Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland, BWV 62

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For Bach's 1714 church cantata of this name, see Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland, BWV 61. For Bach's Chorale Preludes of this name, see Great Eighteen Chorale Preludes.
Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland
BWV 62
Chorale cantata by J.S. Bach
Martin Luther by Cranach-restoration.tif
Martin Luther, author of the hymn, in 1533 by Lucas Cranach the Elder
Occasion First Sunday in Advent
Performed 3 December 1724 (1724-12-03) – Leipzig
Movements 6
Cantata text anonymous
Chorale Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland
Vocal SATB choir and solo
Instrumental

Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland (Now come, Savior of the heathens), BWV 62, is a church cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach. He composed the chorale cantata, based on Martin Luther's chorale "Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland", in Leipzig for the first Sunday in Advent and first performed it on 3 December 1724.

History and words[edit]

Bach wrote the cantata in 1724, his second year in Leipzig, for the First Sunday of Advent.[1] The prescribed readings for the Sunday were from the Epistle to the Romans, night is advanced, day will come (Romans 13:11–14), and from the Gospel of Matthew, the Entry into Jerusalem (Matthew 21:1–9). The cantata is based on Martin Luther's chorale in eight stanzas "Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland", the number one hymn to begin the Liturgical year in all Lutheran hymnals.[2] The unknown poet kept the first and last stanza, paraphrased stanzas 2 and 3 to an aria, stanzas 4 and 5 to a recitative, the remaining stanzas to an aria and a duet recitative.

Bach first performed the cantata on 3 December 1724,[1] and he performed it again in 1736, adding a part for violone in all movements, after the Thomasschule had bought an instrument at an auction in 1735.[3] Bach's successor Johann Friedrich Doles performed the cantata after Bach's death.[2]

Scoring and structure[edit]

The cantata is scored for four vocal soloists (soprano, alto, tenor, and bass), a four-part choir, horn only to support the chorale melody, two oboes, two violins, viola, and basso continuo.[1]

  1. Chorale: Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland
  2. Aria (tenor): Bewundert, o Menschen, dies große Geheimnis
  3. Recitative (bass): So geht aus Gottes Herrlichkeit und Thron
  4. Aria: Streite, siege, starker Held!
  5. Recitative (soprano, alto): Wir ehren diese Herrlichkeit
  6. Chorale: Lob sei Gott dem Vater ton

Music[edit]

The old melody of the chorale is in four lines, the last one equal to the first.[4] The instrumental ritornello of the opening chorus already quotes this line, first in the continuo, then slightly different in meter in the oboes.[1][5] Other than these quotes, the orchestra plays a free concerto with the oboes introducing a theme, the first violin playing figuration. The ritornello appears shortened three times to separate the lines of the text and in full at the end.[1] The soprano sings the cantus firmus in long notes, while the lower voices prepare each entry in imitation.[5] Alfred Dürr suggests that Bach was inspired to the festive setting in 6/4 time by the entry into Jerusalem.[1] Christoph Wolff stresses that the instrumentation is simple because Advent was a "season of abstinence".[2] Church music was allowed in Leipzig only on the first Sunday of Advent. John Eliot Gardiner observes about all three extant cantatas for this occasion, also Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland, BWV 61, and Schwingt freudig euch empor, BWV 36, which all deal with Luther's hymn, that they "display a sense of excitement at the onset of the Advent season. This can be traced back both to qualities inherent in the chorale tune itself, and to the central place Bach gives to Luther’s words."[3]

The first aria deals with the mystery of "the Supreme Ruler appears to the world, ... the purity will be entirely unblemished." in Siciliano rhythm and string accompaniment, doubled in tutti-sections by the oboes. In great contrast the second aria stresses fight, "Struggle, conquer, powerful hero!", in a continuo line.[1] In a later version it is doubled by the upper strings.[2] Gardiner regards its "pompous, combative character" as a sketch for the aria "Großer Herr und starker König" (#8) from Part I of Bach's Christmas Oratorio.[3] The duet recitative expresses thanks, "We honor this glory", intimately accompanied by the strings. The closing stanza is a four-part setting.[1]

Selected recordings[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Dürr, Alfred (1981). Die Kantaten von Johann Sebastian Bach (in German) 1 (4 ed.). Deutscher Taschenbuchverlag. pp. 97–100. ISBN 3-423-04080-7. 
  2. ^ a b c d Wolff, Christoph (2002). "Chorale cantatas from the cycle of the Leipzig church cantatas 1724–25" (PDF). bach-cantatas.com. pp. 8–9. Retrieved 21 November 2011. 
  3. ^ a b c Gardiner, John Eliot (2009). "Cantatas for the First Sunday in Advent / St. Maria im Kapitol Cologne" (PDF). bach-cantatas.com. pp. 13–16. Retrieved 30 November 2012. 
  4. ^ Braatz, Thomas; Oron, Aryeh (28 May 2006). "Chorale Melodies used in Bach's Vocal Works / Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland". bach-cantatas.com. Retrieved 26 November 2010. 
  5. ^ a b Mincham, Julian (2010). "Chapter 27 BWV 62 Nun Komm, der Heiden Heiland". jsbachcantatas.com. Retrieved 21 November 2011. 

Sources[edit]

The first source is the score.

Several databases provide additional information on each cantata: