Nutella

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Not to be confused with Gnutella.
Nutella
Type Spread
Place of origin Italy
Region or state Piedmont
Creator Ferrero SpA
Main ingredients Sugar, palm oil, hazelnuts, cocoa solids, milk powder
Cookbook:Nutella  Nutella

Nutella (Italian pronunciation: [nuˈtɛla]; /nˈtɛlə/), (English pronunciation: /nut'ɛla/); is the brand name of an Italian sweetened hazelnut chocolate spread.[1] Manufactured by the Italian company Ferrero, it was introduced to the market in 1964.

History[edit]

Pietro Ferrero, who owned a bakery in Alba, Piedmont, an area known for the production of hazelnuts, sold an initial batch of 300 kilograms (660 lb) of "Pasta Gianduja" in 1946. This was originally a solid block, but Ferrero started to sell a creamy version in 1951 as "Supercrema".[2]

In 1963, Ferrero's son Michele Ferrero revamped Supercrema with the intention of marketing it throughout Europe. Its composition was modified and it was renamed "Nutella". The first jar of Nutella left the Ferrero factory in Alba on 20 April 1964. The product was an instant success and remains widely popular.[3]

In France, senator Yves Daudigny proposed a tax increase on palm oil from €100 to €400 per metric tonne. At 20%, palm oil is one of Nutella's main ingredients and the tax was dubbed "the Nutella tax" in the media.[4]

World Nutella Day is February 5.[5]

On 14 May 2014, Poste italiane issued a 50th anniversary Nutella commemorative stamp.[6][7] The 70 Euro cent stamp was designed by Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato and features a jar of Nutella on a golden background.[6] Ferrero held a Nutella Day on 17 and 18 May to celebrate the anniversary.[8]

Ingredients[edit]

The main ingredients of Nutella are sugar and palm oil,[9] followed by hazelnut, cocoa solids, and skimmed milk. In the United States, Nutella contains soy products.[10] Nutella is marketed as "hazelnut cream" in many countries. Under Italian law, it cannot be labeled as a chocolate cream, as it does not meet minimum cocoa solids concentration criteria. Ferrero consumes 25% of the global supply of hazelnuts.[11]

An older recipe, Gianduja, was a mixture containing approximately 71.5% hazelnut paste and 19.5% chocolate. It was developed in Piedmont, Italy, after taxes on cocoa beans hindered the manufacture and distribution of conventional chocolate.[12]

Production[edit]

Nutella is produced in various facilities. Production for the North American market is produced at a plant in Brantford, Ontario in Canada.[13]

For Australia and New Zealand, Nutella has been manufactured in Lithgow, New South Wales since the late 1970s.[14]

Two of the four Ferrero plants in Italy produce Nutella, in Alba, Piedmont, and in Sant'Angelo dei Lombardi in Campania.[15] In France, a production facility is located in Villers-Écalles.[16] For Eastern Europe (including Southeast Europe, Poland, Turkey, Czech Republic and Slovakia) and South Africa it is produced in Warsaw and Manisa. For Germany and northern Europe Nutella is produced at the Ferrero plant in Stadtallendorf, which has been in existence since 1956.[17]

Processing[edit]

Nutella, in a jar and spread, along with milk, hazelnuts, and canola flower.

Nutella is a form of a chocolate spread. Therefore, the process of this food item is very similar to a generic production of chocolate spread. Nutella is made from sugar, modified palm oil, hazelnuts, cocoa, skimmed milk powder, whey powder, lecithin, and vanillin.

The process of making chocolate spread begins with the extraction of cocoa powder from the cocoa bean. These cocoa beans are harvested from cocoa trees and are left to dry for about ten days before being shipped for processing.[18] Typically cocoa beans contain approximately 50% of cocoa butter; therefore, they must be roasted to reduce the cocoa bean into a liquid form.[18] This step is not sufficient for turning cocoa bean into chocolate paste because it solidifies at room temperature, and would not be spreadable. After the initial roast, the liquid paste is sent to presses, which are used to squeeze the butter out of the cocoa bean. The final products are round discs of chocolate made of pure compressed cocoa. The cocoa butter is transferred elsewhere so it can be used in other products.

The second process involves the hazelnuts. Once the hazelnuts have arrived at the processing plant, a quality control is issued to inspect the nuts so they are suitable for processing. A guillotine is used to chop the nuts to inspect the interior.[19] After this process the hazelnuts are cleaned and roasted. A second quality control is issued by a computer-controlled blast of air, which removes the bad nuts from the batch.[19] This ensures that each jar of Nutella is uniform in its look and taste. Approximately 50 hazelnuts can be found in each jar of Nutella, as claimed by the company.[20]

The cocoa powder is then mixed with the hazelnuts along with sugar, vanillin, skim milk in a large tank until it becomes a paste-like spread.[21] Modified palm oil is then added to help retain the solid phase of the Nutella at room temperature, which substitutes for the butter found in the cocoa bean.[22] In addition, whey powder is added to the mix because it acts as a binder for the paste. Whey powder is an additive commonly used in spreads to prevent the coagulation of the product because it stabilizes the fat emulsions.[23] Similarly to whey powder lecithin, which is a form of fatty substance found in animal and plant tissues, is used to emulsify as it promotes homogenized mixing of the different ingredients allowing the paste to become spreadable. It also aids the lipophilic properties of the cocoa powder which, again, keeps the product from separating.[20] Vanillin is added to enhance the sweetness of the chocolate. The finished product is then packaged.

Nutrition[edit]

Nutella contains 70% saturated fat and processed sugar by weight. A two-tablespoon (37 gram) serving of Nutella contains 200 calories including 99 calories from 11 grams of fat (3.5g of which are saturated) and 80 calories from 21 grams of sugar. In addition, the spread contains 15 mg of sodium and 2g of protein per serving.[24][25]

Class action lawsuit[edit]

In the United States, Ferrero was sued in a class action for false advertising that led some to believe that Nutella carries nutritional and health benefits, being touted as 'part of a nutritious breakfast'. They agreed to pay $3 million (up to $4 per jar for up to five jars in returns by customers) in an April 2012 settlement. The settlement also required Ferrero to make changes to Nutella's labeling and marketing, including television commercials and their website.[26]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nutella hands £4m job to Krow ahead of relaunch – Brand Republic News. Brandrepublic.com (2007-08-22). Retrieved on 2011-03-18.
  2. ^ Carridice, Adriel. "The History of Nutella (3)". NutellaUSA.com. Retrieved 2013-01-28. 
  3. ^ Carridice, Adriel. "The History of Nutella (2)". NutellaUSA.com. Retrieved 2013-01-28. 
  4. ^ Willsher, Kim (2012-11-12). "France's 'Nutella amendment' causes big fat international row". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 November 2012. 
  5. ^ http://www.nutelladay.com/
  6. ^ a b "Nutella diventa un francobollo" [Nutella becomes a stamp] (in Italian). Yahoo Finance. 14 May 2014. Retrieved 18 May 2014. 
  7. ^ Amabile, Flavia (15 May 2014). "I nostri primi 50 anni con la Nutella" [Our first 50 years with Nutella]. La Stampa (in Italian). Retrieved 18 May 2014. 
  8. ^ "Nutella ha 50 anni, arriva anche un francobollo" [Nutella is 50 years old, a stamp is introduced] (in Italian). Agenzia ANSA Società Cooperativa. 17 May 2014. Retrieved 18 May 2014. 
  9. ^ Nutella – Breakfast for Champions? | Greenpeace International. Greenpeace.org (2008-05-28). Retrieved on 2011-03-18.
  10. ^ "Nutella and Nutrition: Food Pyramid and Guidelines". NutellaUSA.com. Retrieved 2013-01-28. 
  11. ^ Narula, Svati Kirsten. "A frost in Turkey may drive up the price of your Nutella". Quartz (publication). Atlantic Media. Retrieved 14 August 2014. 
  12. ^ Carridice, Adriel. "The History of Nutella (1)". NutellaUSA.com. Retrieved 2013-01-28. 
  13. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". Ferrero Canada Limited. Archived from the original on 2013-11-25. Retrieved 2012-11-26. 
  14. ^ "Ferrero Australia History". Ferrero Australia. Retrieved 2012-11-26. 
  15. ^ "Stabilitmenti". Ferrero Italia SpA. Retrieved 2012-11-26. 
  16. ^ "Où nous trouver". Ferrero France. Retrieved 2012-11-26. 
  17. ^ Die Ferrero Produktion Deutschland
  18. ^ a b http://wanttoknowit.com/how-is-nutella-made/
  19. ^ a b http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1dwbgruOt6g
  20. ^ a b http://www.nutella.com.au
  21. ^ http://wanttoknowit.com/how-is-nutella-made
  22. ^ Palm oil
  23. ^ http://www.milkingredients.ca/index-eng.php?id=194
  24. ^ "Nutella settles lawsuit from angry mom, drops health claims". CTV News. 27 April 2012. Retrieved 2013-08-29. 
  25. ^ "Nutrition Facts and Analysis for Chocolate-flavored hazelnut spread". NutritionaData. Retrieved 2008-11-09. 
  26. ^ Tepper, Rachel (2012-04-26). "Nutella Lawsuit: Ferrero Settles Class-Action Suit Over Health Claims For $3 Million". Huffington Post. Retrieved 27 April 2012. 

Further reading[edit]

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