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Ó Catháin was the name of a significant clann in Ulster, a province of Ireland. The surname has been anglicised O'Cahan, Cahan, McCaughan, O'Kane, Kane, O'Keane, O'Kean, O'Keene, Keen, Keene, Kain, O'Kaine, and similar variations thereof. They are descended from Eógan, son of Niall of the Nine Hostages. In the late Middle Ages, they were the primary sept under the Ó Néill clann of Ulster, holding the privilege of inaugurating the Chief of the Ó Néill by tossing a shoe over the new Chief's head in acceptance of his rule. They were barons[citation needed] of Cianacht and Coleraine in Ulster under the Ó Néill, ruling from Dungiven Castle in Dungiven, which is 14 km from Limavady. There was a large Ó Catháin castle in Limavady thought to be the chief residence of the clann, which has fallen into ruin, and it is situated in the Roe Valley Country Park just outside Limavady town.

There is much historical evidence of the clann's ancient Ulster roots. These include Dungiven Priory which is reputed[who?] to be the tomb of Cú Maige na nGall ("Cooey-na-Gall") Ó Catháin, who died in 1385. Cú Maige na nGall means "Terror of the foreigner", so the fact that he is lying here rather than stalking the valley is a great relief to the average tourist.

Toirdhealbhach Ó Catháin owned Dunseverick castle in medieval times,[citation needed] after participating in the First Crusade.[citation needed] Dunseverick was a 'key' ancient site in Ireland and one of the royal roads from Tara, seat of the Kings of Ireland, ended here.[citation needed]

Ruaidri Dáll Ó Catháin, an Irish harpist of the 17th century most famous as the composer of Tabhair dom do lámh, may have penned the popular Irish tune the "Derry Air", in order to lament the destruction of Ó Catháin power.[citation needed] Consequently, it may have been originally called "Ó Catháin's Lament".[citation needed] The tune is best known as the accompaniment to the song "Danny Boy".

The Ó Catháin's long battle with the English crown ended in the early 17th century. With that defeat, its lands were contributed to the Derry plantation, during the Plantation of Ulster, as the County Coleraine, and now form the bulk of today's County Londonderry. After the Flight of the Earls in 1607, Domhnall Ballagh Ó Catháin, Chief of the Ó Catháin (and at one time knighted by the English Crown), was captured and sent to the Tower of London, where he died in 1626. There has been no Chief since.

In 2001, Lt. Col. (USAR-Ret.) Leonard M. Keane, Jr., of Massachusetts, submitted his application to the Standing Council of Irish Chiefs and Chieftains, claiming to be a descendant of Seán Ó Catháin, The Ó Catháin (d. 1498), great great grandfather of Domhnall Ballagh, but no action has been taken. The Genealogical Office has received no formal application from Keane. In any event, the Irish government ceased recognition of Chiefs of the Name in 2003 and the Standing Council has admitted no new members.

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