O. J. Simpson robbery case

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This article is about the 2007-2008 investigation and conviction for armed robbery in Las Vegas, Nevada. For the 1995 murder trial in Los Angeles, California, see O. J. Simpson murder case.

The O. J. Simpson robbery case (State of Nevada v. Orenthal James Simpson, et al.) was a criminal case prosecuted in 2007–2008 in the U.S. state of Nevada, primarily involving the retired American football player O. J. Simpson.

On the night of September 13, 2007, a group of men led by Simpson entered a room in the Palace Station hotel in Las Vegas, Nevada. Bruce Fromong, a sports memorabilia dealer, testified that the group of men broke into his hotel room and stole various sports memorabilia at gunpoint.[1] Three days later, on September 16, 2007, Simpson was arrested for his involvement in the robbery and held without bail.[2] He admitted taking the items, which he said had been stolen from him, but denied breaking into the room. Simpson also denied the allegation that he or the people with him carried weapons.[3][4]

On October 3, 2008—exactly 13 years to the day after he was acquitted of the murders of his wife, Nicole Brown, and Ronald Goldman—Simpson was found guilty of all ten charges. On December 5, 2008, Simpson was sentenced to 33 years in prison with eligibility for parole in nine years. He is currently incarcerated at the Lovelock Correctional Center in Lovelock, Nevada.[5]

Participants[edit]

O.J. Simpson's gang:

  • O.J. Simpson: Sentenced to prison for 9 to 33 years.
  • Walter Alexander: accomplice of Simpson. Brought a gun into the room. Sentenced to probation.[6]
  • Clarence "C.J." Stewart: accomplice of Simpson. Drove the Lincoln Navigator getaway car. Stood by Simpson during the trial and did not negotiate a plea deal. Judge Jackie Glass sentenced Clarence Stewart, the only Simpson cohort who didn't negotiate a plea deal, to at least 7 1/2 years in prison.[6]
  • Charles Cashmore: accomplice of Simpson. Introduced himself as friend of Stewart. Carried items out the room. First met Simpson on the day of the robbery. Sentenced to probation.[6]
  • Charles Ehrlich: accomplice of Simpson. Friend of Simpson from South Florida. Pretended to be a buyer who would first check out the goods. Sentenced to probation.[6]
  • Tom Scotto: friend of Simpson who might have been an accomplice but had a timing conflict. Met Simpson in Los Angeles. Was not present at the robbery and had no involvement.
  • Michael McClinton: accomplice of Simpson. Acquaintance of Alexander and Stewart. Brought a gun into the room. Sentenced to probation. Also made an audio recording of events that was later used at trial. In the room, McClinton pulled out a .45-caliber Ruger and barked orders at the dealers, as Simpson reportedly told him to do. Afterward, McClinton secretly taped Simpson asking whether he pulled out "the piece" in the hallway. The men, who were at a sushi restaurant, are heard on the tape laughing about the six-minute encounter.[6]

Man who set up the event:

  • Thomas Riccio: auction owner and convicted felon[7] who informed Simpson about the stolen goods and subsequently taped the whole event on a recorder. Riccio sold the tape for $150,000 to TMZ.com.[8] Riccio also testified that he was paid an additional $60,000 by television stations for appearances. Riccio was given total immunity for his testimony[9] by Clark County District Attorney David Roger after a negotiation with Riccio's attorney Stanley Lieber.[10]

Alleged memorabilia thieves:

  • Bruce Fromong: memorabilia dealer, later convicted of shoplifting.[11][12]
  • Alfred Beardsley: memorabilia dealer, and convicted felon.[13]

Simpson's attorneys[edit]

  • Yale Galanter - Attorney who previous to the robbery incident represented Simpson in Florida. According to Simpson, Galanter encouraged Simpson to go and retrieve his personal items. Galanter was with Simpson in Las Vegas prior to the robbery incident. The former star athlete said Galanter told him during a dinner discussion in Las Vegas: "you have the right to get your stuff" but cautioned he could not trespass on private property. Simpson said he told Galanter that if the suit he wore during his sensational 1990s murder trial was included among the memorabilia he planned to burn it, and Galanter responded: "You're not going to burn it, you're going to bring it to me."[14] In Simpson's testimony, Simpson states he gave the property stolen in Las Vegas to Galanter.[15] Simpson testified that he paid Galanter $125,000 to make a video montage for the appeal, but no video montage was ever made.[16] It has been questioned whether Galanter was incompetent and had a conflict of interest.[17]
  • Gabriel Grasso - Galanter’s former friend and co-counsel, said the lawyer complained during the case he didn’t have money to hire investigators or an expert to analyze a critical audio recording from the night of the bungled heist.[17]

Investigation and trial[edit]

Investigators initially named Simpson a suspect, but questioned him the next day and released him soon after. On September 15, one of the accomplices, Walter Alexander, was arrested and charged with two counts of robbery with a deadly weapon, one count of conspiracy to commit robbery with a deadly weapon, two counts of assault with a deadly weapon, and one count of burglary with a deadly weapon. Alexander was on his way to McCarran International Airport when he was approached by the police. Earlier in the day, two guns were recovered when the police executed a warrant at one of the men's homes.

On September 16, Simpson was arrested by Clark County, Nevada, authorities.[18] The celebrity gossip website TMZ.com published an audio recording of the incident which indicated Simpson and others shouted at the occupants of the room and demanded the return of various items.[19] On the audiotape, recorded by Thomas Riccio, Simpson is heard saying: "Don't let nobody out of this room. Motherfucker, you think you can steal my shit and sell it?"[20] FBI expert witness claimed that the tapes had "over-recordings" and "might" have been altered.[8] Riccio reportedly said he tipped off Simpson to go to the hotel to look for his goods, and he reportedly said he deliberately planted the recording device to prove to Simpson that Beardsley and Fromong were fencing his stuff. Riccio considers Simpson a friend and brought Simpson to the room and escorted him and the memorabilia out.[21]

The day after the incident, Simpson brushed off the allegations saying "I'm O.J. Simpson. How am I going to think that I'm going to rob somebody and get away with it? Besides, I thought what happens in Las Vegas stays in Las Vegas.[22] ...[and] I just wanted to get my stuff back."[citation needed] When asked why he did not seek police help instead of acting on his own, Simpson said "I hope the police are trying to find out the truth rather than just building a case."[21][23]

In an interview, Walter Alexander said he thought the whole ordeal was a setup to get Simpson. He doesn't "understand what the big deal is" or why Riccio would set this whole operation up, tape it and then sell the tape to the media.[24] Alexander's ex-wife gave an interview to the New York Times in which she says many people carry tape recorders with them around Simpson to try and catch him slipping so they can profit from it. The amount of money TMZ paid for the tape has not been disclosed.[25][26] During police questioning Alexander said Simpson asked for guns to be carried to look tough but that the guns would not be used. He also added that McClinton impersonated a police officer and acted too rough to the surprise of the others including Simpson. He claims Simpson repeatedly told McClinton to "calm down, calm down."[27]

Simpson appeared in court on September 19, 2007. Represented by attorneys from Florida and Nevada, Simpson was granted a bail of $125,000. Presiding Justice of the Peace Joe M. Bonaventure Jr. stated that Simpson was not allowed to have any contact with any of the co-defendants and that he must surrender his passport. Simpson did not enter a plea.[28][29] Both defendants, Clarence Stewart and O.J. Simpson, were charged with:

  • Count 1: Conspiracy to Commit a Crime
  • Count 2: Conspiracy to Commit Kidnapping
  • Count 3: Conspiracy to Commit Robbery
  • Count 4: Burglary while in Possession of a Deadly Weapon
  • Count 5: 1st Degree Kidnapping with Use of a Deadly Weapon (for Bruce Fromong)
  • Count 6: 1st Degree Kidnapping with Use of a Deadly Weapon (for Alfred Beardsley)
  • Count 7: Robbery with Use of a Deadly Weapon (for Bruce Fromong)
  • Count 8: Robbery with Use of a Deadly Weapon (for Alfred Beardsley)
  • Count 9: Assault with a Deadly Weapon (for Bruce Fromong)
  • Count 10: Assault with a Deadly Weapon (for Alfred Beardsley)

The trial began on September 8, 2008 in the court of Nevada District Court Judge Jackie Glass, and attended by an all-white jury,[30] in stark contrast to Simpson's earlier murder trial.[31] On October 3, 2008, Simpson was found guilty of all charges. On October 10, 2008, Simpson's attorneys, Yale Galanter and Gabriel Grasso, PC moved for new trial (trial de novo) on grounds of judicial errors (two jurors of the same race as Simpson were dismissed) and insufficient evidence. Simpson’s co-defendant, Clarence "C.J." Stewart's attorney, E.Brent Bryson also petitioned for new trial, alleging Stewart should have been tried separately, and cited perceived misconduct by the jury foreman, Paul Connelly. Galanter and Stewart later appealed to the Nevada Supreme Court after Judge Glass denied their motions, and the defendants were found guilty. In October 2010, the Nevada Supreme Court affirmed Simpson's convictions while Stewart's appeal was accepted.[32] Stewart was released in January 2011 after entering an Alford plea and being sentenced to 9 months house arrest and 3 years probation.[citation needed] Galanter motioned for a rehearing of the Simpson appeal in November 2010, which was denied by the Nevada Supreme Court in February 2011.[citation needed]

Simpson was sentenced on December 5, 2008. The judge ordered eight of the ten counts to run concurrently, with a maximum sentence of 33 years (until 2041) with parole possible after nine years in 2017 when Simpson becomes eligible at age 70. Simpson is incarcerated in the Lovelock Correctional Center.[33][34]

Audio tape[edit]

An audio tape recorded by Riccio, which was later sold to TMZ.com, was central to the trial and conviction. FBI audio examiner Kenneth Marr testified that he was not able to determine whether or not the files were altered. He said he found areas of over-recording on the device that he said "might" mean the audio files had been manipulated. Alfred Beardsley stated that he told District Attorney David Roger and another official that the audio had been doctored. “There’s a whole section (missing) … and I talked to you directly about that”.[8]

Motion for retrial[edit]

Simpson, represented by attorney Patricia Palm, filed a motion for retrial.[35] In May 2013 the motion was heard, the week-long hearing included witnesses and Simpson testifying. Simpson was represented at the hearing by Palm, now joined by attorneys Ozzie Fumo and Thomas Pitaro.[36] Simpson's main argument was ineffective assistance of counsel. Simpson alleged his counsel Yale Galanter did not tell him about alleged plea-bargain offers that would have resulted in substantially shorter sentences. Grasso testified that it was Galanter's decision not to have Simpson testify.[37]

On May 17, 2013, Yale Galanter testified. He stated that Simpson had confided to him that guns were brought to the hotel room, and admitted to Galanter that he messed up in doing that.[38] Galanter made this statement after he was reminded that Simpson waived attorney client privilege, enabling his former attorney to testify.[39] Galanter was photographed by Associated Press laughing about Simpson's arguments on the witness stand.[40]

Galanter confirmed that the night before the robbery he was dining at a restaurant with Simpson and a group of people. Galanter testified that Simpson casually mentioned his intent to retrieve "his stuff," in what Simpson called a sting. Galanter testified that he asked Simpson "what are you doing?" to which Galanter advised against it and told Simpson "call the police." Galanter testified: "Mr. Simpson never told me he was going to go to the Palace (Station) hotel with a bunch of thugs, kidnap people and take property by force. To insinuate I, as a lawyer and officer of the court, would have blessed it is insane."[41] Galanter did accept that Simpson's conviction was Galanter's responsibility. He liked OJ and fought hard to win the case, but he lost the case and will always have to live with that.[42]

In regards to plea offers, Galanter testified his practice is to always communicate plea offers to the client. He denied that Simpson didn't know about plea offers. Galanter testified that during trial he informed Simpson that prosecutors were offering a plea with a 2–5 years prison time. Simpson instructed Galanter to go back to the DA with a counter-offer of one year, which the DA immediately refused; the trial proceeded with no further offers or counters.[43]

Timeline[edit]

  • September 13, 2007 – Simpson and a group of men at a wedding party enter a room at the Palace Station hotel to retrieve sports memorabilia they claim was stolen. This is the same day that Simpson's book about his ex-wife's and Ron Goldman's murder is published.
  • September 14, 2007 – Simpson is questioned and released.
  • September 16, 2007 – Simpson is arrested and charged with six felony counts as well and is held in solitary confinement without bail.
  • September 17, 2007 – A hearing to determine bail is set for 7:45 am Wednesday before Clark County, Nevada Judge Ann Zimmerman. A third suspect, Clarence Stewart, is arrested and charged with six felony counts similar to Walter Alexander.[44]
  • September 18, 2007 – Several additional charges such as first degree kidnapping and conspiracy kidnapping are filed against Simpson and the others. District Attorney filing. Bruce Fromong has a major heart attack and is in critical condition.[20] Thomas Riccio who set up and recorded the encounter is given immunity by the District Attorney and will be a witness for the prosecution.[45]
  • September 19, 2007 – Simpson is released on $125,000 bail. A hearing is set for October 22, 2007.
  • October 15, 2007 – One of the accomplices Charles Cashmore agrees to plead guilty to a lesser offense and testify against Simpson.[46] Walter Alexander will testify against Simpson as well and is allowed to plead guilty to a reduced charge.
  • October 17, 2007 – In his plea statement, Alexander says bringing guns to the room was Simpson's idea to look tough "and act like we mean business".[27]
  • November 8, 2007 – Simpson attends a preliminary hearing to determine whether he should be tried for the charges.[47]
  • November 14, 2007 – Justice of the Peace Joe M. Bonaventure Jr. announces that Simpson will stand trial for twelve charges, including kidnapping, armed robbery, and other felony charges. The trial is first set for April 7, 2008.[48]
  • May 23, 2008 – Court officers and attorneys announce on May 22, 2008, that long questionnaires with at least 115 queries will be given to a jury pool of 400 or more. Prosecutors and defense counsels disagree on at least three questions, and Clark County District Court Judge Jackie Glass schedule arguments on the June 20 hearing on pretrial motions.[49]
  • September 8, 2008 – Jury selection begins.[50]
  • September 10, 2008 – Blogger J.Son Dinant disrupts pre-trial hearings when he accidentally talks to potential jurors.[51][52]
  • September 15, 2008 – Trial begins.[50]
  • November 7, 2008 – Simpson's motion for a new trial is denied.[58]
  • December 5, 2008 – Simpson and Clarence Stewart were sentenced in Las Vegas, Nevada. Both will serve their sentences at the Lovelock Correctional Center in Lovelock, Nevada.[59][60] Simpson was sentenced to a minimum of 9 years in prison (after which he would be eligible for parole) and a maximum of 33 years.[61] The state was seeking a minimum of 18 years in pre-sentencing report.
  • May 5, 2009 – Simpson appeals his conviction to the Nevada Supreme Court.[62]
  • August 3, 2009 – A three-judge panel of the Nevada Supreme Court grants a rare "after-the-fact" bail hearing.[63]
  • October 22, 2010 – The Nevada Supreme Court affirms Simpson's convictions.[32]
  • May 13, 2013 - Simpson testified in a Clark County District Court asking the Judge to grant him a new trial. Simpson's main theory was "ineffective assistance of counsel," that trial and appeal counsel Yale Galanter mishandled his case. As of May 30, 2013, the Judge has yet to rule on the retrial motion.[64]
  • July 31, 2013 - Simpson granted parole on the armed robbery convictions by the Nevada parole board, however, Simpson still must serve at least four more years unless he is granted a new trial on his latest appeal attempt.[65]
  • November 26, 2013: Simpson's request for a retrial (as stated above, Simpson and his current defense team believe his previous defense attorneys had made errors in his trial serious enough to apply for retrial) is refused by Clark County District Court Judge Linda Marie Bell. He remains in a Nevada state prison and is still eligible for parole in about four years, at age 70, in the second half of 2017, unless he receives a sentence reduction through other means.[66]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "O.J. part of 'military-style invasion' of hotel room, witness says". CNN. November 8, 2007. Retrieved May 20, 2010. 
  2. ^ "O.J. Simpson held without bail - Crime & courts". MSNBC. September 17, 2007. Retrieved June 4, 2010. 
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  4. ^ "O.J. Simpson a Suspect in Casino 'Armed Robbery'". FOX News. September 14, 2007. Retrieved September 19, 2007. 
  5. ^ "O.J. Simpson sentenced to at least nine years in prison". The Sports Network. December 5, 2008. Retrieved December 5, 2008. 
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  7. ^ Neal Colgrass (Dec 12, 2008). "The Felon Behind O.J.'s Bust Meet Thomas Riccio: Arsonist, prison escapee, stolen goods dealer". TSG. Retrieved Sep 18, 2007. 
  8. ^ a b c Melissa Arseniuk (Sep 25, 2008). "Witness: Recording of O.J. Simpson raid ‘work of art’- Memorabilia dealer has issues with audio recording of events". Associated Press. Retrieved August 26, 2011. 
  9. ^ CNN Transcript. "Larry King Live Interview with Thomas Riccio". CNN. Retrieved 6 December 2013. 
  10. ^ Lieber, Stanley. "Stanley Lieber". Retrieved 17 March 2014. 
  11. ^ Ashley Powers (February 11, 2012). "Victim of O.J. Simpson Vegas robbery accused of shoplifting". Associated Press. Retrieved August 26, 2011. 
  12. ^ AP (March 12, 2012). "OJ Simpson Robbery Victim Fined in Shoplifting Case". Associated Press. Retrieved August 26, 2011. 
  13. ^ Neal Colgrass (Dec 12, 2008). "OJ Bribed Witness to Alter Testimony: Investigator". Associated Press. Retrieved August 26, 2011. 
  14. ^ By Timothy Pratt (May 15, 2013). "O.J. Simpson takes witness stand in bid for new robbery trial". Associated Press. Retrieved August 26, 2011. 
  15. ^ thecount (May 15, 2013). "Youtube: OJ SIMPSON ON THE STAND 5.15.13 PT. 8". Associated Press. Retrieved August 26, 2011. 
  16. ^ thecount (May 15, 2013). "Youtube: OJ SIMPSON ON THE STAND 5.15.13 PT. 9". Associated Press. Retrieved August 26, 2011. 
  17. ^ a b By Stephen Rex Brown (May 14, 2013). "O.J. Simpson retrial centers around whether his lawyer Yale Galanter is incompetent". Associated Press. Retrieved August 26, 2011. 
  18. ^ Ryan Nakashima (September 17, 2007). "Apparent tape released of O.J. in Vegas". Associated Press. Retrieved August 26, 2011. 
  19. ^ "O.J.'s Alleged Robbery – Caught on Tape!". TMZ.com. September 17, 2007. Retrieved September 19, 2007. 
  20. ^ a b CNN.com, "Simpson could be charged 'in next few days'", September 17, 2007.
  21. ^ a b Miguel Bustillo, Ashley Powers and Scott Glover (September 18, 2007). "Recording amplifies the drama". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on November 6, 2007. Retrieved August 26, 2011. 
  22. ^ Scott Glover (September 16, 2007). "O.J. on Las Vegas hotel incident: 'I've done nothing wrong'". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on August 18, 2007. Retrieved August 26, 2011. 
  23. ^ Ryan Nakashima. "Simpson getting no celebrity breaks". Associated Press. Archived from the original on September 18, 2007. Retrieved August 26, 2011. 
  24. ^ Ken Ritter. "New Charges Filed in O.J. Simpson Case". Associated Press. Archived from the original on October 26, 2007. Retrieved August 26, 2011. 
  25. ^ Friess, Steve (September 18, 2007). "The O.J. Tape: More Than Luck?". The New York Times. Retrieved May 20, 2010. 
  26. ^ Friess, Steve (September 18, 2007). "As Simpson Awaits Bail Hearing, Audio of Events Is Posted". The New York Times. Retrieved May 20, 2010. 
  27. ^ a b . CNN http://www.cnn.com/2007/US/law/10/17/oj.codefendant.ap/index.html.  Missing or empty |title= (help)[dead link]
  28. ^ "Judge sets $125K bail for O.J. Simpson". Houston Chronicle. September 19, 2007. Retrieved September 19, 2007. [dead link]
  29. ^ "Simpson's Bail Set at $125,000". Forbes. September 19, 2007. Archived from the original on October 12, 2007. Retrieved September 19, 2007. 
  30. ^ All-white jury seated in OJ Simpson's Las Vegas trial - NY Daily News, September 11, 2008
  31. ^ "O.J. Simpson's trial postponed until September". Reuters. March 9, 2008. Retrieved June 4, 2010. 
  32. ^ a b Martinez, Michael (October 22, 2010). "O.J. Simpson loses appeal in Las Vegas armed robbery trial". CNN. Retrieved October 22, 2010. 
  33. ^ Friess, Steve (October 4, 2008). O.J. Simpson convicted of robbery and kidnapping International Herald Tribune.
  34. ^ Powers, Ashley; Ryan, Harriet (December 6, 2008). "O.J. Simpson sentenced to lengthy prison term". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 4, 2010. 
  35. ^ New Effort to Free OJ from Nevada Prison, USA Today, May 15, 2012, Las Vegas AP
  36. ^ Simpson Will Wait Two to Four Weeks in Effort to Gain Retrial, May 17, 2013, Las Vegas Review Journal, author: FRANCIS MCCABE and CARRI GEER THEVENOT; Convicted OJ Simpson Eager to Testify on Need for New Trial, May 14, 2013 Las Vegas Review Journal, authors: FRANCIS MCCABE and CARRI GEER THEVENOT
  37. ^ By LINDA DEUTSCH and KEN RITTER (05/14/13 09:21 PM ET EDT). "OJ Simpson Arrives In Shackles At Court Hearing". Associated Press. Retrieved August 26, 2011. 
  38. ^ By AP (May 17, 2013). Simpson's ex-lawyer Yale Galanter says O.J. knew about the guns http://www.latimes.com/news/nation/nationnow/la-na-nn-yale-galanter-oj-simpson-guns-20130517,0,1192062.story. Retrieved August 26, 2011.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  39. ^ By AP (May 17, 2013). Simpson's ex-lawyer Yale Galanter says O.J. knew about the guns http://www.latimes.com/news/nation/nationnow/la-na-nn-yale-galanter-oj-simpson-guns-20130517,0,1192062.story. Retrieved August 26, 2011.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  40. ^ By AP (May 17, 2013). Simpson's ex-lawyer Yale Galanter says O.J. knew about the guns http://www.latimes.com/news/nation/nationnow/la-na-nn-yale-galanter-oj-simpson-guns-20130517,0,1192062.story. Retrieved August 26, 2011.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  41. ^ By LINDA DEUTSCH and KEN RITTER (May 17, 2013). OJ Simpson Trial: Yale Galanter, Former OJ Attorney, Testifies In Las Vegas Hearing http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/05/17/oj-simpson-trial-yale-galanter_n_3291618.html. Retrieved August 26, 2011.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  42. ^ By LINDA DEUTSCH and KEN RITTER (May 17, 2013). OJ Simpson Trial: Yale Galanter, Former OJ Attorney, Testifies In Las Vegas Hearing http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/05/17/oj-simpson-trial-yale-galanter_n_3291618.html. Retrieved August 26, 2011.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  43. ^ By LINDA DEUTSCH and KEN RITTER (May 17, 2013). OJ Simpson Trial: Yale Galanter, Former OJ Attorney, Testifies In Las Vegas Hearing http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/05/17/oj-simpson-trial-yale-galanter_n_3291618.html. Retrieved August 26, 2011.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  44. ^ "Goldman goes after O.J. Simpson memorabilia". Houston Chronicle. September 18, 2007. Retrieved June 4, 2010. 
  45. ^ "Prosecutors charge O.J. Simpson and three others". CNN. September 18, 2007. Retrieved May 20, 2010. 
  46. ^ . CNN http://www.cnn.com/2007/US/law/10/15/oj.simpson/index.html.  Missing or empty |title= (help)[dead link]
  47. ^ O.J. Simpson returns to court. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 8, 2007.[dead link]
  48. ^ "O.J. Simpson pleads not guilty to 12 felony charges". CNN. November 28, 2007. [dead link]
  49. ^ Afp.google.com, 400 jurors could be screened for O.J. Simpson trial[dead link]
  50. ^ a b "Timeline of major events in OJ Simpson cases", The Associated Press, 'International Herald Tribune, October 4, 2008.
  51. ^ [1][dead link]
  52. ^ "Judge keeps questionnaires secret - News". Lvrj.com. Retrieved June 4, 2010. 
  53. ^ From Paul Vercammen CNN Senior Producer (October 4, 2008). "edition.cnn.com, O.J. Simpson guilty of armed robbery, kidnapping". CNN. Retrieved June 4, 2010. 
  54. ^ afp.google.com, afp.google.com, O.J Simpson guilty in robbery, kidnap trial.
  55. ^ online.wsj.com, Simpson Found Guilty in Robbery Case[dead link]
  56. ^ ukpress.google.com, OJ Simpson guilty of armed robbery.[dead link]
  57. ^ "cnn.com, O.J. Simpson's lawyers request another trial". CNN. October 10, 2008. Retrieved June 4, 2010. 
  58. ^ "O.J. Simpson denied a new trial". Fox News. November 7, 2008. Retrieved June 4, 2010. 
  59. ^ Las Vegas Sun, O.J. Simpson found guilty on all counts.
  60. ^ "Lawyer: OJ and Co-Defendant Face 18 Years". Kolotv.com. Retrieved June 4, 2010. 
  61. ^ Friess, Steve (December 6, 2008). "After Apologies, Simpson Is Sentenced to at Least 9 Years for Armed Robbery". The New York Times. Retrieved May 20, 2010. 
  62. ^ "cnn.com, O.J. Simpson appeals conviction". CNN. May 26, 2009. Retrieved June 4, 2010. 
  63. ^ "espn.go.com, Nevada Supreme Court Hears O.J. Simpson Appeal". ESPN. August 3, 2009. Retrieved June 4, 2010. 
  64. ^ "O.J. Simpson Due in Las Vegas Court on Monday". ABC News. Retrieved 12 May 2013. 
  65. ^ "OJ Simpson granted some parole but will remain behind bars for now". LA Times. Retrieved 31 July 2013. 
  66. ^ http://usnews.nbcnews.com/_news/2013/11/26/21632787-judge-rejects-oj-simpsons-bid-for-new-trial?lite

External links[edit]