O2 (United Kingdom)
|Private limited company|
|Founded||1985 (as Cellnet)|
(CEO and Chairman)
|Revenue||£2.973 billion (2010)|
Number of employees
|Slogan||Be more dog.|
Telefónica UK Limited (trading as O2 – stylised as O2) is a telecommunications services provider in the United Kingdom owned by Telefónica. It is the second-largest mobile telecommunications provider in the United Kingdom after EE Limited, and is headquartered in Slough.
O2 was formed in 1985 as Cellnet, a 60:40 joint venture between BT Group and Securicor. In 1999, BT Group acquired Securicor's 40 percent share of Cellnet and the company was later rebranded as BT Cellnet. In June 2000 BT Cellnet launched the world’s first commercial General Packet Radio Service. BT Cellnet, together with BT Group's mobile telecommunications businesses in Germany, Ireland and the Netherlands were part of the BT Wireless division. This was spun off from the BT Group in 2002 to form a new holding company, mmO2 plc, which introduced the new "O2" brand for the businesses. mmO2 plc was subsequently renamed O2 plc.
O2 plc was purchased by the Spanish telecommunications company Telefónica in 2005 for £18 billion. Under the terms of the acquisition, Telefónica agreed to retain the "O2" brand and the company's UK headquarters. O2 plc became Telefónica Europe.
On 24 March 2015, Hutchison Whampoa agreed to purchase O2 for £10.25 billion.
- 1 History
- 2 Network
- 3 Former operations
- 4 Marketing
- 5 Environmental record
- 6 References
- 7 External links
1985 to 2005
Between 1985 and 1989, John Carrington was the CEO of British Telecom's Mobile Division and the Chairman of Cellnet. It was during this period that Carrington launched Cellnet's first cellular service, following the innovative development work by BT Spectrum, who initiated the chain of cells between London Heathrow and BT Tower in January 1985.
Cellnet was established in 1985 as a joint subsidiary of BTCR, British Telecom Cellular Radio, providing the engineering knowledge, and TSCR, Telecom Securicor Cellular Radio Limited, providing the financial investment, resulting in a 60:40 joint venture between British Telecommunications and Securicor.
The equipment used was primarily a Motorola system initially designed for the American Mobile Phone System (AMPS) and had to be adapted for the British system, Total Access Communications (TACs). The system was so unready that the initials Motorola used to designate the network exchanges EMX, became popularly known as 'European Motorola Experiment' and had to be programmed in machine code loaded by tape. In the early days of the system, mobile calls cost £1 per minute.
After months of rumours and speculation, Peter Bonfield publicly announced on 27 July 1999, that BT had agreed to buy Securicor's 40% share of Cellnet for £3.15 billion. Cellnet had five million customers at the time of its acquisition.  The company was later rebranded as BT Cellnet[when?], and it became a part of BT Wireless, a group of companies owned by BT.
BT announced on 3 September 2001, that the BT Wireless business would be spun off from the main group as a newly listed holding company, mmO2 plc, operating under the "O2" brand. Shareholders approved the plan at an extraordinary general meeting on 23 October 2001.
BT Cellnet relaunched as "O2" on 18 June 2002, along with other former BT subsidiaries; Esat Digifone in Ireland, Viag Interkom in Germany and Telfort Mobiel in the Netherlands. The rebranding was supported by a European advertising campaign, which began on 16 April 2002, across all four countries, at a cost of £130 million. The main launch campaign ran from 18 June and was developed by Vallance Carruthers Coleman Priest, working alongside brand consultancy Lambie-Nairn, creators of the "O2" brand identity.
On 30 November 2005, O2 agreed to a takeover by Telefónica, a Spanish telecommunications company, for £17.7 billion (£2 per share) in cash. According to the merger announcement, O2 retained its name and continued to be based in the United Kingdom, keeping both the brand and the management team. The merger became unconditional on 23 January 2006.
Following the acquisition of O2, Telefónica undertook a corporate organisational change that saw the merging of its fixed and mobile businesses in Spain, and the transfer of Telefónica's non-Spanish European telecommunications properties into the O2 brand. Thus, the Český Telecom and Eurotel operations in the Czech Republic as well as the Telefónica Deutschland business in Germany were brought under the control of O2, which retained its UK-registered public company status with its own board of directors and corporate structures and processes. Telefónica chose to keep its existing mobile phone operations in the rest of the world under the brand Movistar. This name is used in Spain and in most of the Latin American countries, operated by a separate management team.
Since 2007: diversification
On 15 July 2009, O2 entered the financial services industry with the launch of O2 Money, which was the first step in the process of incorporating financial services into mobile phones. Future plans include manufacturing Near Field Communication (NFC) technology in mobile phones in the United Kingdom. It was also announced that its NFC technology is ready, but pending support from large retailers and handset manufacturers before a mass rollout.
O2 and Vodafone signed a deal in June 2012 which will see the two companies 'pool' their network technology, creating a single national grid of 18,500 transmitter sites. Both networks will continue to carry their own independent mobile spectrum.
In July 2012, O2 had to apologise to almost 8 million customers after a network switching subsystem failure led to a 24-hour blackout of the service across the UK and Ireland. The problem, which prevented a third of its customers' phones registering on the network, also affected customers of MVNO networks Tesco Mobile and Giffgaff. To apologise for this, O2 announced that it would be giving hundreds of thousands of its customers compensation for the issue. Pay monthly customers received a 10% discount on their bill whereas Pay As You Go users received a 10% refund on first top up in September.
Hutchison Whampoa acquisition
On 24 November 2014, it was reported that BT were in talks to buy back O2, while at the same time BT confirmed that it was also in talks to buy EE. BT subsequently entered into exclusive talks with EE.
On 23 January 2015, Li Ka-shing, owner of Hutchison Whampoa and the Three network (which operates in the UK) entered talks to buy O2 for up to £10.25bn ($15.4bn). However, the move could face tough scrutiny from competition regulators as it would reduce the number of major operators in the UK when combined with a potential purchase of EE by BT from four to three. Hutchison Whampoa had previously acquired the O2 network from Telefónica in the Republic of Ireland, which it has since merged into Three. The acquisition was finalised on 24 March, but will require regulatory approval before the merger can take place. The combined network will surpass EE to create the largest mobile network in the UK.
O2 publicly announced on 15 December 2009 that it had successfully demonstrated a 4G connection using LTE technology installed in six masts in Slough. The technology, which was supplied by Huawei, achieved a peak downlink rate of 150 Mbps.
In January 2012, the company announced plans to provide free internet to millions of residents and visitors in central London, by launching Europe's largest free Wi-Fi zone, along with free Wi-Fi access for anyone on any network in and around every O2 retail store.
On 20 February 2013, Ofcom announced that O2 had been awarded spectrum in the 800 MHz band for 4G LTE coverage, bidding around £550 million for the spectrum. This spectrum came with a coverage obligation from Ofcom, and O2 is obliged to provide a mobile broadband service for indoor reception to at least 98% of the UK population (expected to cover at least 99% when outdoors) and at least 95% of the population of each of the UK nations – England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales – by the end of 2017 at the latest. The 4G LTE service became available to customers in London, Leeds and Bradford on 29 August 2013, and expanded to a further ten cities by the end of the year.
Fixed line and broadband
Alongside mobile telephone services, the company also provided fixed line services and home broadband.
O2 purchased Be Un Limited, an internet service provider in the UK, for £50 million in June 2006. O2 retained the Be brand, and launched a separate O2-branded broadband service on 15 October 2007, using the Be network.
BSkyB agreed on 1 March 2013 to buy the fixed telephone line and broadband business of Telefónica UK, trading under the O2 and BE brands. The company agreed to pay £180 million initially, followed by a further £20 million after all customers had been transferred to Sky's existing business. The sale was subject to regulatory approval in April 2013, and was subsequently approved by the Office of Fair Trading on 16 May 2013.
O2 began trialling a Near Field Communication (NFC) payment system in 2007. O2 has since been in discussions with large retailers, such as Tesco and W. H. Smith, for the deployment of the necessary electronic point of sale units, and with handset manufacturers, such as Apple and Samsung, to enable NFC technology on all future devices.
On 23 February 2011, O2 announced it would launch a "second phase" for O2 Money, by discontinuing its branded cash cards in favour of a "mobile wallet" application for Android and iOS devices. The application would use NFC technology embedded in a phone to access money.
It was announced on 9 January 2014 that the O2 wallet service would close on 31 March 2014.
The BT Cellnet consumer brand was renamed O2 - the chemical symbol for unbound oxygen - as were all the group's other businesses (other than Manx Telecom). The re-branding was engineered by the Lambie-Nairn design agency, which developed the idea of the company supplying services that were essential, much the same as oxygen is essential for life. With this, the company logo and associated graphics were designed, using air bubbles to present this. The O2 bubbles were photographed by London-based photographer Jonathan Knowles. O2 adopted the slogan "See what you can do" in 2002 after the company's demerger from BT. The slogan was later changed to "It's your O2" in May 2006, and again on 10 April 2008 to "We’re better, connected", as part of a brand refresh that cost £5 million.
O2 currently sponsor the England rugby team, and in 2003 launched a mobile video service allowing customers to download or stream video content related to the 2003 Rugby World Cup. In 2005, Telefónica O2 extended their involvement in rugby union, signing a new deal with the England rugby team and the Rugby Football Union, as well as O2 rugbyclass and Premier Rugby Ltd for the English Premiership.
Additionally, Telefónica O2 had a long-standing relationship with Arsenal F.C., being their shirt sponsor until the end of the 2005/2006 season. In 2005, a three-year deal was signed that saw Telefónica O2 become the team's exclusive Mobile Communications Partner.
O2 is the sponsor of The O2 in London. Since its launch in 2007 the Millennium Dome has been transformed and rebranded by O2 into an entertainment venue. O2 customers can get Priority Tickets up to 48 hours before they are released to the general public. The O2 offers exclusive areas for O2 customers, including the blueroom bar and the O2 lounge, where access is granted through new mobile technology bar codes. Once inside, O2 customers can change their experience of these areas by dictating the wallpaper designs and jukebox requests through text. O2 also contributed 'O2 angels', a team of people trained to greet and direct visitors, providing a warm human face to the brand. Other smaller touches include changing the lighting, carpets and seats in the arena to the colour blue.
The O2 Arena was the site of the artistic gymnastics events and medal rounds in basketball for the 2012 Summer Olympics in London.
O2 is partnered with Live Nation and the Academy Music Group, allowing O2 to rename the music venues. The partnership allows O2 to offer customers priority access to all events at O2 Academy venues as well as Live Nation promoted events across the United Kingdom.
O2 customers receive 48 hour pre-sales access to approximately 4,500 events each year as well as perks at the venues themselves and access to a consistent flow of content. Perks include; unique O2 Academy Angels in the venue with giveaways; a warm up bar with bespoke music themed furniture and games, free artist content bluetoothed to customers phones and live experiences such as mobile phone "tattooing".
O2 Academy venues:
In February 2009, O2 became the first mobile telecommunications provider to be certified with the Carbon Trust Standard in recognition of its commitment to reduce its carbon footprint. O2 attained the standard after saving 47,000 tonnes of carbon over the previous three years through its energy efficiency measures, including a £1.4 million distribution of smart metering technology across the company's cell sites, offices and retail stores, and upgrades to more energy efficient systems across its mobile phone network. In addition to distributing energy efficient LED lighting and boiler system controls, the company was also able to reduce energy use by removing air conditioning units from some of its cell sites and reducing computer monitor standby times.
O2 is a voluntary participant in the 10:10 climate change campaign, which requires participants to cut their carbon emissions by 10 percent by the end of 2010. The campaign was launched on 1 September 2009 at the Tate Modern in London, and now has 20,000 individual participants, 1,000 businesses, and 500 other bodies.
- "Telefónica O2 UK operating review" (Press release). Telefónica Europe. July 2010. Retrieved 2 October 2010.
- Contact us, O2 corporate website.Retrieved: 6 December 2012.
- Parker, Andrew (28 September 2010). "Everything Everywhere disappoints analysts". Financial Times. Retrieved 2 October 2010.
- BT Cellnet - Our Commitment to Society and the Environment (PDF) (Report). BT Group. 2000. Retrieved 7 February 2011.
- "Customer increase helps 02 profit". BBC News. 18 May 2005. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
- Richardson, Tim (31 October 2005). "Spain's Telefonica to buy O2". The Register. Retrieved 7 February 2011.
- "Telefonica finalises £10bn sale of O2 mobile phone firm". BBC News. 24 March 2015. Retrieved 24 March 2015.
- Linton, Peter (18 June 2001). "Cellnet and One2One Founder Adds Voice to Speech Recognition Company". Medialink. Retrieved 2 October 2010.
- McIntosh, Bill (11 September 1999). "Secret deal charge dogs sale of Securicor's Cellnet stake to BT". The Independent. Retrieved 2 October 2010.
- "BT unveils new mobile brand". BBC News Online. 3 September 2001. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
- "BT approves mobiles spin-off". BBC News Online. 23 October 2001. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
- Billings, Claire (24 April 2002). "O2 readies for £130m May Day rebranding push across Europe". Marketing. Retrieved 2 October 2010.
- "Telefonica bids £18 billion for U.K.'s O2". BBC News. 31 November 2005. Retrieved 2 October 2010. Check date values in:
- "Telefónica launches O2 Money, says it is ready to deploy NFC". NFC World. 28 July 2009. Retrieved 2 October 2010.
- Laughlin, Andrew (2012-06-07). "Vodafone and O2 to merge mobile network infrastructure". Digital Spy. Retrieved 2013-08-01.
- Halliday, Josh (12 July 2012). "O2 apologises over 'embarrassing' network problems". = The Guardian. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
- "O2 says mobile network fully restored after fault". BBC News. 12 July 2012. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
- "O2 offers compensation after network failure". BBC News. 2012-07-18. Retrieved 2013-08-01.
- "BT and Telefonica in 'preliminary' talks over O2 deal". BBC News. 24 November 2014. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
- "BT in talks to buy EE for £12.5bn". BBC News. 15 December 2014. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
- "Li Ka-shing in talks to buy O2 for £10bn". BBC News. 23 January 2015.
- Hutchison to buy Telefonica UK unit for $15.4 billion. Reuters, 23 January 2015
- Hoffman, John (2003). "Chapter 3: Short Message Service and GSM Circuit-Switched Data". GPRS Demystified. McGraw-Hill. p. 39. ISBN 0-07-138553-3.
- Neate, Rupert (15 April 2010). "Slough accepts the call to be 4G mobile phone trailblazer". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2 October 2010.
- Wood, Nick (15 December 2009). "O2 in UK LTE trial". Total Telecom. Retrieved 2 October 2010.
- "'Europe's biggest' free Wi-Fi zone set for London". BBC News. 6 January 2012. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
- "Ofcom announces winners of the 4G mobile auction". Ofcom. 20 February 2013. Retrieved 20 February 2013.
- "Ofcom announces winners of the 4G mobile auction". Ofcom. 20 February 2013. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
- Kelion, Leo (1 August 2013). "O2 4G mobile network launch date announced for the UK". BBC News. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- "O2 enters U.K. broadband market with purchase of Be". O2 plc. Retrieved 22 April 2010.
- "O2's Official Blog". Blog.o2.co.uk. 2011-06-28. Retrieved 2013-09-20.
- "BSkyB buys O2 and BE broadband businesses from Telefonica". BBC News Online. 1 March 2013. Retrieved 1 March 2013.
- "Completed acquisition by British Sky Broadcasting Limited of Be Unlimited". Office of Fair Trading. National Archives. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- Prodhan, Georgina (2 September 2008). "O2 finds mobile payments popular". Reuters. Retrieved 2 October 2010.
- "O2: NFC is ready to launch". Mobile News. 15 July 2009. Retrieved 14 May 2010.
- "Introducing the Mobile Wallet" (Press release). O2. 1 September 2011. Retrieved 14 September 2011.
- "Probably the best corporate slogan...". BBC News. 18 June 2006. Retrieved 2 October 2010.
- Murray, James (20 February 2009). "O2 first mobile firm to gain Carbon Trust Standard". BusinessGreen. Retrieved 2 October 2010.
- Carrington, Damian (27 September 2009). "10:10 climate campaign gathers momentum". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 October 2010.