Nuris

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Nuris
Nuris is located in Mandatory Palestine
Nuris
Nuris
Arabic نورِِِس
Also spelled Noori[1]
Subdistrict Jenin
Coordinates 32°32′06.4″N 35°21′48.9″E / 32.535111°N 35.363583°E / 32.535111; 35.363583Coordinates: 32°32′06.4″N 35°21′48.9″E / 32.535111°N 35.363583°E / 32.535111; 35.363583
Population 570[2] (1945)
Area 6256[2] dunams
Date of depopulation May 29–30, 1948[3]
Cause(s) of depopulation Military assault by Yishuv forces
Secondary cause Fear of being caught up in the fighting
Current localities Nurit[4]

Nuris (Arabic: نورِِِس‎) was a Palestinian Arab village in the District of Jenin. In 1945, Nuris had 570 inhabitants. In April 1948, the Palmach planned a raid on armed forces in Nuris, but the village remained untouched until the end of May.[5]

Location[edit]

Nuris was located 9 kilometers (5.6 mi) northeast of Jenin, built on both sides of a shallow wadi. The Haifa-Samakh railway-line passed northeast of the village. It was linked by dirt roads to the villages of Zir'in and Al-Mazar[6]

There were several springs north of Nuris, most importantly 'Ayn Jalut (or Jalud), which was one of the largest springs in Palestine.[6]

History[edit]

Nuris was located in the Jezreel Valley and was referred to by the Crusaders as "Nurith." Nearby, the Mamluks decisively defeated the Mongols in the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260.[6]

In 1596, Nuris was a village in the Ottoman Empire, part of the nahiya (subdistrict) of Jenin under the liwa' (district) of Lajjun, with a population of 88. It paid taxes on a number of products, including wheat, barley, olives, and goats and beehives.[7]

The village was captured and burned by Napoleon's troops, after the Battle of Mount Tabor in 1799.[8] In the early 19th-century, British traveller James Silk Buckingham noted that Nuris was surrounded by olive-trees.[1][6] Buckingham also remarked that there were several other settlements in sight, "all inhabited by Mohammedans."[1] In the late 19th-century, the village was described as being small, situated on rocky ground, much hidden between the hills, about 600 ft (180 m) above a valley.[9] Nuris had an elementary school for boys, which was founded under the Ottomans in 1888, and a mosque.[6]

In 1921, the village reportedly had 38 tenant families, and 224 people out of a total population of 364 (1922 census) cultivated 5,500 dunums out of a village area of 27,018.[10] That year, the Sursock family sold some of the village lands to the Palestine Land Development Company. [11] A group of 35 young Jews began to farm the land, which became the core of Kibbutz Ein Harod. [12]

Some of the villagers of Nuris received monetary compensation and left the village.[10] Those who remained acquired a block of land for a period of six years and were given the opportunity to purchase the land originally leased to them. They paid rental at 6% of the published sale offer on the land, but later, at the request of the farmers in Nuris, this was changed to one-fifth of the total yield in agricultural output of the land.[10] After the original six year lease was up, reports in 1928 showed that no villagers had bought the land leased to them.[10] In 1921 the average farmer cultivated 24 dunums, by 1929 this had drastically reduced to 4.4, although the population grew significantly.[13] In 1931, Nuris had a population of 429 people and a recorded 106 houses were located in the village.[6]

By 1945, Nuris had 570 inhabitants with 163 houses, although the area was much smaller than it had been before 1920, with an area of 6256 dunums. The inhabitants, were mainly employed in cereal farming, although some land was allocated to irrigation and growing olives.[2][6][14]

1948 War and aftermath[edit]

Jezreel Valley

On 19 April 1948, Palmach headquarters ordered the destruction of "enemy bases at Al-Mazar, Nuris and Zir'in".[5] Israeli historian Benny Morris notes that destroying the villages was "part and parcel" of the Haganah operations at this time, however, he also writes that Nuris was not finally depopulated until the end of May.[3][5]

An Israeli moshav, Nurit, was later established on village land, northwest of the village site.[15] Palestinian historian Walid Khalidi described the village in 1992: "The site, overgrown with pine and oak trees, is strewn with piles of stones. Part of the surrounding land is fenced in and is used as a grazing area, while another part is cultivated. Cactuses and olive and fig trees grow near the site."[15]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Buckingham, 1821, p495
  2. ^ a b c Hadawi, 1970, p.55
  3. ^ a b According to Morris, 2004, p. xvii, village #123. Also gives causes of depopulation
  4. ^ According to Morris, 2004, p. xxi, settlement #39, 1948
  5. ^ a b c Morris, 2004, p. 346
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Khalidi, 1992, p. 338
  7. ^ Hütteroth, Wolf-Dieter and Kamal Abdulfattah (1977), Historical Geography of Palestine, Transjordan and Southern Syria in the Late 16th Century. Erlanger Geographische Arbeiten, Sonderband 5. Erlangen, Germany: Vorstand der Fränkischen Geographischen Gesellschaft. p. 161. Quoted in Khalidi, 1992, p. 338
  8. ^ Cline, 2002 p161.
  9. ^ SWP, 1881, Vol. 2, p.86. Also cited in Khalidi, 1992, p. 338
  10. ^ a b c d Stein, 1987, p.56
  11. ^ Healing the Land and the Nation: Malaria and the Zionist Project in Palestine, 1920-1947, Sandra Sufian
  12. ^ The Founding Myths of Israel, Zeev Sternhell
  13. ^ Stein, 1987, p.57
  14. ^ Hadawi, 1970, p.99
  15. ^ a b Khalidi, 1992, p. 339

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]