Nymphaea lotus

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For other uses, see Lotus (disambiguation).
Nymphaea lotus
Nymphaea lotus 1.jpg
Nymphaea lotus1XMATT.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
Order: Nymphaeales
Family: Nymphaeaceae
Genus: Nymphaea
Species: N. lotus
Binomial name
Nymphaea lotus
L.
Subspecies

See text

Synonyms

Nymphaea dentata Schumach.[1]

Nymphaea lotus, the tiger lotus, white lotus or Egyptian white water-lily, is a flowering plant of the family Nymphaeaceae.

Distribution[edit]

It grows in various parts of East Africa and Southeast Asia. Nymphaea lotus f. thermalis is a variety endemic to the thermal water of the Peţa River in the Bihor County, Transylvania, Romania, in Europe.

Cultivation[edit]

It was introduced into western cultivation in 1802 by Loddiges Nursery. Eduard Ortgies crossed Nymphaea lotus (N. dentata) with Nymphaea pubescens (N. rubra) to produce the first Nymphaea hybrid, illustrated in Flore des serres 8 t. 775, 776 under the name Nymphaea ortgiesiano-rubra. It is a popular ornamental aquatic plant in Venezuela.

Description[edit]

This species of water lily has lily pads which float on the water, and blossoms which rise above the water.

It is a perennial, grows to 45 cm in height. The color of the flower is white and sometimes tinged with pink.

Ecology[edit]

Utricularia stellaris around a leaf of Nymphaea lotus, Burkina Faso

It is found in ponds, and prefers clear, warm, still and slightly acidic waters. It can be found in association with other aquatic plant species such as Utricularia stellaris

Uses[edit]

As an aquarium plant[edit]

Nymphaea lotus is often used as a freshwater aquarium plant. Sometimes it is grown for its flowers, while other aquarists prefer to trim the lily pads, and just have the underwater foliage.

The tiger-like variegations appear under intense illumination.

As a symbol[edit]

In ancient times the Egyptian lotus was worshipped, especially in Egypt. It was considered a symbol of creation there. In Ancient Greece, it was a symbol of innocence and modesty.

The Egyptian lotus is the national flower of Egypt. It is depicted on many of the seals of the different Provinces in Thailand. It is also an element of the Coptic flag.

As food[edit]

In some part of Africa the rhizomes and tubers are eaten for the starch they contain either boiled, roasted or ground to a flour after drying. The young fruits are sometimes consumed as a salad. The seeds are turned into a meal.

The tubers or the seeds are used as a famine food in India.[2]

The white lotus in Ancient Egypt[edit]

White lotus decorations. Frieze at a palace in Amarna (1352-1336 BC).

The ancient Egyptians cultivated the white lotus in ponds and marshes.

This flower often appears in ancient Egyptian decorations. They believed that the lotus flower gave them strength and power; remains of the flower have been found in the burial tomb of Ramesses II. Egyptian tomb paintings from around 1500 BC provide some of the earliest physical evidence of ornamental horticulture and landscape design; they depict lotus ponds surrounded by symmetrical rows of acacias and palms. In Egyptian mythology Horus was occasionally shown in art as a naked boy with a finger in his mouth sitting on a lotus with his mother. The lotus was one of the two earliest Egyptian capitals motifs, the topmost members of a column. At that time, the motifs of importance are those based on the lotus and papyrus plants respectively, and these, with the palm tree capital, were the chief types employed by the Egyptians, until under the Ptolemies in the 3rd to 1st centuries BC, various other river plants were also employed, and the conventional lotus capital went through various modifications. Women often wore amulets during childbirth, which depicted Heqet as a frog, sitting in a lotus.

The number 1,000 in ancient Egyptian numerals is represented by the symbol of the white lotus. The related hieroglyph is :

M12

The ancient Egyptians also extracted perfume from this flower. They also used the white lotus in funerary garlands, temple offerings and female adornment.

The white lotus is a candidate for the plant eaten by the Lotophagi of Homer's Odyssey.

Health effects[edit]

Though the plant contains a quinolizidine alkaloid, nupharin, and related chemicals, either described according to sources as poisonous, intoxicating or without effects, it seems to be consumed since Antiquity. The effects of the alkaloids would be those of a psychedelic aphrodisiac, though these effects are more those encountered in Nymphaea caerulea, the blue Egyptian water lily.

Chemistry[edit]

The chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol extracts of the leaf shows the presence of phenolic compounds (flavonoids, coumarins and tannins), sterols and alkaloids.[3]

Other compounds include myricitrin, myricetin 3-(6''-p-coumaroylglucoside), myricetin-3'-O-(6"-p-coumaroyl)glucoside and two epimeric macrocyclic derivatives, nympholide A and B,[4] myricetin-3-O-rhamnoside and penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose.[5]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ John H. Wiersema. "Nymphaea dentata information from NPGS/GRIN". Ars-grin.gov. Retrieved 2013-11-24. 
  2. ^ F.R. Irvine and R.S. Trickett (1953). "Waterlilies as Food". Kew Bulletin 8 (3): 363–370. doi:10.2307/4115519. JSTOR 4115519. 
  3. ^ Kabran Guy Roger, Ambeu N’ta Christelle, Mamyrbékova-Békro Janat Akhanovna and Békro Yves-Alain (2011). "CCM D’extraits Selectifs de 10 Plantes Utilisees Dans le Traitement Traditionnel du Cancer du Sein en Côte d’Ivoire". European Journal of Scientific Research (in French) 63 (4): 592–603. 
  4. ^ Elegami, AA; Bates, C; Gray, AI; MacKay, SP; Skellern, GG; Waigh, RD (2003). "Two very unusual macrocyclic flavonoids from the water lily Nymphaea lotus". Phytochemistry 63 (6): 727–31. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(03)00238-3. PMID 12842147. 
  5. ^ Nymphaea lotus at knapsack_jsp