prince Nuku: cross-cultural alliance-making in Maluku, c.1780-1810. BRILL. ISBN 9789004172012. 
  2. ^ Ajisaka 2008, p. 15
  3. ^ Komandoko 2006, p. 239
  4. ^ a b Ajisaka 2008, pp. 15–16
  5. ^ a b c Komandoko 2006, p. 240
  6. ^ a b Ricklefs 2001, p. 77
  7. ^ Komandoko 2006, pp. 240–241
  8. ^ a b c Komandoko 2006, p. 241
  9. ^ a b Sudarmanto 2007, p. 319
  10. ^ Komandoko 2006, p. 242
  11. ^ Ajisaka 2008, p. 16
Bibliography