Nymphaea odorata

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Fragrant Water Lily
White Flower.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
Order: Nymphaeales
Family: Nymphaeaceae
Genus: Nymphaea
Species: N. odorata
Binomial name
Nymphea odorata
Aiton

Nymphaea odorata, also known as the Fragrant Water Lily and Beaver Root, is an aquatic plant belonging to the genus Nymphaea. It can commonly be found in shallow lakes, ponds, and permanent slow moving waters throughout North America where it ranges from Central America to northern Canada.[1][2][3][4] It is also reported from Brazil and Guyana.[5][6] Known as Shapla [শাপলা], it is the national flower of Bangladesh where it is a native plant.

[File:Nymphaea odorata 12032012.jpg|thumb|A cultivated Nymphaea odorata]]

Description[edit]

This plant is rooted from a branched rhizomes which gives rise to long petioles which terminate in smooth floating leaves. Since the leaves are subject to tearing by water and waves, they are round with a waxy upper coating that is water-repellent.[7] The flowers also float. They are radially symmetric with prominent yellow stamens and many white petals. The flowers open each day and close again each night and are very fragrant. Once the flowers are pollinated, the developing fruit is pulled back under water for maturation.[8]

Plant systematists often use it as a typical member of Nymphaeaceae, which (other than Amborella) is the most basal of the flowering plants.[9]

It is cultivated in aquatic gardens as an ornamental plant. It is invasive and weedy on the west coast of North America.

Edible and medicinal parts[edit]

The Fragrant Water-Lily has both medicinal and edible parts. The seeds, leaves, flowers and rhizomes can all be eaten. The rhizomes were also used by first nations to treat coughs and colds. The stem could be used to treat tooth aches if placed directly on the tooth.[10]

Subspecies[edit]

Chemistry[edit]

The lignans nymphaeoside A and icariside E, and the flavonols kaempferol 3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranoside (afzelin), quercetin 3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranoside (quercitrin), myricetin 3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranoside (myricitrin), quercetin 3-O-(6'-O-acetyl)-beta-d-galactopyranoside, myricetin 3-O-beta-d-galactopyranoside and myricetin 3-O-(6'-O-acetyl)-beta-d-galactopyranoside can be found in N. odorata.[11]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Stevens, W. D., C. Ulloa Ulloa, A. Pool & O. M. Montiel. 2001. Flora de Nicaragua. Monographs in systematic botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i–xlii
  2. ^ CONABIO. 2009. Catálogo taxonómico de especies de México. 1. In Capital Nat. México. CONABIO, Mexico City
  3. ^ Scoggan, H. J. 1978. Dicotyledoneae (Saururaceae to Violaceae). 3: 547–1115. In Flora of Canada. National Museums of Canada, Ottawa.
  4. ^ Godfrey, R. K. & J. W. Wooten. 1981. Aquatic and Wetland Plants of Southeastern United States Dicotyledons 1–944. Univ. Georgia Press, Athens
  5. ^ Funk, V. A., P. E. Berry, S. Alexander, T. H. Hollowell & C. L. Kelloff. 2007. Checklist of the Plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 55: 1–584
  6. ^ Forzza, R. C. 2010. Lista de espécies Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010. Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro
  7. ^ Sculthorpe, C. D. (1967). The Biology of Aquatic Vascular Plants. Reprinted 1985 Edward Arnold, by London.
  8. ^ Keddy, P.A. 2010. Wetland Ecology: Principles and Conservation (2nd edition). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. 497 p.
  9. ^ Judd, W. S., C. S. Campbell, E.A. Kellogg, P. F. Stevens, and M. J. Donoghue. 2002. Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach. 2nd edn. Sunderland: Sinauer.
  10. ^ Arnason, J. T., Hamersley Chambers, F., Karst, A., Kershaw, L., Mackinnon, A., Owen, P. 2009. Edible & medicinal plants of Canada. Edmonton, AB: Lone Pine Publishing
  11. ^ Zhang, Z; Elsohly, HN; Li, XC; Khan, SI; Broedel Jr, SE; Raulli, RE; Cihlar, RL; Burandt, C; Walker, LA (2003). "Phenolic compounds from Nymphaea odorata". Journal of natural products 66 (4): 548–50. doi:10.1021/np020442j. PMID 12713413. 

External links[edit]